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  • 1. Hjelmér, Carina
    et al.
    Lappalainen, Sirpa
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Time, Space and Young People's Agency in Vocational Upper Secondary Education: a cross-cultural perspective2010In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 245-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on ethnographic studies in the context of vocational education: two in Sweden and one in Finland. The Swedish data originate from the Vehicle programme and the Child and Recreation programme; the Finnish data originate from the social and health-care sector. In this sense, the authors' perspective is cross-cultural. The article focuses on temporal and spatial dimensions of these three educational contexts and analyzes how young people exhibit their agency when negotiating their time and constructing their own space. The authors' analysis elucidates how time-space paths in the context of vocational education are classed and gendered. In the female-dominated fields of vocational upper secondary education, disciplinary practices related to time and space are more visible than in the male-dominated fields. Moreover, it is argued that the political atmosphere in Sweden has been more favourable for promoting equality than that in Finland. Despite this, divisions between students and pigeonholing exist in everyday school life.

  • 2. Hjelmér, Carina
    et al.
    Lappalainen, Sirpa
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Young People and Spatial Divisions in Upper Secondary Education: A Cross-cultural Perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore spatial praxis of vocational upper secondary education in two Nordic countries. The paper is based on ethnographic studies in three different contexts of vocational education: the male dominated Vehicle and female dominated Child and Recreation Programme in Sweden, and the female dominated Institute of Social and Health Care in Finland. When reading our data we have paid attention to the students’ agency in school space. Moreover, we have looked at emotional aspects related on space; how particular spaces turn out to be associated with discomfort and frustration, whereas some other spaces seem to offer sense of safety and sometimes even pleasure. The spatial praxis in the Institute of Social and Health Care and in the Vehicle Programme reinforces vocational habitus. At the same time it establishes particular kind of femininities and masculinities, which makes deconstruction of gender segregation difficult. However, due this reinforcement of vocational habitus both these educations offer for student at least some level sense of dignity whereas the spatial praxis of Child and Recreation Programme is more uncertain in that sense.

  • 3. Hjelmér, Carina
    et al.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Lappalainen, Sirpa
    Collective Actions, Alliances and Resistance of Young People in Vocational Upper Secondary Education: Cross-Cultural Perspectives2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Lahelma, Elina
    et al.
    Hakala, Katariina
    Arnesen, Anne-Lise
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Hjelmér, Carina
    Lappalainen, Sirpa
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Steen-Olsen, Tove
    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Lehtonen, Jukka
    Berg, Kari
    Collective Actions, Alliances and Resistance of Children, Young People and Teachers2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Niemi, Anna-Maija
    et al.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Framing and classifying the theoretical and practical divide: how young men’s positions in vocational education are produced and reproduced2013In: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 445-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research material from ethnographic studies of vocational upper secondary educational programmes in Finland and Sweden presented here indicates that the discourse of schoolwork as being either theoretical or practical is firmly fixed. However, the students on the researched programmes were aware of recent changes in the labour market that raise a need for generalisation, or at least knowledge of both practical and theoretical aspects of their programme-specific subjects. They referred to the changes with notions suggesting that a practical and theoretical divide was neither meaningful nor helpful for their education. We discuss how a stereotyped idea of what was thought of as ‘man’s work’ made it difficult for students who wanted to accomplish tasks considered as theoretical and how the teachers’ framing of pedagogic practice intensified or ameliorated this difficulty. We also address the dichotomy between theoretical and practical by contemplating students’ positions within different pedagogical practices. We suggest that some kinds of practices might diminish the dichotomy and could improve the students’ possibilities for fully engaging in their studies.

  • 6.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Persson, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Authority with an unclear position2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has previously addressed elements of school supervision and inspection and the practices of state authorities. For example, Ouston, Fidler and Earley (1997) have noticed that it is important how inspections and supervisions are carried out in terms of giving schools the possibilities to amend what has been identified as problematic. How countries organise supervision and inspection between authorities differ, but Ball (2007) in the UK and Apple (2005) in the US as well as Rönnberg (2012) in Sweden have noticed a discursive drift in how authorities present themselves, from a discourse with more emphasis on supervision, towards one with more emphasis on inspection. Here Sweden holds a certain position since the Swedish educational system since the mid 1990s, in a short time have turned from one of the most regulated to one of the most deregulated (Lundahl, 2002). In addition, the organisation of authorities and the function of authorities were reformed in a rapid pace.

  • 7. Nylund, Mattias
    et al.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Gymnasiereformens konsekvenser för den sociala fördelningen av kunskaper i de yrkesorienterade utbildningarna2011In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 81-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Be and Becoming a Citizen2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Democratic Education? Working Class Boys’ Possibilities to Influence within a Vehicle Programme and the Future2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how young people act and the organisation of school practice, and what possibilities they have of influencing the content and the forms practiced. The study focuses on how the pedagogic practice is organised in one class their first year of upper secondary school, one Vehicle programme class. This embraces questions as: How, where, when and for what cause do students act to influence, and then with what result? Are students offered influence, and in that case which students? How does the organisation of and the content in the pedagogic practice prepare students to act in order to be able to exert influence in the future? These questions have been studied with regard to social background and gender. The analysis has its theoretical base in Bernstein’s theory of pedagogy and code (1990) and feminist perspectives (Arnot, 2006; Gordon, Holland, & Lahelma, 2000). The main results in the analysis are that actions taken to gain influence were rare, that the organisation of and the content in the pedagogic practice was mainly focussed on students as becoming, i. e. it focused students possibilities to be able to influence in the future and not the present. Furthermore, changing of pedagogic content or pedagogic forms was dependent on students’ own actions. There was a lack of teacher organisation to promote student influence. Finally, what was evaluated in the pedagogic practice, i.e. factual learning, did not promote student influence. Method The presentation builds on a one year ethnographic study in a Social science programme class and a Vehicle programme class. In practice this means that the two classes were followed their first year in upper secondary school. All in all there were 136 classroom observations, 55 individual interviews with the students, their teachers and their head teachers and collection of school and teaching material (Hjelmér, Lappalainen, & Rosvall, 2010; Rosvall, 2011a, 2011b). This presentation focuses on the material produced within the Vehicle programme class, but the material from the Social science class is also important in terms to understand processes within education that contributes to reproduction of social classes. This ethnographic study follows a tradition in Scandinavian research of ethnographic studies in sociology of education (Beach, 2010; Larsson, 2006) that researches relationships between social background, gender and education (Gordon, et al., 2000; Öhrn, 2001; Öhrn, Lundahl, & Beach, 2011). Expected Outcomes The paper demonstrates how pedagogic practice was gendered and classed, which had consequences for how students could influence and how students were prepared to influence in the future. Since the Social Science programme mostly attracts students from a middle-class background and the Vehicle programme those with a working-class background, the content in the programmes contributed to reproducing hierarchical social relations. The content for the Vehicle students proved to be simplified, personal and context dependent, whereas the content of the Social Science programme was more advanced, general and context independent, knowledge which, in argumentation for influence, is usually highly valued. In previous research, working class masculinities have often been associated with opposition towards study-oriented subjects. However, the current study indicates that there is an interest in studying Swedish, English and maths. The students argued that it was necessary for future employment, and that the Vehicle industry is now asking for this kind of knowledge. References Arnot, M. (2006). Freedom's children: A gender perspective on the education of the learner-citizen. International Review of Education, 52(1), 67-87. Beach, D. (2010). Identifying and comparing Scandinavian ethnography: comparisons and influences. Ethnography and Education, 5(1), 49-63. Bernstein, B. (1990). Class, Codes and Control. Volume IV, The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse. London: Routledge cop. Gordon, T., Holland, J., & Lahelma, E. (2000). Making Spaces: Citizenship and Difference in Schools. Houndmills: MacMillan Press LTD. Hjelmér, C., Lappalainen, S., & Rosvall, P.-Å. (2010). Time, Space and Young People's Agency in Vocational Upper Secondary Education: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. European Educational Research Journal, 9(2), 247-259. Larsson, S. (2006). Ethnography in action. How ethnography was established in Swedish educational research. Ethnography & Education, 1(2), 177-195. Rosvall, P.-Å. (2011a). Pedagogic practice and influence in a social science class. In E. Öhrn, L. Lundahl & D. Beach (Eds.), Young people's influence and democratic education: Ethnographic studies in upper secondary schools (pp. 71-91). London: Tufnell Press. Rosvall, P.-Å. (2011b). Pedagogic practice and influence in a Vehicle Programme class. In E. Öhrn, L. Lundahl & D. Beach (Eds.), Young people's influence and democratic education: Ethnographic studies in upper secondary schools (pp. 92-111). London: Tufnell Press. Öhrn, E. (2001). Marginalization of democratic values: a gendered practice of schooling? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 5(2/3), 319-328. Öhrn, E., Lundahl, L., & Beach, D. (2011). Young people's influence and democratic education: Ethnographic studies in secondary schools. London: Tufnell press.

  • 10.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    ”… det vore bättre om man kunde vara med och bestämma hur det skulle göras…”: en etnografisk studie om elevinflytande i gymnasieskolan2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore how young people act and the organisation of school practice, and what possibilities they have of influencing the content and the forms practiced. The study focuses on how the pedagogic practice is organised in two classes in their first year of upper secondary school, one Social Science programme class and one Vehicle programme class. This embraces questions as: How, where, when and for what cause do students act to influence, and then with what result? Are students offered influence, and in that case which students? How does the organisation of and the content in the pedagogic practice prepare students to act in order to be able to exert influence in the future? These questions have been studied with focus on differences between the programmes with regard to social background and gender. The thesis has its theoretical base in Bernstein’s theory of pedagogy and code (1990, 2000), feminist perspectives (Arnot, 2006; Arnot & Dillabough, 2000; Connell, 1987; Gordon, 2006; Gordon, Holland & Lahelma, 2000) as well as theories of structuration (Giddens, 1984). The empirical material of the thesis was ethnographically produced during one school year, through classroom observations, individual interviews with students, teachers and head teachers, and the gathering of school and teaching material. The main results in the analysis are that actions taken to gain influence were rare, that the organisation of and the content in the pedagogic practice was mainly focused on students as becoming, i. e. it focused students possibilities to be able to influence in the future and not the present. Furthermore, changing of pedagogic content or pedagogic forms was dependent on students’ own actions. There was a lack of teacher organisation to promote student influence. Finally, what was evaluated in the pedagogic practice, i.e. factual learning, did not promote student influence. The thesis demonstrates how pedagogic practice was gendered and classed, which had consequences for how students could influence and how students were prepared to influence in the future. Since the Social Science programme mostly attracts students from a middle-class background and the Vehicle programme those with a working-class background, the content in the programmes contributed to reproducing hierarchical social relations. The content for the Vehicle students proved to be simplified, personal and context dependent, whereas the content of the Social Science programme was more advanced, general and context independent, knowledge which, in argumentation for influence, is usually highly valued. In previous research, working class masculinities have often been associated with opposition towards study-oriented subjects. However, the current study indicates that there is an interest in studying Swedish, English and maths. The students argued that it was necessary for future employment, and that the Vehicle industry is now asking for this kind of knowledge.

  • 11.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Examining Ethnographic Methods of Reserach in Anti School Cultures2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines ethnographic dilemmas when researching school environments with a majority of boys with working class background. Several researchers have highlighted the fact that this group is often presented as homogenous and labelled as underachieving and having an anti-school attitude. In this paper it is discussed how some methodological considerations might lead to a more nuanced representation of this group of boys. It follows on a body of work in the journal of Ethnography and Education of discussions of the complexity of researching processes of social reproduction. Brockmann (2011) for example, argues that studies that focus on social reproduction too often neglect the complexity of those processes. Also Russell (2013) discusses the complexities when working with young people and how the researcher is dependent on their personal dispositions and the roles those young people adapt. Both authors call for a methodological discussion of how to do ethnographic research that not (only) reproduce a given discourse but also gives a representation of the complexity of those processes. Also the paper at hand can be seen as a contribution to the discussion on methodological and theoretical issues in the mentioned (see also Delamont, 2009; Hammersley, 2006).

  • 12.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Högljudda och tysta elever: Marginaliseringseffekter i gymnasieskolans klassrumssamtal2013In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 63-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws upon an ethnographic analysis of classroom talk in a first year upper secondary Social Science class. It was noted that some students said that they were more silent in upper secondary school compared to secondary school and that in the transition between schools classroom talk became problematic and marginalising for them. This was for girls mainly, but also for some boys. The stronger classification of subject knowledge and enhanced pace of instruction worked as obstacles for girls’ and some boys’ participation in classroom talk. In the article this is suggested have marginalised them and favoured boys of average ability.

  • 13.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Joint work in ethnographic research: possibilities and obstacles2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Pedagogic practice and influence in a Social Science class2011In: Young people's influence and democratic education: Ethnographic studies in upper secondary schools / [ed] Elisabet Öhrn, Lisbeth Lundahl, Dennis Beach, The Tufnell Press , 2011, p. 71-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth (Editor)
    Öhrn, Elisabet (Editor)
    Pedagogic practice and influence in a Vehicle Programme class2011In: Young people's influence and democratic education: Ethnographic studies in upper secondary schools, The Tufnell Press , 2011, p. 92-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Programarbetslag som stöd för nyutexaminerade kärnämneslärares etablering som gymnasielärare?2014In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, p. 56-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been many attempts to reform the Swedish education system in order to reduce the size of the gaps between different upper secondary school programmes. These have included changes in teachers’ responsibilities and teacher education. Within an individual school, teachers of Swe dish language, English and mathematics may teach students of both vocational and further study preparation programmes. However, an analy sis of new teachers’ experiences and the organization of teacher teams at one school, Apel School, suggests that despite these reforms, some traditional preferences have persisted. Notably, teachers of the subjects listed above had clear hierarchical preferences regarding the school’s various teacher teams. Very few teachers were keen to join teams that were involved with a vocational programme. This arguably put both newer teachers and vocational programme students into particularly vulnerable situations because the new teachers were assigned to the less-preferred vocational programme teams but not provided with adequate support from more experienced teachers. Vocational students were more likely to have their teachers replaced as their old teachers advanced within the hierarchy. It is concluded that head teachers need to distribute new and experienced teachers in teacher teams more evenly even though experienced teachers express resistance.

  • 17.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Regulation and (lack of) Resistance at Class Meetings in a Vehicle Programme in Upper Secondary School2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When preparing for a full ethnographic study during the school year 08/09 within the project “Active Citizenship? On Democratic Education in the Upper Secondary School”, I carried out a pilot study, during which I observed class meetings and lessons. In this paper presentation, I will show how teacher instructions lead to regulation during these meetings. When analysing interviews and observations, I have used Connell’s theories about masculinities and comparisons with Willis’s lads to show how gender norms and social class traditions are reproduced. This research shows that teachers’ regulation of topics and time enable the boys at the vehicle programme in an upper secondary school to openly show resistance. Although the students distrust the school system and teachers distrust the students’ ability to take democratic responsibility, it is difficult for the students to resistant in a fruitful way. They regard upper secondary school like a transport to the age when they are old enough to get a job and earn their own money. Yet, this transport is in conflict. The world around the boys is changing, and competence in academic skills, e.g. English or Maths, are now desired on the labour market.

  • 18.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The pedagogic structure and the proper citizen2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the project, ”Active Citizenship? On Democratic Education in Upper Secondary School”, that aims at exploring democratic education, the relationship between being and becoming is interesting. How is pedagogy organised to enable students to be democratically involved as responsible actors in their education? What are the students’ expectations of becoming proper democratic citizens and how does that affect their education? The pedagogic structure and understanding of students’ positions in school and society, i.e. to be and become proper citizens, affect their possibilities to influence in school. In this paper, these themes will be discussed in terms of classification, framing, rules and codes with a special focus on class and gender. The research data shows contradictions between policy texts, pedagogic structure and the students’ actions. The data that this discussion draws on was ethnographically produced during one year’s field work in a Social Science class in an upper secondary school in the West of Sweden. The data consists of research data from lessons, interviews with students, teachers and principals as well as local and national policy texts.

  • 19.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Yrkesutbildning i förändring? Konsekevenser för undervisningen2012In: Lärare och lärande i yrkesprogram och introduktionsprogram / [ed] Ingrid Henning Loeb, Helena Korp, Studentlitteratur , 2012, p. 57-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Lappalainen, Sirpa
    Hjelmér, Carina
    Time, space and agency in vocational upper secondary education2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Niemi, Anna-Maija
    Anglification and Technification Affecting Masculinities and Positions of students in Vocational Programmes2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Niemi, Anna-Maija
    Education and Knowledge in Vocational Settings and Young Men´s Masculinities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present ethnographic research from vocational educational institutes in Sweden and Finland who usually attracts boy´s with working class backgrounds. A common division in vocational settings is that between theoretical or intellectual work (usually core subjects) and practical or manual work (usually character subjects). In our analysis students and teachers argued differently for stronger or weaker classification of theoretical and practical tasks in the Swedish and Finnish contexts. In both countries in these settings, conceptions of a man as manual rather than mental and laddishness as a self-worth protection strategy had impact on what the students could influence in terms of challenging traditional divisions between what was considered theoretical and practical work. Here teachers’ classification of subjects and framing of lessons became important.

  • 23.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Racism, masculinities and teaching in an upper secondary school2012Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 23 of 23
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