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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Siw
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Gunnarsson, Emanuel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lindholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Three-dimensional multilayer fabric structures for interactive textiles2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The integration of performances in interactive textile fabric system has so far been rather complicated since they are based on multilayer or three-dimensional principles. These structures are today mainly put together by means of several processes, which is laborious and time consuming. In this interdisciplinary study we have combined the principle of a three-dimensional multilayer weaving process and interactive textiles structures in order to enable the manufacturing of interactive textile structure in one process. The process is investigated using a manual reconstructed loom and the approach has been to use the 3D structures in order to integrate and organize conductive and compressive spacer layers as a textile capacitive structure. Measurements on such a structure was done by construction a first order passive high pass filter and using the fabric sample as the capacitor and a 1MΩ resistor. The behavior of the measurement of the capacitive sensor is quite close to the theoretical calculation and already at this stage the structure might be used to indicate the presence of a pressure. In this project we have shown that a three-dimensional structure enables the development of interactive textiles in one process. Further the concept of using a rebuilt manual loom has shown great potential in early research stages. It is considerable saving time and resources since, in this case, it is easy to reconstruct the loom design compared to performing similar reconstruction on a machine. Future research will focus on developing other types of interactive structures. Another issue will be to scale down the size of the structures in order to get thinner and more flexible qualities.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Siw
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Gunnarsson, Emanuel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lindholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tredimensionell vävteknik med möjliga tillämpningar inom medicinsk teknik2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Integreringen av interaktiva egenskaper i teknisk textil har rönt stort intresse inom textil-forskningen de senaste åren. Med interaktiva textila strukturer avses textila system som interagerar med sin omgivning i någon mening. Ett sätt att åtadkomma dessa interaktiva strukturer är att foga samman lager av olika struktur eller material där varje lager tillför textilen/det textila systemet olika egenskaper. Det typiska tillvägagångssättet för att sammanfoga olika lager av textila material är att använda någon form av lamineringsteknik. Föreliggande projekt rör en ny vävteknik som möjliggör att flera textila lager med olika egenskaper vävs samman i en och samma process utan de tillsatser eller extra hantering som krävs vid laminering. Utöver de uppenbara produktionstekniska fördelarna möjliggör kombinationen av olika egenskaper i en lagerstruktur också att speciella krav på slutprodukten lättare kan tillgodoses. Det medicintekniska området förväntas ha stor nytta av textila strukturer som kan utformas i tre dimensioner eller kombinera olika egenskaper i en och samma struktur. Syftet är att demonstrera hur en nyutvecklad vävteknik för tredimensionella strukturer kan tillämpas för att tillverka interaktiva textila strukturer i en och samma tillverkningsprocess. I detta delprojekt har den tredimensionella tekniken använts för att utveckla en kapacitiv struktur utformad helt i textil. Genom mindre modifieringar av och tillägg till en 16-skaftad datorstyrd manuell prototypvävstol har två ledande och ett isolerande skikt kombinerats för att realisera en textilbaserad kondensator. I ett första test realiserades ett enkelt högpassfilter med den kapacitiva textila strukturen som kondensator. Filtrets egenskaper visade sig väl följa den förväntade filterkarakteristiken. Den nyutvecklade tredimensionella vävtekniken förväntas ha stora tillämpningsmöjligheter inom det medicintekniska området.

  • 3.
    Gunnarsson, Emanuel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Karlsteen, Magnus
    Contact resistance measurements on multifilament silver yarn2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Guo, L
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Soroudi, A.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, L.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, H.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, H.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fibre-based single-wire keyboard: the integration of a flexible tactile sensor into e-textiles2011In: AUTEX Research Journal, ISSN 1470-9589, E-ISSN 2300-0929, Vol. 11, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Smart clothing system for respiratory monitoring: wearability and user acceptance study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functionality, wearability, and user acceptance are critical issues for the development and eventual commercialization of the smart products. The use of smart clothing for medical reasons requires an understanding of the users’ perspective and the willingness to use the products. In this study, a smart clothing system has been developed for respiratory monitoring. Besides the functionality, the wearability from users' perspective has been considered though the design phases. Wearability and user acceptance have been examined by two questionnaires. Results shown the smart clothing system improves comfort and wearability compared with the ordinary respiratory monitoring device and most of the participants believe that using a smart clothing system will improve both health condition and quality of life.

  • 6.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bresky, Erik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electroconductive textiles and textile-based electromechanical sensors — integration in as an approach for smart textiles2016In: Smart Textiles and their Applications / [ed] Vladan Koncar, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2016, 1, p. 657-693Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unification of textiles and electrics opens up many interesting possibilities for sensorics, actuation, energy transport, energy storage, and information transport. Electrics need conductive structures. Industrially knittable and weavable filaments and yarns are in this chapter overviewed in a typology of seven classes. These are the basics for the integration in approach that is put forward as a concept for successful production of smart textiles.Integration means that a "device" is (1) made by a textile production process and (2) made as a textile. We focus on smart textiles for mechanical sensoring that give an electrical output as these embrace such basic quantities as position, movement, speed, acceleration, elongation, forces, pressure, and vibration. Cases of mechanical sensors are demonstrated based on piezoelectricity and capacitive techniques. It is shown that these are promising technologies for smart textiles in general and the integration approach specifically.

  • 7.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Conductive coated force sensor in cargo transportation security system2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Knitted strain sensor for respiration measurement: The Improvement of Sensor Characteristics by Intarsia Knitting2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Test and Evaluation of Textile based Stretch Sensors2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has focused on test and evaluation of three different textile sensors. The project includes the development of sensors, the exploration of suitable measurement methods and devices and finally the evaluation of the sensors according to three different applications. Four results were given in order to characterize sensor performance and to verify the effective working ranges. Further the sensors were integrated in three applications such as force sensor, breath sensor and movement sensor in order to test the sensor functionality by application. Future research orientation has suggested by the end of the paper.

  • 10.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Improvement of Electro-Mechanical Properties of Strain Sensors made of elastic-conductive hybrid yarns2012In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 82, no 19, p. 1937-1947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fabric-based strain sensors have been developed using different technologies, among which flat knitting is one of the most effective and economical methods. However, knitted strain sensors are not often used in practical applications because the sensors usually exhibit large elastic hysteresis when they are deformed and subjected to stress during application. One possible approach to overcome these shortcomings is to introduce elastic properties at the yarn level by combining the conductive materials with elastic materials. In this paper, we demostrate a hybrid yarn made of a conductive yarn that winds around an elastic core yarn in a direct twisting device. The electro-mechanical properties of strain sensors knitted from the hybrid yarns were tested in order to characterize the sensors. This study consisted of two stages: the yarn preparation and the sensor characterization. In the first stage, two kinds of elastic core components (polyamide/Lycra and polyamide) and two kinds of conductive winding yarns (Bekinox BK50/1 and Bekinox BK50/2) were selected for twisting. The twisting was done with a constant twisting speed and four different numbers of twists. Mechanical properties, that is, the tenacity, force at break and elongation at break, were tested in order to determine the optimal parameters for producing the hybrid yarns. The results indicated that among the tested yarns those with a polyamide core and Bekinox BK50/1 winding yarns at 450 twist/meter and with a polyamide/Lycra core and Bekinox BK 50/2 winding yarns at 600 twist/meter had the best properties. These were thus selected as the materials for producing knitted strain sensors. In the second stage, electro-mechanical properties of the knitted strain sensors were determined under tensile stress and multi-cyclic tensile stress. The results show that the hybrid yarns can effectively enhance the

  • 11.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile Strain Sensors Characterization- Sensitivity, Linearity, Stability and Hysteresis2010In: Nordic Textile Journal, no 2, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper 4 different textile based strain sensors for measuring different level of strains were presented. Sensor consist a conductive part formed by coating or weaving technique. Both elastic and inelastic textile substrates were selected to achieve the required stains in applications. Sensor configuration was characterized using a tensile tester and measuring the resistance parallel by microprocessor. A linear working range with transfer function of each sensor was found. Coated sensor gives a good stability, while woven sensor was relative less stable. Inelastic textile substrate reduces the hysteresis error caused by refraction and construction of materials. The sensitivities were between 2.5 to 9 vary with different sensors. This paper finished by a discussion of how to choose sensors with different applications, among which sensor function and processability are most important aspects to be considering.

  • 12.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mehrjerdi, Adib
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Disappearing Sensors. Textile Based Sensors for Monitoring Breathing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile based sensors were developed and used for remote monitoring of breathing. The breathing is simulated by using a new cyclic tester device. In the simulated a cyclic force is applied along the length of the textile sensor. However due to the morphology of human body, in real situation the sensor is not only under stretching but also under a certain degree of bending. A prototype garment with the sensor situated on the chest area was made. The prototype was worn by 10 persons, and breathing was recorded as the persons were sitting still, walking and jogging. Deep breathing in the supine position and breathing with a method called athletic breathing were used to evaluate the sensor. A testing circuit and a Labview program were made for preliminary test. The sensor is wearable, washable and comfortable. Sensor construction is totally ‘disappearing’ and visualize as printed pattern onto the surface of garment.

  • 13.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Design of a Garments-Based Sensing System for Breathing Monitoring2013In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 85, no No 5, p. 499-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term monitoring of biophysiological signals requires new types of sensor systems that are wearable and at the same time convenient for the users. This paper describes the design of a novel garment-based sensing system for the long-term monitoring of breathing rhythm. The system concept was realized in a prototype garment, integrated with coated piezoresistive sensors. The prototype garment was tested by five subjects, and compared with a standard piezoelectric respiratory belt. Each signal was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated in the time and frequency domain to make sure that no medical and diagnostic information was lost. The results showed a good agreement between the garment-based sensors and the standard reference, where errors occurred only when the breathing rate was extremely high. The garment-based sensor system could also distinguish the predominance breathing compartment (chest versus abdominal breathing). The system could detect a 10 s pause in breathing, which could be of importance in studies of sleep apnea. A garment-based sensing system maintains the accuracy of the signal quality without reducing the comfort for the user. It makes possible long-term ambulatory monitoring and has home-based healthcare applications.

  • 14.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Smart textiles .
    Eriksson, Siw
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    3D Composite Textile Characteristics Relevant in Pressure Ulcer Management2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Effective ulcer management requires the wound to be in a moist but still breathable environment, to facilitate healing, absorb exudates and prevent maceration. One of the applicable methods to achieve this is the use of composite dressings. Most composite dressings are made of three layers to provide absorption and a bacterial barrier in a non- or semi-adherent cover. Various common textile materials such as cotton, polyester, polypropylene and cellulose can be used as different layers in those wound dressings. In addition to these established dressings, electrical stimulation therapy may be used in treating ulcers. It has been reported that electrical stimulation can reduce the area and depth of the wound in a shortened time compared to conventional treatment. In summary, encouraging wound healing results have been obtained both from using composite wound dressing and from applying of electrical stimulation. The aim of this study is to present a conceptual design based on a woven 3D structure that combines the composite wound dressing properties with electrical stimulation for pressure ulcers healing/management.

    METHOD

    In the suggested structure, different layers in X, Y and Z led were designed with different materials for different purposes.  The top layer consisting of a low-density web to provide a non-adherent layer combined with two textile electrodes made of conductive threads, the middle layer contributes pressure release and absorption of exudates, and the bottom layer next to the wound for moisture keeping while still allowing adequate ventilation.

    Two key properties were addressed in the study: pressure release and the possibility to provide electrical stimulation of the wound. Simulation with COMSOL Multiphysics was used to study pressure distribution according to Hertz contact theory. The surface resistance of the electrodes were also studied using in-house designed four-point measurement probes.

    RESULTS

    The simulation results show the composite structure to exhibit good pressure release properties. Surface resistance testing proved that the textile electrodes have resistance in the magnitude of 102 indicating that textile electrodes can be used for electrical stimulation in ulcers healing.

    The first results from this study demonstrate the feasibility to design a textile system combining established composite dressings solutions with means for electrical stimulation based on 3D weaving technique to be applied in pressure ulcer healing. 

  • 15.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Eriksson, Siw
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Surface Resistivity of Textile-Based Electrodes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile-based electrodes show great potential as substitution of conventional electrodes when long-time monitoring is required. The flexibility and high skin-electrode contacting area make it possible to avoid the use of contact gel, which may cause irritation to the patients' skin. In this study, textile-based electrodes were made by combining conductive materials with high absorption nature fibres with the intention to create and maintain a microenvironment that improve the contact between the skin and electrode by local sweating at the electrode site. Alternatively artificial sweat (i.e. saline) may be added for a similar effect. However, by adding nature fibres into the electrodes, the electrical properties of the electrodes are modified due to the ration of conductive yarns is decreased. In this paper, the surface resistivity in the warp and weft directions and its distribution were measured in a four-wire resistance mode. The resistivity of the conductive yarns, the type of nature fibres, the textile construction and the fabric pick density were selected as the independent variables and the surface resistivity in warp and weft measurement directions was the dependent variable to be analysed. Preliminary results show that the conductivity of the conductive yarns are more important than the fabric pick density; surface resistance were not measurable in warp direction of most plain weave fabrics since the conductive yarns were only involved in the weft direction, however, the resistance were measureable in the case of satin fabrics; and that the surface resistivity is more evenly distributed in weft direction than the warp direction

  • 16.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Qureshi, Waqas
    Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Knitted Wearable Stretch Sensor for Breathing Monitoring Application2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ratnarathorn, Suchawadee
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Disappearing sensor: Textile based sensor for monitoring breathing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring and interpretation of respiration pattern plays an important role for the early detection and the prevention of serious illness, such as asthma, sleeping apnea, bronchitis, and lung cancer. In this interdisciplinary project a system based on a smart shirt with integrated textile sensor for personal respiratory monitoring was developed. Due to the fact that textile products are flexible, washable and bring no discomfort to wearers, the smart shirtis an excellent interface for performing long term respiratory monitoring in real life situations outside the clinic. Two stripe liked sensors located on the chest and abdomen position respectively were integrated in a smart shirt. The sensors were made by coating with conductive silicone on the fabric surface of the smart shirt. Conductive silicone reflects compression or extension by resistance change and in this application resistance change can be utilized to indicate the respiratory pattern of the wearer. A prototype system was made to record the resistance change in real time and transmission to a PC or PDA for further processing. Snap button and conductive threads were used as the interface and transmission wires between the smart shirt and the recording system. To verify the performance, test were made with 10 subjects, whose spontaneous respiratory patterns were recorded during sitting still, walking and jogging. In addition, a number of abnormal respiratory conditions, such as deep breathing, hyperventilation and sleeping apnea were simulated. The results show the smart shirt performed in a very good manner, the system can sense and record the person's breathing during normal daily activities. The sleeping apnea simulation indicates potential application in diagnosis and clinical treatment. The smart shirt is soft and comfortable to use and enables long-term monitoring to be performed outside the laboratory.

  • 18.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Scan To Knit - A smart textile platform for personalised prosthetic textiles2017In: Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus (SÄS) Forsknings- och kvalitetsdagar 2017: Poster presented in the MedTech West exhibition, Borås, 2017, , p. 1Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19. Löfhede, Johan
    et al.
    Eriksson, Siw
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Thordstein, Magnus
    Monitoring of Brain Activity Using Textile Electrodes2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Scan-to-knit - A platform for personalised smart textiles research and develoment with a special focus on prosthetics2018In: ISEK 2018 - The XXII Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology: University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, June 30th - 2nd July, 2018 / [ed] Madeleine Lowery, Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2018, p. 222-223Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Löfhede, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Eriksson, Siw
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Thordstein, Magnus
    EEG Measurements using Textile Electrodes2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Wiklund, Urban
    et al.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Eriksson, Siw
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Bäcklund, Tomas
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rytm och formanalys av EKG från textila sensorer2010Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 22 of 22
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