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  • 1.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bedömning för lärande: för Skola 20112009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Hur lärare och lärarstuderande kommunicerar relationen mellan värdefrågor och ämnesspecifikt innehåll under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Relationen mellan ämnesinnehåll och moralfrågor och dess betydelse vid bedömning.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Den samtida diskursen om hjärnans betydelse i utbildning: Analys av artikel i en lärarfacklig tidning.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Filosofen Ian Hacking (2004) har med en kritisk hållning utsett det första århundradet av 2000-talet till ’hjärnans århundrade’. Med detta tycks följa en stärkt diskurs om hjärnans betydelse inte bara i allmänhet utan också i utbildning. Parallellt med denna löper diskursen om elevers försämrade kunskaper. Givet detta är syftet med vår presentation att bidra med en kritisk förståelse för, och analys av, hur elevers bristande lärande konstrueras som ett neurobiologiskt fenomen och vilka åtgärder som föreslås utifrån detta.

    Som utgångspunkt för vår analys har vi en strategiskt vald artikel ur Lärarnas tidning. I artikeln görs det en stor poäng av att lärare behöver mer kunskap om tonårshjärnan för att kunna anpassa undervisningen efter just dessa elevers specifika behov och på så vis förbättra villkoren för deras lärande. För analysen har vi vänt oss till diskursanalytikern Norman Fairclough (2003) och följt en av flera av dennes övergripande analysnycklar. Denna hjälper oss att exempelvis visa i vilka nätverk av sociala praktiker som det aktuella fenomenet är placerat och uppstår. Vårt angreppssätt inkluderar en transitivitetsanalys byggd på systemisk-funktionell lingvistik (SFL). Med ett särskilt fokus på den ideationella metafunktionen undersöks hur erfarenheter framställs, vilka aktörer och aktiviteter som är inblandade och vilka omständigheterna är kring dessa aktiviteter.

    Genom detta angreppssätt är vår ambition att förstå hur problemet med elevers bristande lärande är rotat i hur vårt sociala liv är ordnat, det vill säga vad som avgör att man idag letar förklaringar till ett framställt problem i neurologiska företeelser snarare än i didaktiska eller ideologiska. Den status som hjärnforskning har i förhållande till pedagogisk forskning tycks innebära en maktförskjutning som medför att forskare inom pedagogik och didaktik marginaliseras i den aktuella debatten om skolan. Nya fynd inom hjärnforskningen lyfts fram av olika intressenter som lösningen på elevernas sjunkande kunskapsresultat, dock utan att relatera dessa fynd till mer grundläggande pedagogiska och didaktiska frågor. I vår presentation drar vi slutsatser kring vad resultatet innebär för lärare, elever och underv

  • 5.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bokanmälan av Læringslaboratorier og: eksperimenter av Dorthe Staunæs, Hanne Kirstine Adriansen, Katia Dupret, Steen Høyrup och Niels Christian Mossfeldt Nickelsen (red.)2014In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 8Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bokanmälan av Pædagogiske teorier, femte utgåvan av Jens Rasmussen (red.) Billesø & Baltzer, Værløse, 20122012In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 4, p. 58-59Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Critical Reading Activities: Ideals from Various Pedagogic Actors Interact and Counteract2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Detta vet vi om visualisering som inkluderande undervisningsresurs2014In: Inklusionens historie og aktualitet. Festskrift til en ildsjæl - Ole Hansen / [ed] L. Quortrup, Fredrikshavn: Dafolo A/S , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Elevhälsoteam och lärarlag – professioners maktförskjutningar.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel Elevhälsoteam och lärarlag – professioners maktförskjutningar

    Syfte/mål Syftet med presentationen är att bidra med förståelse för nutida maktförskjutningar där en del av det pedagogiska ansvaret läggs över på elevhälsoprofessionen.

    Metod

    Underlaget för studien utgörs av 28 fokusgruppsintervjuer, hälften genomförda med elevhälsoteam och hälften med lärarlag, båda tillhörande grundskolan. Intervjuerna gjordes i två olika kommuner i västsvenska kommuner med olika demografiska egenskaper men med liknande treåriga projekt.

    Teoretisk inramning

    Intervjufrågorna skapades utifrån teorin om praktikarkitekturer (Kemmis et al., 2014) och dess tre typer av manifestationer i en praktik; sayings (det som uttrycks), doings (det som görs) och relatings (interaktion och relationer). En inzoomning (Nicolini, 2012) av de studerade praktikerna visar att elevhälsoteam tagit på sig stort ansvar och exempelvis infört hemklassrum för elever trots lärares protester. En utzoomning indikerar att en ny skollag (SFS 2010:800, 29 kap. 8 §), vilken enligt teorin om praktikarkitekturer ska ses som ett socialt-politiskt arrangemang som påverkar relatings, har möjliggjort denna typ av maktförskjutningar. Andra arrangemang är de kulturellt-diskursiva (kopplat till sayings) och materiellt-ekonomiska (kopplats till doings).

    Förväntade slutsatser

    Även utanför Sverige syns professioner med orientering mot hälsofrågor expandera (Tomlinson, 2012). Slutsatser av studien kan sammantaget dras om konsekvenser för lärarprofessionen och denna professions position i en eventuellt förminskande samtida förändringsprocess.

    Relevans för pedagogiskt arbete

    Presentationen bidrar med kunskap om lärarprofessionens villkor.

     

    Kemmis, S., Wilkinson, J., Edwards-Groves, C., Hardy, I., Grootenboer, P. & Bristol, L. (2014). Changing Practices, Changing Education. Singapore: Springer Verlag.

    Nicolini, D. (2012). Practice theory, work, and organization: an introduction. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    SFS 2010:800. Skollag. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet.

    Tomlinson, S. (2012). The irresistible rise of the SEN industry. Oxford Review of Education, 38(3), 267-286.

  • 10.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    En kritisk granskning av kritisk läsning2009In: Perspektiv på läsning: liv, lust och läsning / [ed] Madeleine Ellvin, Lena Manderstedt, Svensklärarföreningen , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Entrepreneurialism Recontextualised in Rhetorical Harmonisation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although criticized from a scientific perspective, the belief in entrepreneurial education as a transformation practice seems to be growing strong rapidly. Among a variety of critical studies, we find Nylund and Rosvall (2011) who argue that the wordings characteristic of entrepreneurial learning are no more than empty words, difficult to relate to specific knowledge (academic or content area matters), and supposedly difficult to operationalize in specific teaching situations. Among critical studies we also find Holmgren and From (2005) who stress that the benefits of entrepreneurial education lack empirical foundation.

  • 12.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Filantropi, ideologi och multimodalitet2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hemlöshet är ett globalt och snabbt växande socialt problem. Detta dilemma är också föremål för en rad filantropiska åtgärder. I min presentation kommer jag att uppehålla mig kring tre olika budskap som alla relaterar till hemlöshetsåtgärder. De tre budskapen förenas såväl i sitt innehåll som i att de är multimodalt konstruerade. Budskapen skiljer sig också från varandra genom att producenterna vilar mot olika ideologiska ståndpunkter. Med andra ord är det tre politiska texter som är i fokus. Dessa kan man dessutom finna i tre olika geografiska och offentliga kontexter. Syftet med min presentation är att sätta in textproducenternas val i ett ideologiskt och geografiskt sammanhang. För detta motiv använder jag såväl multimodal (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) som geosemiotisk teori (Scollon & Scollon, 2003). Geosemiotiken hävdar att textuella och visuella fenomen inte får sin fulla betydelse förrän de analyseras utifrån sin offentliga placering.

  • 13.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Four Ways of Expressing Differences of Opinion inside the Classroom2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Inte på allvar – när debatter iscensätts i klassrummet. 2016In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, ISSN 1102-6472, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 25-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not taken seriously? – when debates are staged within the classroom. The classroom debate is considered a democratic tool and, as such, surrounded by high hopes. In parallel, it seems to be a complex task for teachers to arrange classroom debates that meet their inten- tions. This article takes an interest in matches and mismatches between teachers’ intentions and the students’ reactions, with a particular focus on reactions that include irony and similar aspects, an aspect only tangentially treated in previous research. Given this, the aim is to illustrate, analyse and understand a variation of debate realisations. The empirical mate- rial consists of tape recordings from four different arrangements and from three secondary schools. The analytical procedure relied on critical classroom discourse analysis (CCDA). In addition, three dimensions of a debate; the relational, the textual and the intellectual, were used to highlight didactical aspects in particular. The different debate realisa- tions are discussed in relation to sociological aspects and the results give an understanding for the circumstance that classroom debates are not realised isolated from the surrounding world. 

  • 15.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kritisk läsning på gymnasiet2009In: Manus, ISSN 2000-4028, Vol. 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kritisk sakprosaläsning i gymnasieskolan. Didaktiska perspektiv på läroböcker, lärare och nationella prov2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical reading of non-fiction is an essential activity in a range of contexts. Such activities were accentuated in the curricular reform of 1994. At that time, upper secondary education in Sweden was reorganized in order to prepare pupils in both academically and vocationally oriented education for further studies. For this reason, all pupils take the same core subject courses with the same curricular targets. Various aspects of critical reading appear in research and in the syllabus. Consequently, four aspects of critical reading run through the thesis: critical-analytical, critical-evaluative, critical-integrative and critical-ideological. The aim of this thesis is to study a recontextualising process where critical reading is relocated from academia to the upper secondary classroom. Additionally, a central aim is to study the creation of this process for students at two types of upper secondary programmes, i.e. academic or vocational programmes, which attract young people from different socio-economic backgrounds. The thesis has its theoretical base in Bernstein’s theory of pedagogy. According to this theory, the recontextualisation process involves various fields such as the official recontextualising field, the pedagogic recontextualizing field, the local recontextualizing field and the specialized field of research. Another field is added, ‘discursive changes’, where theoretical aspects from Fairclough are used. Each field contributes to the process with resources and undertakes to introduce students from the horizontal discourse (everyday and informal) into the vertical discourse (specialized and formal). The empirical material gathered for this thesis can be grouped in three parts, each representing a recontextualising field and a separate study. The first study consists of a contrasting analysis, mainly of four textbooks. The textbooks were studied using Halliday’s analytical tools. In the second study, 21 teachers were interviewed about their choices in the classroom in order to enhance critical reading of non-fiction. The teachers were selected from five upper secondary schools in three municipalities. The third study scrutinizes a national test and how it defines and evaluates reading activities. The results show that neither critical reading nor non-fiction has a dominating position in the subject of Swedish. The national test offers several factual texts in its text collection but as a result of the test process it is likely that some of the pupils pass the test without using any non-fiction text. The trends that have appeared in each study are integrated in a separate chapter that takes a closer look at the inter-relations between the actors. The actors interact and counteract. As a result of this, certain aspects of critical-reading seem to be disfavoured, i.e. critical-analytical, critical-integrative and critical-ideological aspects. In contrast to this, critical-evaluative activities receive more attention. Both textbooks and teachers equip the pupils with tools for evaluating sources. Above all, the critical-evaluative activities are favoured by other actors who emphasize the importance of ICT. Consequently, there is greater focus on truth vs. falsehood, putting critical activities at risk of becoming superficial. The striving for parity, which was accentuated by the reform in 1994, in some respects seems to have been taken seriously. In other respects, however, the results show that pupils in academically and vocationally oriented programmes encounter different teaching forms, which prevent vocational pupils’ induction into the vertical discourse. One such example is the fact that textbooks address their readers in different ways, assuming that the vocational pupils need more entertainment, warnings about the Internet and an intimate relation with the book, while the academic pupils are met by tasks, tools and instructions that support their induction into the vertical discourse, and their chances of being illegible for higher studies. The teachers interviewed both challenge and adapt to the reactions from their pupilss which appear to be both enabling and hindering induction. Moreover, they both challenge and adapt to discursive changes. The recontextualising process is nourished by discursive changes such as sensationalizing, dramatizing of risks, narcissism and conversationalization. It is important to discuss the consequences of the intricate web that makes up this process.

  • 17.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läroboksbilden som resurs i svenskämnets debattundervisning2014In: Mötesplatser - texter för svenskämnet / [ed] Ann Boglind, Per Holmberg, Anna Nordenstam, Studentlitteratur , 2014, p. 155-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läroböckernas bilder och svenskämnets identitet2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läroböckernas bilder och svenskämnets identitet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läsning av sakprosatexter: teoretiska, ideologiska och didaktiska perspektiv2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läsning innebär en socialisation av ideologisk, kulturell och politisk art. Utifrån ett sådant antagande avser min presentation att ge ett teoretiskt bidrag till forskning om literacy. För detta motiv använder jag Basil Bernsteins fyrfältsmodell (1990), i vilken han identifierar fyra typer av pedagogiker och relaterar dessa till potentialen för social rättvisa. Jag kommer att exemplifiera och diskutera olika synsätt på läsning i de fyra pedagogikerna. Till de fyra kommer jag också att lägga en femte pedagogik i ett försök till utveckling av den ursprungliga modellen. Behovet av detta tillägg är ett resultat av mina egna studier (Norlund, 2009) som bygger på läroboksanalyser, lärarintervjuer och en kategoriseringsstudie av nationella prov för gymnasiets svenskämne. Modellen bygger på två axlar. Bernstein låter den ena axeln representera vilka undervisningsformer som respektive pedagogiker prioriterar. En form innebär att man ser underlättande (facilitation) som ett undervisningsideal. Där är läraren den som förser elever med läsmaterial utifrån vilket elever sedan gör sina egna upptäckter. I den andra undervisningsformen värderas istället mer explicit undervisning om läsning. På modellens andra axel arbetar Bernstein med undervisningens mål, dvs om undervisningen är tänkt att leda till förändring inom individen eller till förändring mellan grupper. Fyr(fem)-fältsmodellen gör det möjligt att identifiera olika läsundervisningsideal och på vilka olika ideologiska och sociologiska synsätt som dessa ideal grundar sig. Jag ger såväl fiktiva som empiriskt grundade exempel på vad som kan betecknas som prioriterat i de olika pedagogikerna. Dessa prioriteringar kan delas in i olika fokus. Dels handlar det om vilket material som förespråkas för eleverna att läsa, dels vilka aktiviteter som förespråkas för dem att genomföra. Jag urskiljer också huruvida ämnesspecifik eller ämnesöverskridande läsning förordas i de olika pedagogikerna. Hur ideologiska aspekter kan kopplas till diskursiva förändringar och vad det kan antas betyda för läsaktiviteter behandlas likaså. I detta avseende knyter jag an till konferensen Svenska med didaktisk inriktning i Malmö 2009, där min presentation behandlade större diskursiva förändringar och dess förmodade påverkan på läsning i en modersmålskontext. Några sådana diskursiva förändringar är estetisering (Fairclough, 2003) sensationalisering (Chouliaraki, 1999) och riskdramatisering (Giddens, 1991). Jag tar tacksamt emot synpunkter på fruktbarheten i min utvidgade modell. Dessutom välkomnar jag en diskussion om nuvarande modersmålsämneskonceptioner, och relevansen för femfältsmodellen som en utmanare till dessa.

  • 21.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Meningsbrytningar i olika former2014In: Rhetorica Scandinavica, ISSN 1397-0534, no 65, p. 40-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has addressed the characteristics of debates and argumentation I argue there is a need to expand the framework for analysing the forms of such oral activities, particularly regarding expressions of differences in opinion. Commonly applied analytical tools generally recognize just two forms, antagonistic and deliberative. By operationalising a conceptual set of categories, I show that this is too narrow. A third form (agonistic) can be recognized based on Chantal Mouffe’s theory of democracy and politics, and another form that is oriented to relativism. Thus, I propose an analytical framework with a set of four forms to address the nature of differences of opinion. In addition I provide empirical examples from a variety of contexts to support each form.

  • 22.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Om kritisk läsning på gymnasiet2011In: Kritisk läsning av pedagogiska texter / [ed] Marie Carlson, Kerstin Brömssen von, Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 155-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Reality environments in formal education – Neither a panacea nor a plague.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation reports the results of a literature review where a particular kind of technology-based teaching approaches; i e. virtual, augmented, mixed and hybrid reality environments, were investigated. The concepts refer to different levels of immersion; for instance, augmented reality ‘allows the user to see a real world that is supplemented with virtual worlds’ (Kerawalla et al., 2006).

    Applications of the technological approaches in education is still argued to be ‘in its early stage of development’ (Falloon, 2010). Most research has been conducted on higher education (Duncan, Millar & Jiang, 2012) while a focus on primary and secondary school has largely been overlooked so far, as confirmed by Gerstein (2009). Literature reviews have previously been conducted within the area (see Selwyn, 2007; Allison, 2008; Hew & Cheung, 2010; Parsons & Cobb; 2011; Grynszpan et al., 2014; Wass & Porayska-Pomsta, 2014; Abdul Jabbar & Felicia, 2015), but there are still gaps to be acknowledged. This review attempts to fill such a current gap not only by spanning the ‘reality continuum’ of all three types of environments but also by taking a particular interest in formal school for children and young people. In addition the review contributes a didactically based perspective. A combined interest in these aspects is uncommon in the literature. Thus, this review aims to provide knowledge of what virtual, augmented and mixed reality environments bring to formal learning practices at school. Here, ‘school’ refers to primary and secondary, including upper secondary, school.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used

    The review was conducted in two steps; one exploratory and one systematic. The exploratory phase was characterized by a manual process inlcuding a snowball approach and the systematic phase by using the SAGE and ERIC (via ProQuest) databases. The search query was directed to articles that matched the indicators of the varied ‘realities’ in combination with the notion of ‘classroom’. Papers dealing with both compulsory school and higher education (as in Hew & Cheung, 2010) were included but processed without a focus on higher education. In total 42 articles were included. Together the total corpus of included studies provided evidence for the potential homogenous and/or heterogeneous character of the field. The approach enabled a focus on tensions between established different interests and as such supported the critical discussion that ends the review. The year span covers publications from 2006 to 2015. Particularly when previous literature reviews were dealt with, a few insights from an earlier date were also considered. In the broader perspective, the overall process should be characterized as iterative. A specific example is ‘hybrid reality’ which appeared as a concept in the middle of the procedure and called for a change of indicators.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

    The results include a didactically oriented overview, focusing the aspects 'material', 'organisation' and 'assessment'.The results also include an overview of affordances and constraints. The affordances emerging from the review in total overrule the evidenced constraints, but reliability and validity matters should be kept in mind. My conference presentation will mainly focus on the latter, i. e. reliability and validity matters as well as tensions. To give an example, one problematic matter in the research is the proneness to refer to what can be regarded as false dichotomies; traditional classroom work is by definition characterized as unsophisticated whereas technology-based work is depicted the opposite  Dunleavy, Dede and Mitchell (2009) suggest that the ‘cultural and technological shift’ call for further studies regardless of seeing the technology  ‘as neither a panacea nor a plague ’(p. 7). This suggestion sums up and concludes the review.

    References

    Duncan, I., Miller, A. & Jiang, S.  (2012), S. A taxonomy of virtual worlds usage in education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(6), 949-964.

    Dunleavy, M., Dede, C. & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal  of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 7-22.

    Falloon, G, (2010). Using avatars and virtual environments in learning: What do they have to offer? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 108-122.

    Gerstein, J. (2009). Beyond the game: Quest Atlantis as an online learning experience for gifted elementary students. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 2(1), 2-18.

    Hew, K. F & Cheung, W. S. (2010). Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 33-55.

    Kerawalla, L, Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S. & Woolard, A. (2006). “Making it real”: exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3),163-174.

  • 24.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Recognising debate types within the classroom – an expansion of prevailing conceptual divisions.2016In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, ISSN 1567-6617, Vol. 16, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although much research has previously addressed elements of classroom discourse and the practices of pupils’ debate and discussion, I argue there is a need to expand the framework for analysing the forms of such oral classroom activities, particularly regarding expressions of differences in opinion. Commonly applied analytical tools generally recognise just two forms, adversarial and deliberative. By operationalising a conceptual set of categories defining how differences in opinion are expressed within the classroom, I show that this is too narrow. A third form (agonistic) can be recognised based on Chantal Mouffe’s theory of democracy and politics, and another form is what I call the relativistic. Thus, I propose an analytical framework with a set of four forms to address the nature of debate. By providing empirical classroom examples to support each form, this article is intended not only for researchers but also to benefit practising teachers.

  • 25.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Skoldebatten i ett textdidaktiskt och sociologiskt perspektiv2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Svenskämnets sakprosaläsning i relation till klassbegreppet: i ljuset av diskursiva förändringar2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The interplay between subject recontextualizers: Social reproduction through critical reading2011In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 659-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses a Bernsteinian approach to explore, examine, and theorize about an activity in the upper-secondary curriculum within the Swedish Language subject. Based on an examination of the interplay between different educational actors in this recontex- tualization process the possibilities for pupils with different social backgrounds and their possibilities to gain access to valuable knowledge are delineated. The analysis is con- ducted in relation to a specific classroom activity called ‘reading critically’, of which four different aspects are described, each of which in its own way illustrates how didactic choices are justified in general and also specifically for pupils from different social back- grounds. Finally, an attempt is made to examine the findings in light of the recent neo- liberal turn in education in Sweden.

  • 28.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The literature classroom in a mainstreamed organization – The case of reading Selma Lagerlöf. 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation is the result of a joint project including both a teacher group at an upper secondary school and its regional university. The project refers to a transformation of the practice from an organisation where the two subjects Swedish (L1) and Swedish as a second language (L2) were separated to an alternative organisation where L2 students were mainstreamed in L1 education. The main reason for the project was the teachers’ dissatisfaction with the fact that students enrolled in the Swedish as a second language subject felt excluded. Already in the start a crucial issue emerged; i.e. how to deal with literature education (see Hammond, 2006). The two subjects had since long been characterised by two different literature traditions. Now, the L1 tradition of giving priority to classic novels, and of giving the students access to the common cultural heritage, was found to collide with the L2 tradition where priority had rather been given to identity building for young people from ethnic origin other than the mainstream and which had relied on contemporary novels. Given this the aim of the presentation is to report the analysis of what happened when the L1 and L2 literature education was conducted in a new organisational form. The novel given space by the teachers was The Emperor of Portugallia by the Swedish author Selma Lagerlöf.

    The empirical material consists of focus group interviews with students, observations of lessons and formal meetings, as well as of background documents. The theoretical approach guiding the research is found within the theory of practice architecture (Kemmis et al., 2014), an approach which has previously proved fruitful in similar studies of transformation. The theory facilitates the capturing of three arrangements; cultural-discursive (how the project and activities are understood by teachers and students), economic-material (what is being done) and socio-political (how the involved teachers and students relate to each other and how they relate to artefacts such as the chosen novel and the two curricula). The theory helps drawing conclusions in terms of how the arrangements enables or constraints the students’ success.

  • 29.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    ”Varför tycker du man ska ha dödsstraff, då?” Ett sociologisk-didaktiskt verktyg för analys av klassrumsdebatter2013In: e - SPEN: the European e-journal of clinical nutrition and metabolism, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2150-8925, no 1, p. 35-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates, as the discursive curriculum activities they are, are occasionally arranged in classrooms. Here, the aim is to offer a tool for analyses of such activities. By adopting a sociological-didactical perspective, this article takes Basil Bernstein’s conceptual pair vertical and horizontal discourse as its starting point. The ‘vertical discourse’ is roughly speaking school-oriented whereas the ‘horizontal discourse’ is more often played out in informal contexts. These two central concepts will be specified in particular relation to the classroom debate as curricular content. Two contrasting authentic classroom debates were intentionally selected in order to try out the ana-lytical tool. Both the debates deal with the same topic, i. e. death penalty. The debates, however, also differ from each other; they are put into prac-tice in remarkably different ways and in different contexts, although they are both collected from, in a sociological perspective, supposedly less ad-vantaged areas. I argue that the tool offered is a needed and fruitful way of capturing what happens in classroom debates.

  • 30.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Visualisering som inkluderande undervisningsresurs2014In: Inklusionens historie og aktualitet. Festskrift til en ildsjael – Ole Hansen. / [ed] Lars Qvortrup, Dafolo A/S. , 2014, p. 163-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    When anyone can publish anything: how to evaluate sources according to textbooks for different educational choices2007In: The Reading Matrix, ISSN 1533-242X, E-ISSN 1533-242X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 85-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study emanates from an assumption that the skill of evaluating sources is placed in a complicated field, where an old academic tradition is paired with a contemporary emphasis on the possibilities and risks with modern sources. The aims of the study is to contribute with a description and analysis of these views as they are expressed in textbooks. The material consists of chapters in a range of recent textbooks, some aiming at upper secondary students at vocational programs and some at the more theoretical programs. Of particular interest is the interpersonal structure of the books. Common and diverse ways of addressing the readers are focused. Hence, the study takes a closer look at lingustic features, visual design, student tasks and the presentation of the motives for evaluating sources. The results of the study inform of procedures and choices that are intended to influence students’ critical reading. It exemplifies various views of what is desirable in the matter of evaluating sources and to what extent this fact is interfoliated with the type of program the students take. An analysis and a discussion of possible social consequences conclude the article.

  • 32.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    When Teachers Are Confronted with Ideological Aspects of Their Profession2014In: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 526-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article falls under the research area of school development. It also takes into account neo-liberalistic tendencies, such as these have been approached in educational research. The article takes as its starting point a development project that began when four rural secondary schools turned to their regional university for scientific support. It seems to be a general fact that more and more schools turn to universities for help as a result being subjected to ranking lists, i. e. a neo-liberally oriented phenomenon in such. School development work has proven difficult in general terms and current tendencies, I argue, risk reinforcing these difficulties. The urgent, practical needs from the schools risk colliding with the critical interests of academia. Here, I argue, we find a problem that needs further exploration. The aim of this article is to explore responses from teachers towards a specific activity that encouraged the teachers to take an objective look at their day-to-day practices, and to relate teaching and assessment approaches theoretically to pupils’ social backgrounds. Three aspects were investigated in particular: first, teachers’ attitudinal responses to being provided with an understanding of diverse and conflicting interests; second, teachers’ attitudinal responses to being provided with tools for meeting school rhetoric in a critical way; and third, teachers’ attitudinal responses to being guided by a specific pedagogical discourse. The data consists of 61 written responses from teachers representing four rural schools. The “appraisal theory” was adopted as an analytical tool for capturing evaluative stances from the teachers. The results highlight the intricacies of confronting teachers with certain sociological and theoretical topics that reveal the fact that school is not a neutral place. I suggest further debate on this matter.

  • 33.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Curcio, Igor Danilo Diego
    Dipace, Anna
    Virtual realities and education2016In: Research on Education and Media, ISSN 2037-0849, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the state-of-the-art of virtual reality, augmented reality mixed reality technologies, and their applications in formal education. We also present a selected list of case studies that prove the utility of these technologies in the context of formal education. Furthermore, as byproduct, the mentioned case studies show also that, although the industry is able to develop very advanced virtual environments technologies,their pedagogical implications are strongly related to a well designed theoretical framework.

  • 34.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    ”En trygg och framgångsrik skola”: Pedagogiska övertygelser i fyra landsortsskolor.2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 81-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "A SAFE AND SUCCESSFUL SCHOOL" - PEDAGOGICAL BELIEFS IN FOUR RURAL SCHOOLS. This article is based on empirical material, collected within a school development project. The project involves four secondary schools located in manufacturing and non-academically oriented Swedish municipalities. More specifically, the material consists of teachers’ written reactions in relation to certain activities, as well as of field notes from seminars and municipal reports. Certain convictions appearing from the involved teachers and school directions are analysed according to pedagogic discourses identified in Basil Bernstein’s theory of sociology of education. There are two parallel aims of the article; first, to shed light on contemporary prevailing pedagogical convictions (primarily in schools similar to our selection) and second, to make specifications of an analytic tool intended for categorisations of pedagogical convictions. Referring to the first aim, our results point towards the fact that certain discourses are more dominant than others, all of which based on beliefs that naturalise differences between pupils. Grounded in this picture, the authors discuss possible consequences for pupils who, due to their social background, run the risk of being less familiar with what is expected from school as an institution.

  • 35.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ledarskap i undervisning och bedömning2012In: Lärare som ledare - i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede, Studentlitteratur , 2012, p. 166-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Dipace, Anna
    University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
    Education, games and apps in Swedish schools2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Dipace, Anna
    Education, games and apps in Swedish schools2016In: / [ed] Mcgraw Hill, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This paper is part of a larger research project conducted by a group of researchers belonging to the University of Borås (Sweden) in order to expand the knowledge on how mobile apps are identified, motivated and implemented in Swedish schools. Here, we show results that shed light on features of games and apps chosen by a variety of educational actors. Despite of a huge literature that shows the benefits of games in formal education, little is known about whether or not this is also the case for research specifically focusing on apps in educational settings. In fact, research on games and applications in education is limited, both within a Swedish and an international setting. Besides, there are in proportionality more studies on higher education than on compulsory school. Thus, the study of the use of games and apps in education in general, and the use of games and apps both for students with a diagnosis of ASD and newly-arrived students in particular, seems to have been largely overlooked so far. These are grounds for arguing that this study is needed. The data production took place in two municipalities of Western Sweden. 

  • 38.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Den samtida diskursen om hjärnans betydelse i utbildning – analys av artikel i en lärarfacklig tidning.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den samtida diskursen om hjärnans betydelse i utbildning –

    analys av artikel i en lärarfacklig tidning

    Magnus Levinsson & Anita Norlund

    Filosofen Ian Hacking (2004) har med en kritisk hållning utsett det första århundradet av 2000-talet till ’hjärnans århundrade’. Med detta tycks följa en stärkt diskurs om hjärnans betydelse inte bara i allmänhet utan också i utbildning. Parallellt med denna löper diskursen om elevers försämrade kunskaper. Givet detta är syftet med vår presentation att bidra med en kritisk förståelse för, och analys av, hur elevers bristande lärande konstrueras som ett neurobiologiskt fenomen och vilka åtgärder som föreslås utifrån detta.

    Som utgångspunkt för vår analys har vi en strategiskt vald artikel ur Lärarnas tidning. I artikeln görs det en stor poäng av att lärare behöver mer kunskap om tonårshjärnan för att kunna anpassa undervisningen efter just dessa elevers specifika behov och på så vis förbättra villkoren för deras lärande. För analysen har vi vänt oss till diskursanalytikern Norman Fairclough (2003) och följt en av flera av dennes övergripande analysnycklar. Denna hjälper oss att exempelvis visa i vilka nätverk av sociala praktiker som det aktuella fenomenet är placerat och uppstår. Vårt angreppssätt inkluderar en transitivitetsanalys byggd på systemisk-funktionell lingvistik (SFL). Med ett särskilt fokus på den ideationella metafunktionen undersöks hur erfarenheter framställs, vilka aktörer och aktiviteter som är inblandade och vilka omständigheterna är kring dessa aktiviteter.

    Genom detta angreppssätt är vår ambition att förstå hur problemet med elevers bristande lärande är rotat i hur vårt sociala liv är ordnat, det vill säga vad som avgör att man idag letar förklaringar till ett framställt problem i neurologiska företeelser snarare än i didaktiska eller ideologiska. Den status som hjärnforskning har i förhållande till pedagogisk forskning tycks innebära en maktförskjutning som medför att forskare inom pedagogik och didaktik marginaliseras i den aktuella debatten om skolan. Nya fynd inom hjärnforskningen lyfts fram av olika intressenter som lösningen på elevernas sjunkande kunskapsresultat, dock utan att relatera dessa fynd till mer grundläggande pedagogiska och didaktiska frågor. I vår presentation drar vi slutsatser kring vad resultatet innebär för lärare, elever och undervisning och vad som skulle behövas för att åstadkomma eventuella förändringar.

  • 39.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Marzano, Antonio
    University of Salerno.
    De Angelis, Marta
    University of Rome “Tor Vergata”.
    Decentralization tendencies and teacher evaluation policies in European countries.2016Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Persson, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Följeforskning av projektet Svenska 1 och svenska som andraspråk 1, Sven Eriksonsgymnasiet, Borås.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna slutrapport berör följeforskning av det av Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad delfinansierade Pilotprojektet Svenska 1 och Svenska som andraspråk 1. Projektet har genomförts på Sven Eriksonsgymnasiet i Borås under läsåret 2016/2017 och omfattat tre klasser i årskurs ett.

  • 41.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Persson, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Authority with an unclear position2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has previously addressed elements of school supervision and inspection and the practices of state authorities. For example, Ouston, Fidler and Earley (1997) have noticed that it is important how inspections and supervisions are carried out in terms of giving schools the possibilities to amend what has been identified as problematic. How countries organise supervision and inspection between authorities differ, but Ball (2007) in the UK and Apple (2005) in the US as well as Rönnberg (2012) in Sweden have noticed a discursive drift in how authorities present themselves, from a discourse with more emphasis on supervision, towards one with more emphasis on inspection. Here Sweden holds a certain position since the Swedish educational system since the mid 1990s, in a short time have turned from one of the most regulated to one of the most deregulated (Lundahl, 2002). In addition, the organisation of authorities and the function of authorities were reformed in a rapid pace.

  • 42.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Education and Transition - the Aspect of Newly Arrived Pupils2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Educational Spaces and Social Arenas - Photo Elicitation to Ecplore Pupils' Experience of School2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    How to Develop Inclusive Pedagogical Practices?: Identification of needs of in-service competencies through collaboration between rresearchers and practitioners2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The contemporary emphasis on diagnoses in education – a critical perspective2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research group RCIW is regularly involved in projects initiated and conducted by municipalities. A couple of these projects have enabled the understanding of what happens in local, educational practices when measures are taken to improve the conditions for students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a diagnosis getting high contemporary emphasis. The results from the municipal projects are supportive and encouraging. However, also some more worrying aspects of these have emerged, and found vital to examine. These critical aspects make up the focus for the planned presentation.

     

    Aim and research questions

    The presentation aims at shedding critical light on problematic elements of the contemporary attention to ASD diagnoses, from now on referred to as ‘the public ASD discourse’. It should be clarified that the mentioning of the current attention to ASD as a discourse does not mean a rejection of the diagnosis per se, only that a strengthened emphasis (as it seems) needs a critical eye.

     

    The research questions are:

    1)         What expressions are there for a public ASD discourse within local, educational practices?

    2)         What nourishes the discourse?

    3)         How do the consequences related to the discourse, in turn, relate to social (un-) sustainability?

     

    The empirical material produced within the two projects is rich and consists of focus group interviews (one set of interviews with five teacher teams in municipality A, two sets of interviews with five teacher teams in municipality B and two sets of interviews with five student health teams in municipality B), photo elicitation interviews with students diagnosed with ASD (six in municipality A and five in municipality B) remedial action plans (24 from municipality A) and a variety of field notes from formal and informal meetings.

     

    The theoretical frames guiding the analysis are collected both from the practice theorists Davide Nicolini and Stephen Kemmis, and from the sociologist of education Basil Bernstein. Kemmis’ theory of practice architecture makes it possible to capture three arrangements significant of a transformation process (see Kemmis et al. 2014), as in this case the municipal projects. The first type, cultural-discursive arrangements, are expressed in sayings and takes an interest in how the involved participants understand the ongoing transformation process. The second, economic-material arrangements, are expressed in doings and refers to what is being done within the projects. Finally, socio-political arrangements are expressed in relatings, and is examined in how the involved actors and students relate to each other, but also how they relate to artefacts such as the new legislation for the student group of concern. The presentation relies on an understanding of practice architectures as dynamic, where arrangements overlap and sometimes are mutually dependent.

     

    Nicolini supplies the concepts of zooming-in and zooming-out of a practice (see Nicolini, 2012). A zooming-in corresponds to the first research question, in which the presentation will take its start. The zooming-in here refers to the local practices and their expressions of the ASD diagnosis and its importance. Next, the presentation will move to a zooming-out in which it is examined from where the public ASD discourse gets its nutrition (second research question).

    Here, Bernstein’s (2000) conceptual set of different recontextualisation fields complements the zooming-out stage; the set will be used to refine and capture the variety of actors supporting the discourse. Included in this group of actors are policy documents, teacher union journals and other actors loosely or strongly involved in education. As a third and final step, a repeated zooming back will take place and in connection a reasoning on consequences for students in the local (and national) practices. Here, the unsustainable aspects of the diagnosis discourse will be discussed (research question 3).

     

    To give two examples of the findings, first, the results how that the discourse evokes a plethora of subcategories for the different varieties of autism and the different students. This vocabulary refers to the category of sayings (representative of cultural-discursive arrangements), in turn connected to a change in how the actors look upon students (socio-political arrangements). Second, the results show that several modifications of teaching activities are made (an expression of doings and representing economic-material arrangements) causing a potential lock-in effect for the students. These matters unfortunately run counter to the project management’s initial ambition of less segregation and increased academic success for the students. Finally, the presentation will provide insights in how some expressions and arrangements also run counter to paragraph 4.5 in the sustainable development goals.

     

    By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.

     

     

     

    References

    Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: theory, research, critique. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

     

    Kemmis, S., Wilkinson, J., Edwards-Groves, C., Hardy, I., Grootenboer, P. & Bristol, L. (2014). Changing Practices, Changing Education. Singapore: Springer Verlag.

    Nicolini, D. (2012). Practice theory, work, and organization: an introduction. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

     

     

  • 46.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The ‘neurological gaze ' on pupils - trailing its nourishers.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to shed light on contemporary expressions of a ‘neuorological gaze’ on pupils (Langager, 2014), and how the nourishment of these expressions can be understood. It proposes a connection to the conference theme by arguing that a ‘neurological gaze’ is easily incorporated into ‘intra-individual change’ discourses which, in contrast to ‘inter group-change’ discourses, can be considered unhelpful when it comes to social justice and education (Bernstein, 1990). The research on which the presentation draws is based on four municipal projects, which we as presenters have followed. All projects have an overarching aim to support and reinforce inclusion in their schools. Data include remedial action plans, focus group interviews with teacher teams, teachers' self reports, pupil interviews and municipal project documents. The theoretical framework is primarily informed by the theory of practice architectures (Kemmis et al. 2014). This theory is based on a division into three arrangements; cultural - discursive, material-economic and socio-political arrangements. These are all of interest to our study, and overlap, but the study of a neurological gaze implies a special interest in the cultural-discursive arrangements. As Nicolini (2012) argues, it is not enough to make a zooming in of local practices, as is the case in our study of the data. It is also important to zoom out and trail the nourishers of the gaze. For this we turned to Bernstein’s concept of recontextualisation (Bernstein 1990, 2000) and its set of recontextualisation fields. Actors representing this variety of fields are able to either contribute to a strengthened discourse or to undermine it. The concept of recontextualisation enabled our trailing of connections between the local field and others such as the pedagogical and the official field. Findings from our zooming in on the local practice show several expressions for a neurological gaze. Here, we find a faith in learning styles as well as in the need for pupils’ exercising their working memory. We also find arranged in-service development arrangements based on the idea of BrainGym. By zooming out and following the trail for what nourishes this gaze, we found that actors in all the recontextualisation fields contribute their part of nourishment. This means that publishers, professional development companies, teacher union journals and others strengthen the gaze. Normally, phenomena under recontextualisation are the object of a disharmonious process but the results of our study show that the neurological gaze is recontextualised in an unexpected harmony which in turn calls for a critical eye. Hacking (2004) argues that the first century after the millennium shift will be the century of the brain. Thus, a study from a Nordic perspective is of great concern since the Nordic countries by tradition have put weak faith in intra-individual approaches and stronger in sociological equity approaches.

    Bernstein, Basil (1990): Class, codes and control. Vol. 4, The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.

    Hacking, Ian. (2004, 24 juni): Minding the Brain. The New York Review of Books.

    Kemmis, Stephen, Wilkinson, Jane, Edwards- Groves, Christine, Hardy, Ian, Grootenboer, Peter & Bristol, Laurette. (2014). Changing Practices, Changing Education. Springer Verlag, Singapore.

    Langager, Søren (2014): Children and youth in behavioural and emotional difficulties, skyrocketing diagnosis and inclusion/exclusion processes in school tendencies in Denmark. Emotional and Behavioural Differences 19(3), 284-295.

    Nicolini, Davide (2012). Practice theory, work, and organization: an introduction. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press 

  • 47.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    When problems are located to their brains.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ljungblad, Bertil
    Kungsbacka stad.
    Samforskning i projektet Introduktionsteam – Rutiner för mottagande av nyanlända elever i Kungsbacka kommun.2017Report (Other academic)
1 - 48 of 48
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