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  • 1.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne
    Chalmers.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    The Effects of Integrated IT Support on the Prehospital Stroke Process: Results from a Realistic Experiment2019Ingår i: Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research, ISSN 2509-4971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is a serious condition and the stroke chain of care is a complex. The present study aims to explore the impact of a computerised decision support system (CDSS) for the prehospital stroke process, with focus on work processes and performance. The study used an exploratory approach with a randomised controlled crossover design in a realistic contextualised simulation experiment. The study compared clinical performance among 11 emergency medical services (EMS) teams of 22 EMS clinicians using (1) a computerised decision support system (CDSS) and (2) their usual paper-based process support. Data collection consisted of video recordings, postquestionnaires and post-interviews, and data were analysed using a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. In this experiment, using a CDSS improved patient assessment, decision making and compliance to process recommendations. Minimal impact of the CDSS was found on EMS clinicians’ self-efficacy, suggesting that even though the system was found to be cumbersome to use it did not have any negative effects on self-efficacy. Negative effects of the CDSS include increased on-scene time and a cognitive burden of using the system, affecting patient interaction and collaboration with team members. The CDSS’s overall process advantage to the prehospital stroke process is assumed to lead to a prehospital care that is both safer and of higher quality. The key to user acceptance of a system such as this CDSS is the relative advantages of improved documentation process and the resulting patient journal. This could improve the overall prehospital stroke process.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Gabre, Marita
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Dehre, Andreas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Simulation in Virtual World to Promote Communication2018Ingår i: Pre-hospital care- Education and training of ambulance professionals, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Communication between ambulance professionals and patients is essential for understanding the patient's lifeworld (Wireklint Sundström & Dahlberg 2010). Simultaneously, communication is challenging to teach and learn within the framework of specific courses. However, simulation in virtual worlds can support the development of new skills such as communication (Combs, Sokolowski & Banks 2016).

     

    Aim

    The aim of this work was to design a simulation-based platform for communication training among ambulance nurse students (ANS).

     

    Methods

    A qualitative action research approach was used (Coghlan & Casey 2001). Second Life® (SL) was selected since it was an existing virtual world. SL is a web-based flexible three-dimensional platform that allows customization. Interaction and communication with other virtual people can be done through avatars in real time (Hodge, Collins & Giordano 2011). Three ANS and five teachers participated, none of the participants had prior experience of SL. Observations and interviews were used as data and analysed using thematic analysis.

     

    Results

    The participants’ experiences generated three themes:

     

    Understanding the virtual world

    It was easy to interact and communicate with other virtual people. However, it took time to feel comfortable to navigate in SL.

     

    Technological challenges

    One challenge was related to audio-visual problems e.g. not compatible headset, interfering echoes and that the image was distorted at times, which made it difficult to act and move the avatar. Another challenge was associated with the 3D modelling e.g. the capability to use of coordinates, positioning, object dimensioning and the fact that accidental deletions could not be restored. A third challenges that influenced the communication was the difficulty of visualizing clinically relevant care measures such as diagnostic examinations or drug treatment. Finally, there was a challenge to customize the avatars to look like ambulance professionals or a severely ill patient.

     

    Learning through avatars

    Learning through avatars requires that the participants take responsibility for delivering a convincing performance.  Immersion was limited since actions do not take place from a first-person viewpoint. There is a need that the scenario is based on realistic conditions e.g. interiors, equipment, clothing, avatar appearance and behaviour.

     

    Conclusion

    The present system is not suitable for training of medical assessment. Teachers who are considering using virtual worlds in the training for future ambulance professionals should note that an appropriate design is crucial for how the simulation is experienced.  

  • 3.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Gabre, Marita
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Dehre, Andreas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Simulation in Virtual World to Promote Communication2018Ingår i: Pre-hospital care- Education and training of ambulance professionals, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Communication between ambulance professionals and patients is essential for understanding the patient's lifeworld (Wireklint Sundström & Dahlberg 2010). Simultaneously, communication is challenging to teach and learn within the framework of specific courses. However, simulation in virtual worlds can support the development of new skills such as communication (Combs, Sokolowski & Banks 2016).

     

    Aim

    The aim of this work was to design a simulation-based platform for communication training among ambulance nurse students (ANS).

     

    Methods

    A qualitative action research approach was used (Coghlan & Casey 2001). Second Life® (SL) was selected since it was an existing virtual world. SL is a web-based flexible three-dimensional platform that allows customization. Interaction and communication with other virtual people can be done through avatars in real time (Hodge, Collins & Giordano 2011). Three ANS and five teachers participated, none of the participants had prior experience of SL. Observations and interviews were used as data and analysed using thematic analysis.

     

    Results

    The participants’ experiences generated three themes:

     

    Understanding the virtual world

    It was easy to interact and communicate with other virtual people. However, it took time to feel comfortable to navigate in SL.

     

    Technological challenges

    One challenge was related to audio-visual problems e.g. not compatible headset, interfering echoes and that the image was distorted at times, which made it difficult to act and move the avatar. Another challenge was associated with the 3D modelling e.g. the capability to use of coordinates, positioning, object dimensioning and the fact that accidental deletions could not be restored. A third challenges that influenced the communication was the difficulty of visualizing clinically relevant care measures such as diagnostic examinations or drug treatment. Finally, there was a challenge to customize the avatars to look like ambulance professionals or a severely ill patient.

     

    Learning through avatars

    Learning through avatars requires that the participants take responsibility for delivering a convincing performance.  Immersion was limited since actions do not take place from a first-person viewpoint. There is a need that the scenario is based on realistic conditions e.g. interiors, equipment, clothing, avatar appearance and behaviour.

     

    Conclusion

    The present system is not suitable for training of medical assessment. Teachers who are considering using virtual worlds in the training for future ambulance professionals should note that an appropriate design is crucial for how the simulation is experienced.  

  • 4.
    Andersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Clinical reasoning in the emergency medical services: an integrative review2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Clinical reasoning is the process of gathering and understanding information conducted by clinicians in the emergency medical services (EMS) so as to make informed decisions. Research on clinical reasoning spans several disciplines, but a comprehensive view of the process is lacking. To our knowledge, no review of clinical reasoning in the EMS has been conducted.

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the nature, deployment, and factors influencing EMS clinicians’ clinical reasoning by means of a review.

    Method: Data was collected through searches in electronic databases, networking among research teams ,colleagues and friends, “grey literature,” and through ancestry searches. A total of 38 articles were deemed eligible for inclusion and were analyzed using descriptive thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in an overarching finding -namely, the importance for EMS clinicians to adjust for perceived control in unpredictable situations. Within this finding, 3 themes emerged in terms of EMS clinicians’ clinical reasoning: (1) maintaining a holistic view of the patient; (2) keeping an open mind; and (3) improving through criticism. Seven subthemes subsequently emerged from these three themes.

    Results: This review showed that EMS clinicians’ clinical reasoning begins with the information that they are given about a patient. Based on this information, clinicians calculate the best route to the patient and which equipment to use, and they also assess potential risks. They need to be constantly aware of what is happening on the scene and with the patient and strive to control the situation. This striving also enables EMS clinicians to work safely and effectively in relation to the patient, their relatives, other clinicians, associated organizations, and the wider community. A lack of contextually appropriate guidelines results in the need for creativity and forces EMS clinicians to use “workarounds” to solve issues beyond the scope of the guidelines available. In addition, they often lack organizational support and fear repercussions such as litigation, unemployment, or blame by their EMS or healthcare organization or by patients and relatives.

    Conclusion: Clinical reasoning is influenced by several factors. Further research is needed to determine which influencing factors can be addressed through interventions to minimize their impact on patient outcomes.

  • 5. Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Engström, Henrik
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-Playing in Prehospital Care Training2015Ingår i: 2015 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), Skövde, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a field experiment with 12 paramedic teams (n=24) exploring how they perceive a novel training approach. The feeling of being engaged in training (i.e. being immersed) is often held forward as a major benefit of roleplaying exercises. Engagement is expected to raise the quality of training as well as improving learning and retention. However, much simulation-based training in prehospital care is decontextualized, meaning that medical care is trained without taking other characteristics of prehospital care into account. In this paper we investigate how a richer setting (contextualization), which includes more of the complicating aspects of prehospital care, affects the perceived immersion of the participants. The results show that contextualization has a significant positive impact on perceived immersion. These results are important for further studies on how to organize and design role-playing exercises.

  • 6.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi..
    Engström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi..
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi..
    Lebram, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi..
    Danielsson, Magnus
    Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this. Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

  • 7.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Heldal, I
    Söderström, E
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Pre-hospital training and simulation initiative2014Ingår i: Society in Europe for Simulation Applied to MedicineArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 8. Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Heldal, Ilona
    Söderström, Ewa
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Vårdvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Vårdvetenskap.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Pre-hospital training and simulation initiative2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The pre-hospital process is a complex one involving aspects such as medical skills as well as care taking, team performance, inter-organizational cooperation and communication. This calls for novel training methods and technology support. Our review of literature (covering the areas of pre-hospital care, training simulator technologies and methods and process modelling) indicates that the different aspects are typically trained in isolation, e.g. medical skills using patient simulators.Objective The pre-hospital training center project addresses the overall complexity of the pre-hospital process by taking all of the aspects into account when designing scenarios and technology support for training the complete prehospital process (covering alarm, on-scene activities, transportation and hand-over). This is indeed a challenging task as we need to develop both training methods and technology support for a very complex training situation.Methods The project will develop a prototype scenario along with technology support to enact it. The training scenario will involve many of the aspects listed above and will be tested in a field experiment with ambulance personnel. Results The expected outcome of the project is a platform for establishing a pre-hospital simulation and training center. The initial technologies, research results and experiences will be used to form a consortium for further work and development. Conclusions We have identified a need for a pre-hospital training center with the unique and ambitious idea of covering the entire pre-hospital process as well as its many interacting aspects. To the best of our knowledge this approach is not at all common and we expect the complexity to be so high that it is a challenging enough research area that can only be addressed if we have a well-designed simulation and training center in place with all the different areas of knowledge represented, i.e. pre-hospital medicine as well as simulation and visualization technology.

  • 9. Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Engström, Henrik
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lebram, Mikael
    Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance2018Ingår i: Simulation & Gaming, artikel-id 1046878118772612Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

    Methods: The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

    Results: Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

  • 10. Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Backlund, Per
    Lebram, Mikael
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Sterner, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    The impact of contextualization on immersion in healthcare simulation2016Ingår i: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how contextualization of a healthcare simulation scenarios impacts immersion, by using a novel objective instrument, the Immersion Score Rating Instrument. This instrument consists of 10 triggers that indicate reduced or enhanced immersion among participants in a simulation scenario. Triggers refer to events such as jumps in time or space (sign of reduced immersion) and natural interaction with the manikin (sign of enhanced immersion) and can be used to calculate an immersion score.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Tanja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    ACTION: A Person-centred Communication Intervention Targeting Nurse Assistants in Home Care for Older Persons2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aging population and the number of older persons living at home are increasing. Some have extensive needs for care, which leads to increased demands on professionals in home care settings. Professionals’ need to have sufficient competency to promote health and wellbeing among older persons. For sustainable care, there is a need for efficient educational efforts in the home care context. Person-centred communication may increase the quality of care and improve older persons independence.

    Aim: To develop, test and evaluate a web based educational intervention on person-centred communication targeting nurse assistants (NA) in home care setting.

    Method: A stepwise web based education, consisting of eight modules, was developed and tested. The education was evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative data.

    Results: In all, 23 NAs participated in the education. The majority of the NAs (n=21) participated in five or more modules. Overall, the education was experienced as feasible and accessible. Challenges emerged during the time of the intervention, such as time constrains, technical problems, and participants´ engagement.

    Conclusion: The web-based education was found to be a feasible way to offer education to home care staff, although successful implementation requires adaptations to the current context. Engagement from managers, especially considering the NAs motivation to complete the education is important for accomplishment by participants.

    Implications: This study can contribute to the knowledge regarding how to develop, test and evaluate an educational intervention, and considerations found to be important during the implementation process for success.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Tanja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    The Development and Process Evaluation of the ACTION Study. A Person-centred Communication Intervention Targeting Nursing Staff in Home Care for Older Persons2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centred communication is important to assure the quality of home care services and to promote older persons independence and influence over their lives. Previous research indicates challenges regarding communication between professionals and home care recipients, and how to deliver efficient educational efforts in the home care context. Hitherto, research on design and implementation of this type of intervention is scarce.

    Aims and objectives: To describe the development and process evaluation of an education intervention in person-centred communication for nursing staff (NS) in home care.

    Method: The web-based education consisted of eight modules, including short video based lectures and movies, one group supervision, and reflective assignments. The content was based on previous research of health care communication and person-centred care. Data was collected from multiple sources (web analytics, interviews, evaluation forms, and field notes), before, during and after the implementation, and analysed by a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches.

    Results: In all, 23 NS participated in the education. Initial analysis indicate that a majority of the participants completed six or more modules. Overall, the content was experienced as relevant and interesting. The flexibility and accessibility of the web-based format was appreciated, as well as the mix of lectures, short movies, reflective assignments and group supervision. Challenges included developing content relevant to work teams with diverse competence levels and individual differences (e.g. age, language, motivation). Furthermore, time constrains and structure of work emerged as barriers for implementing the education, in some cases adding stress and fragmentation to NS´ work.

    Conclusions: This type of intervention seems to be a feasible approach for flexible educations in person-centred communication for NS. Engagement and commitment from managers and team leaders may be key factors in succeeding, with impact on participants´ motivation to fulfil the education.

  • 13.
    Lassi, Monica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Teaching social media in LIS: A bridging approach2011Ingår i: Information Science and Social Media. Proceedings of the Internation Conference Information Science and Social Media ISSOME 2011. August 24-26, Åbo/Turku, Finland / [ed] Isto Huvila, Kim Holmberg, Maria Kronqvist-Berg, Åbo Akademi University , 2011, s. 189-193Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Sterner, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Engström, Henrik
    Heldal, Ilona
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Evaluation of immersion in high fidelity simulation2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Maurin, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Sonnenwald, Diane H.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Cairns, Bruce
    Manning, James E.
    Freid, Eugene B.
    Fuchs, Henry
    Exploring gender differences in perceptions of 3D telepresence collaboration technology: An example from emergency medical care.2006Ingår i: Proceedings of 4th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, ACM Press , 2006, s. 381-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on gender differences and collaboration technology illustrate the need to investigate gender issues as early as possible in the development cycle in order to avoid any negative consequences the technology may impose. Therefore we are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence technology now when only a proof-of-concept demonstration of the technology exists. We conducted a controlled lab study using a post-test design in which male and female paramedics diagnosed and treated a trauma victim (a computerized mannequin) in collaboration with a physician via 2D video or a 3D proxy. The results show several gender differences that imply male paramedics may inherently receive more benefits from use of the 3D telepresence technology than female paramedics.

  • 16.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Emergency visualized: exploring visual technology for paramedic-physician collaboration in emergency care2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the potential of visual information and communication technologies (ICTs) for collaboration in emergency care. The thesis consists of four studies exploring future technology, 3D telepresence technology for medical consultation (3DMC), from several different methodological and analytical perspectives. Together the studies provide a broad view of the potential benefits, risks and implications of using visual technologies for collaboration in emergency care. The results show that paramedic-physician collaboration via 3DMC might have some benefits for patient care, both in the immediate patient care situation and beyond, for example, when coordinating transport and resources; improving understanding between different actors; and in developing paramedic competence and confidence in their skills. However, collaboration is heavily impacted by physicians’ and paramedics’ respective work practices which are situated in very different physical, professional and organizational contexts. Adding a visual dimension to this collaboration presents unique challenges for the overall design, development, implementation, and appropriation process. Thus, the thesis emphasizes the importance of understanding both the individual users as well as the complex overall image which, although often neglected or ignored, is crucial to understand when developing and introducing new technology that is successful and justified in the overall context while also being useful and meaningful for the individual users.

  • 17.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Backlund, Per
    School of Informatics, University of Skövde.
    Bergman, Johanna
    PICTA - Prehospital ICT Arena, Lindholmen Science Park AB.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne
    Biomedical Signals and Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Research challenges in prehospital care: the need for a simulation-based prehospital research laboratory.2019Ingår i: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 4, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for improved research in the field of prehospital care. At the same time, there are many barriers in prehospital research due to the complex context, posing unique challenges for research, development, and evaluation. The present paper argues for the potential of simulation for prehospital research, e.g., through the development of an advanced simulation-based prehospital research laboratory. However, the prehospital context is different from other healthcare areas, which implies special requirements for the design of this type of laboratory, in terms of simulation width (including the entire prehospital work process) and depth (level of scenario detail). A set of features pertaining to simulation width, scenario depth, equipment, and personnel and competence are proposed. Close tailoring between these features and the prehospital research problems and context presents great potential to improve and further prehospital research.

  • 18.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Lassi, Monica
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Nolin, Jan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    “You guys who download stuff illegally, don’t you ever feel guilty?”: Initial analysis of changes in practices and values among Swedish illegal file sharers 2007-20122013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reports on the practices of illegal file sharing in Sweden during the period 2007-2012. More than 1.000 posts in response to the question “You guys who download stuff illegally, don’t you ever feel guilty?” where analyzed with regard to the respondents’ expressed senses of guilt, whether file sharing was right or wrong, if they buy media, together with dimensions of stakeholders and media genres. Preliminary results suggest that no changes in feelings of guilt were detected during the time period. However, more posts report to now buy media, while at there at the same time seem to be an increase in posts expressing file sharing, despite its current illegal status, is a right thing to do. A qualitative analysis is needed to further understand the complexity of current changes in file sharers justifications for what content to acquire through illegal file sharing, what they choose to pay for – and why.

  • 19.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Sonnenwald, Diane H.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Cairns, Bruce
    Manning, James E.
    Welch, Greg F.
    Fuchs, Henry
    Exploring the potential of video technologies for collaboration in emergency medical care: Part II. Task performance2008Ingår i: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 59, nr 14, s. 2335-2349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted an experiment with a posttest, between-subjects design to evaluate the potential of emerging 3D telepresence technology to support collaboration in emergency health care. 3D telepresence technology has the potential to provide richer visual information than do current 2D video conferencing techniques. This may be of benefit in diagnosing and treating patients in emergency situations where specialized medical expertise is not locally available. The experimental design and results concerning information behavior are presented in the article “Exploring the Potential of Video Technologies for Collaboration in Emergency Medical Care: Part I. Information Sharing” (Sonnenwald et al., this issue). In this article, we explore paramedics' task performance during the experiment as they diagnosed and treated a trauma victim while working alone or in collaboration with a physician via 2D videoconferencing or via a 3D proxy. Analysis of paramedics' task performance shows that paramedics working with a physician via a 3D proxy performed the fewest harmful interventions and showed the least variation in task performance time. Paramedics in the 3D proxy condition also reported the highest levels of self-efficacy. Interview data confirm these statistical results. Overall, the results indicate that 3D telepresence technology has the potential to improve paramedics' performance of complex medical tasks and improve emergency trauma health care if designed and implemented appropriately.

  • 20.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Sonnenwald, Diane H.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Cairns, Bruce
    Manning, James E.
    Welch, Greg F.
    Fuchs, Henry
    The potential impact of 3D telepresence technology on task performance in emergency trauma care2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Nolin, Jan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Klang, Mathias
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Lassi, Monica
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Spontaneous reactions to an anti-piracy initiative: A Youtube clip micro analysis2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study we analyzed the traces of spontaneous reactions of Youtube users when confronted with the short clip ’You wouldn’t Steal a Car’, that was used by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) to influence people not to download copyrighted material from the Internet. This film has become an important cultural icon, which to a certain degree has shaped a whole generation of film viewers. The aim of this study was to provide an example of how anti piracy initiatives are received and understood by the receivers of the message. This was performed by collecting and analyzing the users spontaneous reactions as entered as comments on the Youtube page for the clip by qualitatively categorizing the contents using a bottom up approach. The results suggest that people practicing Internet-based culture consumption (IBCC) do this in more nuanced ways than is assumed in the film, where they are polarized as either “common thieves” or “good citizens”.

  • 22. Reisdorf, Bianca Christin
    et al.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Living Offline: A Qualitative Study of Internet Non-Use in Great Britain and Sweden2012Ingår i: Selected Papers of Internet Research; IR 13, Association of Internet Researchers , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores and compares attitudes and feelings of middle-aged British and Swedish Internet non-users as well as their reasons for being offline. The rich qualitative data are conceptualized and presented according to various reasons for non-use, positive and negative feelings regarding non-use, and the positive as well as negative influence of and dependence on social networks. The comparison shows both unique and common perceptions of the British and Swedish respondents, some of which can be attributed to social, economic, or socio-economic factors. However, it also displays vast differences between middle-aged non-users in both countries. The analysis paints a complex picture of decisions for and against the use of the Internet and the need for more research to understand these highly complex phenomena, which cannot simply be attributed to socio-economic backgrounds as has been done in most previous research. The analysis shows that more complex reasons, such as lack of interest or discomfort with technologies, as well as the somewhat surprising finding that social networks can prevent non-users from learning how to use the Internet, as it is more convenient to stay a proxy-user, should be considered in future research and policies regarding digital inequalities.

  • 23. Sonnenwald, D.H.
    et al.
    Söderholm, H.M
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Welch, G.F.
    Cairns, B.A.
    Manning, J.E.
    Fuchs, H
    Illuminating collaboration in emergency health care situations: paramedic-physician collaboration and 3D telepresence technology2014Ingår i: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 19, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. This paper focuses on paramedics' perspectives regarding paramedic-physician collaboration today, and their perspectives regarding the potential of 3D telepresence technology in the future. Method. Interviews were conducted with forty practicing paramedics. Analysis. The interview data were analysed using open and axial coding. An agreement of 0.82 using Cohen's kappa inter-coder reliability measure was reached. After coding was completed themes and relationships among codes were synthesised using topic memos. Results. Paramedics expressed concern about the lack of respect and trust exhibited towards them by other medical professionals. They discussed how they paint the picture for physicians and the importance of the physician trusting the paramedic. They further reported 3D telepresence technology would make their work visible in ways not previously possible. They also reported the technology would require additional training, changes to existing financial models used in emergency health care, and increased access to physicians. Conclusions. Teaching collaboration skills and strategies to physicians and paramedics could benefit their collaboration today, and increase their readiness to effectively use collaboration technologies in the future.

  • 24.
    Sonnenwald, Diane H.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Maurin, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Cairns, Bruce
    Manning, James E.
    Freid, Eugene B.
    Welch, Greg F.
    Fuchs, Henry
    Experimental comparison of 2D and 3D technology mediated paramedic-physician collaboration in remote emergency medical situations2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the 69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Information Science & Technoligy (ASIS&T) / [ed] A. Grove, American Society for Information Science and Technology , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence technology to support collaboration among geographically separated medical personnel in trauma emergency care situations. 3D telepresence technology has the potential to provide richer visual information than current 2D video conferencing techniques. This may be of benefit in diagnosing and treating patients in emergency situations where specialized medical expertise is not locally available. We conducted an experimental evaluation, simulating an emergency medical situation and examining the interaction between the attending paramedic and remote, consulting physician. Post-questionnaire data illustrate that the information provided by the consulting physician was perceived to be more useful by the paramedic in the 3D condition than the 2D condition. However, the data pertaining to the quality of interaction and trust between the consulting physician and paramedic showed mixed results. The implications of these results are discussed.

  • 25.
    Sonnenwald, Diane H.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Cairns, Bruce
    Manning, James E.
    Freid, Eugene B.
    Welch, Greg F.
    Fuchs, Henry
    Exploring the potential of video technologies for collaboration in emergency medical care: Part I. Information sharing2008Ingår i: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 59, nr 14, s. 2320-2334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We are investigating the potential of 3D telepresence, or televideo, technology to support collaboration among geographically separated medical personnel in trauma emergency care situations. 3D telepresence technology has the potential to provide richer visual information than current 2D videoconferencing techniques. This may be of benefit in diagnosing and treating patients in emergency situations where specialized medical expertise is not locally available. The 3D telepresence technology does not yet exist, and there is a need to understand its potential before resources are spent on its development and deployment. This poses a complex challenge. How can we evaluate the potential impact of a technology within complex, dynamic work contexts when the technology does not yet exist? To address this challenge, we conducted an experiment with a posttest, between-subjects design that takes the medical situation and context into account. In the experiment, we simulated an emergency medical situation involving practicing paramedics and physicians, collaborating remotely via two conditions: with today's 2D videoconferencing and a 3D telepresence proxy. In this article, we examine information sharing between the attending paramedic and collaborating physician. Postquestionnaire data illustrate that the information provided by the physician was perceived to be more useful by the paramedic in the 3D proxy condition than in the 2D condition; however, data pertaining to the quality of interaction and trust between the collaborating physician and paramedic show mixed results. Postinterview data help explain these results.

  • 26.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Gustafsson, Tanja
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Holmström, I K
    ACTION - A person-centred communication intervention in home care of older persons2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Söderholm Maurin, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Sonnenwald, Diane
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Visioning Future Emergency Healthcare Collaboration: Perspectives From Large and Small Medical Centers2010Ingår i: Journal of The American Society For Information Science And Technology, ISSN 1532-2882, E-ISSN 1532-2890, Vol. 61, nr 9, s. 1808-1823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New video technologies are emerging to facilitate collaboration in emergency healthcare. One such technology is 3D telepresence technology for medical consultation (3DMC) that may provide richer visual information to support collaboration between medical professionals to, ideally, enhance patient care in real time. Today only an early prototype of 3DMC exists. To better understand 3DMC's potential for adoption and use in emergency healthcare before large amounts of development resources are invested we conducted a visioning study. That is, we shared our vision of 3DMC with emergency room physicians, nurses, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals working at large and small medical centers, and asked them to share their perspectives regarding 3DMC's potential benefits and disadvantages in emergency healthcare and its compatibility and/or lack thereof with their and their organization's current ways of working. We found that social and technical challenges can be identified regarding new innovations even before working prototypes are available. The compatibility of 3DMC with current ways of working was conceptualized by participants in terms of processes, relationships, and resources. Both common and unique perceptions regarding 3DMC emerged, illustrating the need for 3DMC, and other collaboration technologies, to support interwoven situational awareness across different technological frames.

  • 28. Söderström, Eva
    et al.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Backlund, Per
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap / Bibliotekshögskolan.
    Combining Work Process Models to Identify Training Needs in the Prehospital Care Process2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prehospital process is complex and covers a wide range of locations, healthcare personnel, technologies and competences. Enabling high quality holistic training is hence a challenge. Process models are efficient tools for representing reality, but no single modeling approach can cover the complexity of prehospital care. In our research, we have investigated the possibility to combine various process modeling techniques in order to identify training components and as many perspectives of the prehospital process as possible. Results show that combining different approaches and adapting them based on the need at hand is a successful strategy for enabling an of the prehospital care process from multiple perspectives, including identification of holistic, realistic and engaging training components. Future work can utilize our results to build training scenarios that can be implemented in training using for example simulation.

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