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  • 1.
    Adekunle, K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Cho, S.-W.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Ketzscher, R.
    Skrifvars, M.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Mechanical properties of natural fiber hybrid composites based on renewable thermoset resins derived from soybean oil, for use in technical applications2012Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 124, nr 6, s. 4530-4541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites are known to have lower mechanical properties than glass or carbon fiber reinforced composites. The hybrid natural fiber composites prepared in this study have relatively good mechanical properties. Different combinations of woven and non-woven flax fibers were used. The stacking sequence of the fibers was in different orientations, such as 0°, +45°, and 90°. The composites manufactured had good mechanical properties. A tensile strength of about 119 MPa and Young's modulus of about 14 GPa was achieved, with flexural strength and modulus of about 201 MPa and 24 GPa, respectively. For the purposes of comparison, composites were made with a combination of woven fabrics and glass fibers. One ply of a glass fiber mat was sandwiched in the mid-plane and this increased the tensile strength considerably to 168 MPa. Dynamic mechanical analysis was performed in order to determine the storage and loss modulus and the glass transition temperature of the composites. Microstructural analysis was done with scanning electron microscopy.

  • 2.
    Adekunle, K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Cho, S.-W.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Patzelt, C.
    Blomfeldt, T.
    Skrifvars, M.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Impact and flexural properties of flax fabrics and Lyocell Fiber reinforced bio-based thermoset for automotive and structural applications2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Adekunle, K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Ghoreishi, R.
    Ehsani, M.
    Cho, S.-W.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, M.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Jute fiber reinforced methacrylated soy bean oil based thermoset composites prepared by vacuum injection molding technique2012Inngår i: Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, ISSN 1556-6560, E-ISSN 1556-6579, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 172-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based composites based on soybean oil thermoset resin were manufactured with vacuum injection molding technique. Methacrylated soybean oil (MMSO) was processed with vacuum injection molding technique without blending with styrene. The composites produced had comparatively good mechanical properties like jute composite reinforced acrylated epoxidised soybean oil (AESO) resin blended with styrene. Although the tensile strength of the jute reinforced AESO composites are slightly higher than the jute reinforced MMSO composites which was attributed to blending of AESO with styrene. However, the difference in Youngs' modulus was negligible because they have approximately equal stiffness between 2.6 GPa and 2.8 GPa. The jute reinforced AESO composites showed relatively higher flexural strengths and moduli than the MMSO counterparts. This difference was also attributed to the blending of AESO with reactive diluent such as styrene. In order to determine the dimensional stability of the composite manufactured, water absorption test was carried out and the conclusion was that the moisture uptake of the jute reinforced composites was the same, this was expected.

  • 4.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bio-based Composites from Soybean Oil Thermosets and Natural Fibers2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce over-dependency on fossil fuels and to create an environment that is free of non-degradable plastics, and most importantly to reduce greenhouse gas emission, bio-based products are being developed from renewable resources through intense research to substitute conventional petrochemical-based plastics with renewable alternatives and to replace synthetic fibers with natural fibers. Many authors have done quite a lot of work on synthesizing polymers from renewable origin. Polylactic acid (PLA) has been developed and characterized, and it was found that it has enormous potential and can serve as an alternative to conventional thermoplastics in many applications. Modification of the plant oil triglycerides has been discussed by many authors, and research is still going on in this area. The challenge is how to make these renewable polymers more competitive in the market, and if possible to make them 100% bio-based. There is also a major disadvantage to using a bio-based polymer from plant oils because of the high viscosity, which makes impregnation of fibers difficult. Although natural fibers are hydrophilic in nature, the problem of compatibility with the hydrophobic matrix must be solved; however, the viscosity of the bio-based resin from plant oils will complicate the situation even more. This is why many authors have reported blending of the renewable thermoset resin with styrene. In the process of solving one problem, i.e reducing the viscosity of the renewable thermoset resin by blending with reactive diluents such as styrene, another problem which we intended to solve at the initial stage is invariably being created by using a volatile organic solvent like styrene. The solution to this cycle of problems is to synthesize a thermoset resin from plant oils which will have lower viscosity, and at the same time have higher levels of functionality. This will increase the crosslinking density, and they can be cured at room temperature or relatively low temperature. In view of the above considerations, the work included in this thesis has provided a reasonable solution to the compounded problems highlighted above. Three types of bio-based thermoset resins were synthesized and characterized using NMR, DSC, TGA, and FT-IR, and their processability was studied. The three resins were subsequently reinforced with natural fibers (woven and non-woven), glass fibers, and Lyocell fiber and the resulting natural fiber composites were characterized by mechanical, dynamic mechanical, impact, and SEM analyses. These composites can be used extensively in the automotive industry, particularly for the interior components, and also in the construction and furniture industries. Methacrylated soybean oil (MSO), methacrylic anhydride-modified soybean oil (MMSO), and acetic anhydride-modified soybean oil (AMSO) were found to be suitable for manufacture of composites because of their lower viscosity. The MMSO and MSO resins were found to be promising materials because composites manufactured by using them as a matrix showed very good mechanical properties. The MMSO resin can completely wet a fiber without the addition of styrene. It has the highest number of methacrylates per triglyceride and high crosslink density.

  • 5.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Patzelt, Christian
    Blomfeldt, Thomas
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Impact and flexural properties of flax fabrics and Lyocell fiber-reinforced bio-based thermoset2011Inngår i: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 685-697Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A bio-based thermoset resin was reinforced with flax fabrics and Lyocell fiber. The effect of different weave architectures was studied with four flax fabrics with different architectures: plain, twill (two different types), and dobby. The effect of the outer ply thickness was studied and characterized with flexural and impact testing. Composites manufactured with plain weave reinforcement had the best mechanical properties. The tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and impact strength were 280 MPa, 32 GPa, 250 MPa, 25 GPa, and 75 kJ/m2, respectively. Reinforcements with twill-weave architecture did not impart appreciable flexural strength or flexural modulus even when the outer thickness was increased. Plain- and dobby (basket woven style)-weave architectures gave better reinforcing effects and the flexural properties increased with an increase in outer thickness.Water absorption properties of the composites were studied and it was observed that the hybridization with Lyocell fiber reduced the water uptake. Fieldemission scanning electron microscopy was used to study the micro-structural properties of the composites.

  • 6.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Ketzscher, Richard
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    High performance natural fibre hybrid composites based on biobased thermoset resins for use in technical applications2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Health related issues, stringent environmental protection policies, search for cost effective and alternative materials and quest for renewability, sustainability and high performance materials for technical applications has led to an intense research in manufacturing biobased composites which are based on renewable thermosetting resins and natural fibres. The combination of biobased thermosetting resins with two different natural fibre reinforcements could lead to improved mechanical properties of the composite. Biobased thermoset polymers are comparable to the synthetic thermosetting polymers from petrochemicals. In this study, two different biobased resins were used as matrix and both non woven flax fibre and woven flax fabric were combined as reinforcements. The composites were made by compression moulding process. The fibres were hand laid-up and impregnation was done manually. The curing temperature was 170°С and at 40 bar. The stacking sequence of the fibres was in different orientations such as 0º, +45º and 90º. The manufactured hybrid composites have high tensile strength and stiffness and the flexural strength and modulus was also high. These composites can compete favourably with glass fibre reinforced composites in terms of strength and stiffness.1, 2 A tensile strength of about 119 MPa and Young’s modulus of 13.8 GPa was achieved, while the flexural strength and modulus is about 201 MPa and 24 GPa respectively. For the purpose of comparison, composites were made with the combination of woven fabric and e-glass fibre. One ply of an e-glass fibre mat was put in the mid-plane and this increased the tensile strength considerably up to 168 MPa. Some of the composites were made with the resin blended with styrene and the results show a higher modulus.

  • 7.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Patzelt, Christian
    Kalantar, Adib
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of Soybean Oil Thermoset Reinforced with Jute Fabrics and Carded Lyocell Fiber2011Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 122, nr 5, s. 2855-2863Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites and hybrid composites were manufactured from renewable materials based on jute fibers, regenerated cellulose fibers (Lyocell), and thermosetting polymer from soybean oil. Three different types of jute fabrics with biaxial weave architecture but different surface weights, and carded Lyocell fiber were used as reinforcements. Hybrid composites were also manufactured by combining the jute reinforcements with the Lyocell. The Lyocell composite was found to have better mechanical properties than other composites. It has tensile strength and modulus of about 144 MPa and 18 GPa, respectively. The jute composites also have relatively good mechanical properties, as their tensile strengths and moduli were found to be between 65 and 84 MPa, and between 14 and 19 GPa, respectively. The Lyocell-reinforced composite showed the highest flexural strength and modulus, of about 217 MPa and 13 GPa, respectively. In all cases, the hybrid composites in this study showed improved mechanical properties but lower storage modulus. The Lyocell fiber gave the highest impact strength of about 35 kJ/m2, which could be a result of its morphology. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the Lyocell reinforced composite has the best viscoelastic properties.

  • 8.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Patzelt, Christian
    Kalantar, Adib
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Mechanical properties of renewable soyean oil thermoset reinforced with jute fabricsand lyocell fiber2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Synthesis of reactive soybean oils for use as thermoset resins in composites.2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bio-based thermoset resins from soybean and linseed oils for structural composites2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Biobased Composites Prepared by Compression Molding with a Novel Thermoset Resin from Soybean Oil and a Natural-Fiber Reinforcement2010Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 116, nr 3, s. 1759-1765Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobased composites were manufactured with a compression-molding technique. Novel thermoset resins from soybean oil were used as a matrix, and flax fibers were used as reinforcements. The air-laid fibers were stacked randomly, the woven fabrics were stacked crosswise (0/90 ), and impregnation was performed manually. The fiber/resin ratio was 60 : 40. The prepared biobased composites were characterized by impact and flexural testing. Scanning electron microscopy of knife-cut cross sections of the specimens was also done to investigate the fiber–matrix interface. Thermogravimetric analysis of the composites was carried out to provide indications of thermal stability. Three resins from soybean oil [methacrylated soybean oil, methacrylic anhydride modified soybean oil (MMSO), and acetic anhydride modified soybean oil] were used as matrices. The impact strength of the composites with MMSO resin reinforced with air-laid flax fibers was 24 kJ/m2, whereas that of the MMSO resin reinforced with woven flax fabric was between 24 and 29 kJ/m2. The flexural strength of the MMSO resin reinforced with air-laid flax fibers was between 83 and 118 MPa, and the flexural modulus was between 4 and 6 GPa, whereas the flexural strength of the MMSO resin reinforced with woven fabric was between 90 and 110 MPa, and the flexural modulus was between 4.87 and 6.1 GPa.

  • 12.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Biobased Composites Prepared by Compression Moulding using a Novel Thermoset Resin from Soybean oil and a Natural Fibre Reinforcement2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobased composites were manufactured by using a compression moulding technique. Novel thermoset resins from soybean oil were used as matrix while flax fibres were used as reinforcement. The airlaid fibres were stacked randomly while woven fabrics were stacked crosswisely (90°) and impregnation was done manually. The fibre/ resin ratio was 60% to 40%.

  • 13.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Preparation of biobased composites using novel thermoset polymers from soybean oil and a natural fibre reinforcement2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Health related issues, stringent environmental protection policies, search for cost effective and alternative materials, crave for renewability and sustainability and quest for high performance materials for structural applications give the motivation for research in polymer composites and material science. Due to the health, safety and environmental concerns over the conventional synthetic materials and the legislation against their usage both in domestic and industrial applications, alternatives sources that will be comparable in properties are being sought. There is an emerging market for biodegradable polymers which is expected to increase substantially in the coming years.[1] Preparation of Composites Airlaid and woven flax fibre mats were first treated with 4% sodium hydroxide solution for one hour and then washed with plenty of water. This was done in order to remove any residual impurities. The fibres were dried at room temperature for 24 hr and then dried in a vacuum oven for 1hr at a temperature of 105°С. The 8 sheets of the fibre were hand laid cross- wisely and the impregnation was done manually. The fibre/ resin ratio was about 60% to 40%. Methacrylated soybean oil, methacrylic anhydride and acetic anhydride modified soybean oil were the synthesized matrices used. The compression moulding was done at a temperature of 170°С for 5 min at 40bar. Characterisations The tensile testing was performed based on an ISO-test method for tensile tests on plastic materials. The Charpy impact strength of unnotched specimens was evaluated in accordance with ISO 179 using a Zwick test instrument and scanning electron microscopy analysis was done on the fractured specimens. The composites showed various mechanical properties, having impact strengths between 24 and 63 kJ/m² and tensile strength up to 51MPa.

  • 14.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Synthesis of reactive soybean oils for use as a biobased thermoset resins in structural natural fiber composites2009Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 115, nr 6, s. 3137-3145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobased thermosets resins were synthesized by functionalizing the triglycerides of epoxidized soybean oil with methacrylic acid, acetyl anhydride, and methacrylic anhydride. The obtained resins were characterized with FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy to confirm the functionalization reactions and the extent of epoxy conversion. The viscosities of the methacrylated soybean oil resins were also measured for the purpose of being used as a matrix in composite applications. The cross-linking capability was estimated by UV and thermally initiated curing experiments, and by DSC analysis regarding the degree of crosslinking. The modifications were successful because up to 97% conversion of epoxy group were achieved leaving only 2.2% of unreacted epoxy groups, which was confirmed by 1H-NMR. The 13C-NMR confirms the ratio of acetate to methacrylate methyl group to be 1 : 1. The viscosities of the methacrylated soybean oil (MSO) and methacrylic anhydride modified soybean oil (MMSO) were 0.2 and 0.48 Pas, respectively, which indicates that they can be used in resin transfer molding process.

  • 15.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Synthesis of reactive soybean oils for use as biobased thermoset resins in structural natural fibre composites2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Synthetic modification of reactive soybean oils for use as biobased thermoset resins in structural natural fiber composites2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Synthetic modification of reactive soybean oils for use as biobased thermoset resins in structural natural fiber composites2008Inngår i: Polymer Preprints, ISSN 0551-4657, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 279-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Mechanical properties of renewable thermoset composites reinforced with natural fibers2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this presentation has been to evaluate whether natural fibers can be used as reinforcement in composites based on renewable thermoset resin. Thermoset resins made from renewable resources as alternatives to crude oils are a relatively unexplored and important research area and could be used for a broad range of applications including coatings, inks, adhesives and composites. The common raw materials used in the preparation of biobased thermoset resins are vegetable oils such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil and linseed oil, which are low cost and abundant. Natural fibers as reinforcement have many advantages compared to synthetic fibers, for instance they are biodegradable, low weight and cost, nontoxic and recyclable. In the previous study, a novel thermoset resin [methacrylic anhydride modified soybean oil (MMSO)] was synthesized through the reaction of epoxidized soybean oil with methacrylic acid and used here as matrices. The studied composites based on the neat MMSO resin and the reisn blended with 30 wt.% styrene reinforced with non-woven flax fiber and woven flax fiber mats in different orientations [0°(warp direction), 45°, 90°(weft direction)] were manufactured using compression molding technique. The glass fiber reinforced composite was also prepared for the comparison purpose. The results show that it was possible to produce composite with high mechanical properties when the load is especially applied along the fiber direction, which implies that the structural composites having several plies of natural fiber mats in different orientations could be interesting candidates for use in technical applications.

  • 19. Cho, Sung-Woo
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Hemanathan, Kumar
    Mahimaisenan, Pirabasenan
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Regenerated cellulose fibre reinforced casein films: Effect of plasticizer and fibres on the film properties2014Inngår i: Macromolecular Research, ISSN 1598-5032, E-ISSN 2092-7673, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 701-709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of using man-made cellulosic fibres as reinforcement for casein films in this study was inspired by their well defined fibre diameter and availability in large quantity, eventually leading to a homogeneous high quality composite at low cost. The casein biofilms were fabricated by solution casting from an aqueous alkaline solution of the bovine milk protein casein in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, and the fibre-reinforced biocomposites were prepared by the addition of regenerated cellulose fibre to the casein casting solution with various amounts of glycerol. The effects of glycerol content and cellulose fibre reinforcements on the mechanical, thermal and physiological properties were characterized. The results showed that increasing glycerol content decreased the film strength, Young’s modulus and thermal stability with a gradual increase in the elongation. However, the tensile properties were noticeably improved when reinforced with cellulose fibre. The composite with 20 wt% glycerol and 20 wt% cellulose fibre showed the maximum tensile strength of 23.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding values for the composite with 30 wt% glycerol and the same fibre content were 15.1 MPa and 0.9 GPa, which were 2.3- and 3.2-fold higher compared to 30 wt% glycerol plasticized film. The thermal analysis revealed that the glass transition temperature and the thermal stability were decreased when the glycerol content was increased. Addition of cellulose fibres increased the glass transition temperature as well as the thermal stability. The gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that there was no significant decrease in the molecular weight of the casein protein during sample preparation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the obtained composites with low glycerol content had adequate interfacial bonding, and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of molecular interactions between the cellulose fibres and the casein.

  • 20. Dhakal, Hom N
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Zhang, Z Y
    Falling weight impact response of jute/methacrylated soybean oil bio-composites under low velocity impact loading2014Inngår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 92, s. 134-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, impact performance of bio-composites fabricated from jute/methacrylated soybean oil (MSO) subjected to low-velocity impact loading is presented. The composite laminates were fabricated using compression moulding technique and their thickness and weave architectures effect on the impact response were investigated and the experimental observations are reported. From the results obtained, it was observed that fibre orientation and thickness variation have a significant influence on the impact resistance of jute/MSO composite material. The results show that the total absorbed energy and maximum peak load increase linearly with an increase in the thickness. Among the composite samples investigated where thickness comprised of: 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 mm, a composite reinforced with 46 yarns per 10 cm weft and 50 warp (W2-3 mm thick) is found to have highest resistance to impact damage compared to 32 and 15 yarn per 10 cm weft samples. This was attributed to the improved fibre/matrix interface as a result of surface treatment of jute fibres and the fibre architectures effect which create the cross-over points which act as stress distributors.

  • 21. Kumar, Hemanathan
    et al.
    Mahimaisenan, Pirabasenan
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Casein films and its composites with regenerated cellulose fibre for packaging applications2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach in the production of protein based films and composites were performed, using the bovine milk protein casein and regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell). The films were prepared by first dissolving the casein protein in an aqueous alkaline solution in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer. Further the composite films were prepared by the addition of fibres on aqueous alkaline solution with casein. The casein films and composites were thereafter prepared by casting the solution mixture on Teflon coated glass plate and drying for 48 hr. The effects of glycerol content and lyocell fibre reinforcements on the mechanical, thermal and physiological properties of the casein films were characterized. The results revealed that the increase in the addition of glycerol content decreases the tensile strength, young’s modulus, thermal stability of the film and increases the elongation percentage. Tensile property and thermal stability of the films was improved by the increase in the addition of the fibre content with a gradual decrease in the elongation percentage. The casein film made of 20% glycerol and 20% fibre content showed the maximum tensile strength of 23.5 MPa, E-modulus of 1.5 GPa and glass transition temperature (Tg) of 67.1±1.5 ºC. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the molecular weight of the protein during sample preparation. The inter molecular networks have taken place in the casein films and composites, when analyzed under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and proper bonding between fibres and protein was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  • 22.
    Ramamoorthy, S. K.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Di, Q.
    Adekunle, K.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, M.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of soybean oil thermosets reinforced with natural fibers2012Inngår i: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 31, nr 18, s. 1191-1200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites are known to absorb more water than glass fiber reinforced composites. In this study, hybrid natural fiber composites were prepared by combining different fiber reinforcements, and both the water absorption and the mechanical properties were studied. Compression molding technique was used to manufacture composite laminates from a bio-based resin (acrylated epoxidized soybean oil) and natural fibers: non-woven and woven jute, non-woven regenerated cellulose mat (Lyocell and viscose), and woven glass fiber. The composite laminates were cured at 160–170 C and 40 bar, with a fiber content of 40 wt%. We investigated effect of pretreatment of regenerated cellulose fiber using 4% NaOH solution. The gravimetric water absorption was tested by exposure to water for 10 days. Specimens were cut from composites with laser-cutting technique according to ISO standards, and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact strength. To determine the influence of water absorption on the mechanical properties, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 10 days before testing. As a reference, dry specimens were tested. The results showed that water absorption was reduced by producing hybrid composites with jute fibers, glass fiber, and Lyocell fiber. The tensile, flexural, and impact properties were improved by inclusion of glass fiber and Lyocell in the composite. The tensile and flexural properties of natural fiber reinforced composites were mostly affected by the influence of water, but this was improved considerably by hybridization with glass and Lyocell fibers. The viscoelastic properties of the manufactured composites and hybrid composites were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.

  • 23.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Di, Qin
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Can the Outdoor Properties Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Bio-Based Composites Be Improved?2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites are known to absorb more moisture than glass or carbon fiber reinforced composites. The hybrid natural fiber composites prepared in this study have relatively less moisture absorption than natural fiber composites. The composite laminates were manufactured by compression molding technique. A bio‐based resin known as acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as a matrix, while jute fiber, regenerated cellulose fiber (Lyocell and viscose) and glass fiber were used as reinforcements. The composite laminates were prepared at temperature between 160‐170°C and pressure of 40 bar with natural fiber reinforcement between 30‐60 wt% of the fiber. Specimens were cut from the laminates with a laser cutting machine according to standard. The effect of pretreatment of natural fiber and regenerated cellulose fiber using 4% NaOH solution was investigated and discussed. The amount of water absorbed by the composites was determined by soaking the specimens in distilled water for 10 days. To see the influence of water absorption on mechanical properties of the composites, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 10 days before testing. Dry specimens were also tested for reference. Charpy Impact testing was performed on the composite laminates in order to calculate the energy absorbed by specimen during fracture. Water absorption behavior of the natural fiber composites was reduced by manufacturing hybrid composites with glass and Lyocell fibers. Tensile, flexural and impact properties of the natural fiber reinforced composites were improved by the inclusion of glass or Lyocell fiber. Tensile and flexural properties of natural fiber reinforced composites were affected largely by the influence of water and it could be improved by hybridization. Viscoelastic properties of the composites and hybrid composites were studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.

  • 24.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Di, Qin
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Processing Of Non-Woven Lyocell Fabric And Mechanical Properties Of Non-Woven Fiber Reinforced Bio-Based Composites2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non‐woven Lyocell mats were made from the fibers by carding and needling process at Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden. The carding was done first in order to align the clumps of fibers. And then needle punching was done to obtain compact and entangled fiber mat. The composites were made by compression molding technique at temperature between 160‐170°C and pressure of 40 bar with non‐woven Lyocell, jute and viscose fiber reinforcements. The hybrid bio‐based composites were produced in this study to improve the mechanical properties of the composites. Bio‐based thermoset resin known as acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as matrix in the composites. Laser cutting technique was adopted to cut specimens from laminates according to standard. The dimensional stability of the composites was determined by soaking the composite specimens in water for 10 days. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were determined before and after water uptake. Hybridizing the jute fiber with glass and Lyocell fibers reduced the water uptake. Mechanical properties of the non‐woven fiber reinforced composites were studied by tensile, flexural, impact tests. Viscoelastic properties were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Tensile, flexural and impact properties of natural fiber composites were improved by hybridizing with Lyocell fiber.

  • 25.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Biocomposites From Regenerated Cellulose Textile Fibers And Bio-Based Thermoset Matrix For Automotive Applications2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites were produced from regenerated cellulose fiber reinforcement and soybean based bio-matrix. Mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic and morphological results show the good potential of these composites to be used as structural materials in automotive industries. This article focuses on manufacturing and testing of these composites for engineering materials. Regenerated cellulose fibers such as Lyocell and viscose were reinforced in soybean based thermoset matrix to produce composites by compression molding. Hybrid composites were produced by mixing both these fibers at known ratio and the total fiber content in composite was between 40 and 60 weight %. In general, Lyocell based composites showed better tensile properties than viscose based composites. Composites consisting 60 weight % Lyocell and rest with matrix had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. These composites also showed good flexural properties; flexural strength of 127 Mpa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed that these composites had good viscoelastic properties. Viscose based composites had better percentage elongation during tensile test. These composites also showed relatively good impact and viscoelastic properties. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the composites had good fiber-matrix adhesion. Several efforts are made to produce sustainable biomaterials to replace synthetic materials due to inherent properties like renewable, biodegradable and low density. Biocomposites play significant role in sustainable materials which has already found applications in automotive and construction industries. Many researchers produced biocomposites from natural fiber and bio-based/synthetic matrix and it had found several applications. There are several disadvantages of using natural fiber in composites; quality variation, place dependent, plant maturity, harvesting method, high water absorption etc. These composites also give odor which has to be avoided in indoor automotive applications. These natural fibers can be replaced with lignocelluloses, agro mass and biomass to develop biocomposites as they are from natural origin. Lyocell and viscose are manmade regenerated cellulose fibers which is from natural origin has excellent properties. These fibers can be used as reinforcements to produce biocomposites which can overcome most of the above listed disadvantages of natural fibers. Many composites were made from natural fiber reinforcement and petroleum based synthetic matrix. Researchers have been finding ways to get matrix out of natural resources like soybean and linseed on chemical modifications. This article is focused on producing and testing sustainable material with regenerated cellulose and soybean based bio-matrix for automotive applications.

  • 26.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Characterization Of Wood Based Fiber Reinforced Bio-Composites2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites have got more focus in recent times due to their intrinsic properties such as lightweight, biodegradable, low cost etc. Several researchers have made bio-composites out of many natural fibers such as jute, flax, sisal. These composites have large market in Europe and North America where it is used in automobile and construction industry. A lot of research has been done to improve the properties such as surface modification of fiber, manufacturing hybrid composites. However, the natural fibers are dissimilar and vary largely due to many factors such as variety, harvest, maturity, climate etc. Apart from technical drawbacks, these fibers grow only in certain countries such as India and China. High demand raised the price of these fibers which increases the product price as well. Wood-based fibers such as Lyocell and Viscose was used to make composites in order to make less variation in products, decrease the dependency of natural fibers, promoting locally available fibers and encourage forest products as value-added products. Lyocell and viscose fibers have relatively less variation and high quality. Bio-composites were made by reinforcing wood-based fibers in soybean based thermoset matrix. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing two different wood-based fibers in known ratio. The fiber content in the composites was between 40 and 60 weight%. Mechanical properties were characterized by tensile, flexural and impact tests. Lyocell and viscose based composites had better mechanical properties than jute fiber composites. Alkali treatment of Lyocell fibers improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The behaviour of wood-based fiber composites were studied under wet environment as well. In wet environment, the mechanical properties of wood-based fiber composites were superior to jute fiber composites. Lyocell based composites had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. The composites had flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Better percentage elongation was obtained when viscose fiber was reinforced in matrix. Viscose composites had better impact strength and viscoelastic properties. The change in properties in two different wood-based fibers (Lyocell and viscose) lies in the morphology of the fiber itself. Hybrid composites were produced and the effect of hybridization was clear in most of the cases. The properties were able to be tailored by making hybrid composites, by changing the amount of each fiber in the composites. The results (tensile and flexural) were competitive and fulfil the requirements of these composites to be used in several applications including automotive headliners, car door panel, construction door frame etc. The forest products such as wood fibers could be used in composites to produce environmentally friendly products and promote forest industry. Wood-based fibers such as Lyocell and Viscose was used to make composites in order to make less variation in products, decrease the dependency of natural fibers, promoting locally available fibers and encourage forest products. Bio-composites were made by reinforcing wood-based fibers in soybean based thermoset matrix. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing two different wood-based fibers in known ratio. Mechanical properties were characterized by tensile, flexural and impact tests. Lyocell and viscose based composites had better mechanical properties than jute fiber composites. Alkali treatment of Lyocell fibers improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The behaviour of wood-based fiber composites were studied under wet environment as well. In wet environment, the mechanical properties of wood-based fiber composites were superior to jute fiber composites. Lyocell based composites had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. The composites had flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Viscose composites had better impact strength and viscoelastic properties. The result fulfils the requirements of these composites to be used in several applications including automotive headliners, car door panel etc. The forest products could be used in composites to produce environmentally friendly products and promote forest industry.

  • 27.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Properties of green composites with regenerated cellulose fiber and soybean-based thermoset for technical applications2014Inngår i: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 193-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites were developed by reinforcing available non-woven Lyocell and viscose in acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). Compression molding was used to make composites with 40–60 wt% fiber content. The fiber content comprises only Lyocell or viscose fiber, or mixture of these fibers in known ratio. Hybrid composites were made by a mixture of both the fibers in known ratio and it affects the properties. The effect of hybridization was evident in most tests which gives us an opportunity to tailor the properties according to requirement. Lyocell fiber reinforced composites with 60 wt% fiber content had a tensile strength and modulus of about 135 MPa and 17 GPa, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the Lyocell fiber reinforced composites had good viscoelastic properties. The viscose fiber reinforced composites had the high percentage elongation and also showed relatively good impact strength and flexural modulus. Good fiber-matrix adhesion reflected in mechanical properties. SEM images were made to see the fiber-matrix compatibility.

  • 28.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Regenerated Cellulose Fiber Reinforced Composites2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood pulp based regenerated cellulose fibers like Lyocell and viscose which are from natural origin have high and even quality; used to develop superior composites with good properties. In this project, Lyocell and viscose fibers were reinforced in chemically modified soybean based bio-matrix, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) by compression molding technique. The composites are characterized for mechanical performance by tensile, flexural and impact tests, viscoelastic performance by dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In general, Lyocell composites had better tensile and flexural properties than viscose based composites. The same goes with elastic and viscous response of the composites. Hybrid composites were formed by fiber blending; on addition of Lyocell to viscose based composites improved the properties. The amount of Lyocell and viscose fibers used determined the properties of hybrid composites and the possibility of tailoring properties for specific application was seen. Hybrid composites showed better impact strength. Morphological analysis showed that the viscose composites had small fiber pull out whereas Lyocell composites had few pores. Hybrid composite analysis showed that they had uneven spreading of matrix; delamination occurred on constant heating and cooling. To overcome the above mentioned issue and to reduce the water absorption, surface modification of the fiber was done by alkali treatment and silane treatment. The effect of treatment is done through swelling, water absorption and morphological analysis tests. The properties could be increased on proper modification of the fibers. The results show the good potential of these composites to be used in automotives and construction industries.

  • 29.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Green Composites Based On Regenerated Cellulose Textile Fibers For Structural Composites2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites were manufactured from regenerated cellulose and biobased matrix by compression molding. The reinforcing materials used were Lyocell and viscose, while the matrix used was chemically modified soybean oil. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing both the fibers. The total fiber content in the composites was between 40-60 weight %. Lyocell based composites had better tensile properties than viscose based composites; composites consisting 60 weight % Lyocell impregnated with matrix had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. These composites also showed better flexural properties; flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis results showed that these composites had good viscoelastic properties. Viscose based composites had better percentage elongation; these composites also showed relatively good impact and viscoelastic properties. Hybrid composites showed good mechanical and viscoelastic properties. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the composites had good fiber-matrix adhesion.

  • 30.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Processing of Lyocell fiber mat: An alternative renewable reinforcement in composite manufacturing2015Inngår i: Green and Sustainable Chemistry, ISSN 2160-6951, E-ISSN 2160-696X, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 47-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The carding of the Lyocell cellulose fiber was done with a cylindrical cross lap machine supplied by Cormatex Prato, Italy. Several mats were made by carding and needle punching in order to have a compact and well entangled mat suitable for reinforcement. The speed of the cross lap machine, the frequency of needle punching, the number of times the mat goes through needle punching, the feeding rate of the carded fiber and the depth of needle penetration determined the level of entanglement of the Lyocell fiber which ultimately increased the mechanical properties of the fiber. The good mechanical properties of the carded Lyocell fiber made it a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative as reinforcement in composite manufacturing. Compared with other jute fiber reinforced composites, the mechanical properties of the resulting Lyocell composites were found to be better. Regenerated cellulose fiber (Lyocell) composites were environmentally friendly and the mechanical properties were comparable to those of natural fibers.

  • 31.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Hemanathan, Kumar
    Mahimaisenen, Pirabasenan
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Regenerated cellulose fibre reinforced case in films: Effect of plasticizer and fibre content2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Åkesson, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Shichang, L.
    Shi, W.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Seppälä, J.
    Turunen, M.
    Preparation of nanocomposites from biobased thermoset resins by UV-curing2009Inngår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 281-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobased thermoset resins were irradiated with utraviolet(UV) radiation in the presence of photoinitiators. Three different resins were evaluated-two resins were based on soybean oil and one was based on lactic acid. The cross-linking behaviour of these resins was characterized by real-time FTIR and Soxhlet extraction. All of the resins cured rapidly and formed rigid materials with a high degree of conversion. The cross-linked resins were characterized by mechanical testing, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The resins were reinforced with layered silicate, in order to form nanocomposite Structures. The resulting composites were characterized by DMTA and tensile testing. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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