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  • 1. Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Child witnesses' metamemory realism2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 461-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the degree of realism in the confidence judgments of 11 to 12-year-olds (41 girls and 40 boys) of their answers to questions relating to a short film clip showing a kidnapping event. Four different confidence scales were used: a numeric scale, a picture scale, a line scale and a written scale. The results demonstrated that the children showed a high level of overconfidence in their memories. However, no significant differences between the four confidence scales were found. Weak gender differences were found in that the girls were slightly, but significantly, better calibrated than the boys. In addition, although both boys and girls overestimated the total number of memory questions they had answered correctly, the boys gave higher estimates compared with the girls. In brief, the results indicate that, at least in the context investigated, 11–12 year-old children’s confidence in and estimations of their own event memory show poor realism (overconfidence and overestimation). A comparison with previous research on adults indicates that 11 to 12-year-old children show noticeably poorer realism.

  • 2. Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Granhag, Pär Anders
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Does mood influence the realism of confidence judgments?2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that mood affects cognition, but the extent to which mood affects meta–cognitive judgments is a relatively overlooked issue. In the current study we investigated how mood influences the degree of realism in participants’ confidence judgments (based on an episodic memory task). Using music and film in combination, we successfully induced an elated mood in half of the participants, but failed to induce a sad mood in the other half. In line with previous research, the participants in both conditions were overconfident in their judgments. However, and contrary to our prediction, our data indicated that there was no difference in the realism of the confidence between the conditions. When relating this result to previous research, our conclusion is that there is no, or very little, influence of mood of moderate intensity on the realism of confidence judgments.

  • 3. Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Om betydelsen av elevers metakognitiva förmåga2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text describes the characteristics of a number of different types of metacognitive judgments relevant for schoolchildren’s studies. It is argued that metacognitive judgments play an important role in children’s learning at school. Moreover, it is also argued many of the modern types of educational approaches, such as the so called ”problem based learning” approach do not have a clear strategy when it comes to the role and training of meta-cognition in the school context.

  • 4. Allwood, Carl Martin
    et al.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Granhag, Per-Anders
    The effects of source and type of feedback on child witnesses’ metamemory accuracy2005In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 331-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of feedback on the accuracy (realism) of 12-year-old children's metacognitive judgments of their answers to questions about a film clip. Two types of judgments were investigated: confidence judgments (on each question) and frequency judgments (i.e. estimates of overall accuracy). The source of feedback, whether it was presented as provided by a teacher or a peer child, did not influence metacognitive accuracy. Four types of feedback were given depending on whether the participant's answer was correct and depending on whether the feedback confirmed or disconfirmed the child's answer. The children showed large overconfidence when they received confirmatory feedback but much less so when they received disconfirmatory feedback. The children gave frequency judgments implying that they had more correct answers than they actually had. No main gender differences were found for any of the measures. The results indicate a high degree of malleability in children's metacognitive judgments.

  • 5. Allwood, Carl-Martin
    et al.
    Granhag, Pär-Anders
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    The cognitive interview and Its effect on witnessess' confidence2004In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is ample evidence that the Cognitive Interview (CI) enhances witnesses’ memory. However, less is known about how the CI affects eyewitnesses’ confidence. To address this shortcoming we conducted a study analyzing how realism in confidence was affected by the CI. All participants (n /79) were first shown a filmed kidnapping. After 2 weeks we interviewed one-third of the participants according to the guidelines of the CI, one-third according to a Standard Interview (SI), and one-third were not interviewed at all (Control condition). Participants in all three conditions were then asked to answer 45 forced-choice questions, and to give a confidence judgment after each choice. For the 45 questions, no differences in accuracy were found between the three conditions. Confidence was higher in the CI and SI conditions, compared with the Control condition. CI and SI did not differ in metacognitive realism but both showed lower realism compared with the Control condition, although only CI significantly so. The results indicate that the inflation in confidence is more likely to be explained in terms of a reiteration effect , than as a consequence of the particular mnemonics characterizing the CI (e.g. ‘‘mental reinstatement of context’’). In sum, CI does not seem to impair (or improve) the realism in witnesses’ confidence, and does not inflate confidence in erroneous recall, compared to a SI

  • 6.
    Allwood, Carl-Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stability and variability in the realism of confidence judgments over time, content domain and gender2003In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 559-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the influence on the realism of confidence judgments of four different factors, the individual, the knowledge domain (crystallized and fluid intelligence), gender and cognitive style (Need-for-Cognition, NfC). Seventy-nine high-school students answered questions on word knowledge (WORD) and logical/spatial ability (DTK); both tests were administered on three occasions with two weeks between each trial. After each test question, each individual gave a confidence rating of his or her answer. The results showed some, but not perfect, individual stability. Furthermore, within-subject differences were found between domains (WORD/DTK); the participants showed better calibration and less overconfidence for the WORD-test as compared to the DTK-test. No stable gender differences were found for any of the two tests. Finally, the results show that having high NfC is not associated with better realism in confidence judgments. These results suggest that the realism of confidence judgments is, at least on the distal level, influenced by many different factors.

  • 7.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Predicting the use of praise among pre-service teachers: The influence of implicit theories of intelligence, social comparison and stereotype acceptance2012In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 259-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns feedback praise (person and process praise) and how it relates to implicit theories of intelligence (entity and incremental theories) among pre-service teachers. In the first study 176 pre-service teachers participated, while in the second study 151 of such teachers participated. Two new measures, one of feedback praise and the other of social comparison, were found to be reliable and valid. In the first study, process praise was predicted by the variable incremental theories of intelligence and person praise was predicted by the acceptance of stereotypes. However, these results suffered in the reliability analyses and, even if the models are significant, they should be rejected. The results of the second study are more reliable, with regression analyses showing that person praise can be predicted from the two predictor variables of entity theories of intelligence, and social comparison. Some positive effects of teacher education were found in the second part; for example, the preference for person praise was significantly lower in the last semester than in the first.

  • 8.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Erlandson, Peter
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Korp, Helena
    Do we really need more maths trained teachers in primary and elementary schools? Some problematic aspects2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Granhag, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    The cognitive interview and its effect on witnesses' confidence2004In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is ample evidence that the Cognitive Interview (CI) enhances witnesses' memory. However, less is known about how the CI affects eyewitnesses' confidence. To address this shortcoming we conducted a study analyzing how realism in confidence was affected by the CI. All participants (n=79) were first shown a filmed kidnapping. After 2 weeks we interviewed one-third of the participants according to the guidelines of the CI, one-third according to a Standard Interview (SI), and one-third were not interviewed at all (Control condition). Participants in all three conditions were then asked to answer 45 forced-choice questions, and to give a confidence judgment after each choice. For the 45 questions, no differences in accuracy were found between the three conditions. Confidence was higher in the CI and SI conditions, compared with the Control condition. CI and SI did not differ in metacognitive realism but both showed lower realism compared with the Control condition, although only CI significantly so. The results indicate that the inflation in confidence is more likely to be explained in terms of a reiteration effect, than as a consequence of the particular mnemonics characterizing the CI (e.g. "mental reinstatement of context"). In sum, CI does not seem to impair (or improve) the realism in witnesses' confidence, and does not inflate confidence in erroneous recall, compared to a SI.

  • 10. Granhag, Pär-Anders
    et al.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    Leif A., Strömwall
    "Let's say we had lunch and hope they will swallow it!": Deception among pairs2003In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 109-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deception research has neglected the fact that legal-workers often have to try to detect deceit on the basis of statements derived from pairs of suspects, each having been interrogated repeatedly. To remedy this shortcoming we conducted a study where each memeber of 10 truth-telling pairs and 10 lying pairs was iterrogated twice about an alibi. One hundred and twenty undergraduate students were enrolled as lie-catchers. The main fidings were that (a) overall deception detection accuracy was modest; (b) lie-catchers given access to a large number of statements did not outperform lie-catchers given access to a lesser number of statements; (c) when asked to justify their veracity assessments the most frequently reported cue was 'consistency within pairs of suspects': (d) all cues to deception were of low diagnostic value. Psycho-legal aspects of integrating sequential information in deception detection context are discussed.

  • 11. Granhag, Pär-Anders
    et al.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Strömwall, Leif A.
    Partners in crime: How liars in collusion betray themselves2003In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 848-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigmatic task for participants in studies on deception is to assess veracity on the basis of a single statement. However, in applied contexts, lie catchers are often faced with multiple statements (reported by one or several suspects). To appreciate this mismatch, we conducted a study where each member of 10 truth-telling pairs and 10 lying pairs (reporting fabricated alibis) was interrogated twice about an alibi. As predicted, lying pair members were more consistent between themselves than were truth-telling pair members, and single liars and truth tellers were equally consistent over time. Furthermore, truth tellers made more commissions than did liars. Although in line with our repeat vs. reconstruct hypothesis, these findings contrast sharply with beliefs held by professional lie catchers and recommendations found in literature on deception detection. The results are translated into an applied psycholegal context.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, A-C
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, D
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Institutional discrimination of class: The Swedish upper secondary school reform of 20112013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kvantitativa verktyg för lärare i utbildningsvetenskap2007In: Lära till lärare, Liber , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Metacognition and Confidence: Mood, individual differences, developmental and social aspects.2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna avhandling undersöker realismen i människors konfidensbedömningar. En konfidens- bedömning sker när en person uttalar hur säker han/hon är på att en proposition han/hon har framfört är korrekt. Med realism menas hur väl personens konfidensbedömning matchar korrektheten i uttalandet. Många olika faktorer påverkar realismen i konfidensen och denna avhandling fokuserar på fyra faktorer; sinnesstämning, individuella skillnader, utvecklingspsykologiska och sociala aspekter. Studie I undersökte om sinnesstämning påverkade den säkerhet människor har till sitt episodiska minne. En positiv sinnesstämning inducerades i en grupp. Dock fanns ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de två gruppernas (positiv och neutral) konfidensbedömningar. Studiens slutsats var att moderata nivåer av en positiv sinnesstämning inte påverkar de aktuella metakognitiva bedömningarna. Frekvensbedömningarnas (ett mått på hur många frågor totalt som personen ifråga tror sig ha svarat rätt på) visade att deltagarna signifikant underskattade sin faktiska prestation, detta i kontrast till de specifika konfidensbedömningarna, där deltagarna överskattade sin faktiska prestation. I Studie II undersöktes stabiliteten och variabiliteten i realismen i deltagarnas konfidensbedömningar över tid, innehållsdomän, genus och kognitiv stil. Två test, ORD (ordkunskap) och DTK (logisk/spatial förmåga) från det svenska Högskoleprovet administrerades över tre tillfällen. Resultaten visade att det finns individuella stabila skillnader över tid och domän i deltagarnas konfidensbedömningar. Dock återfanns också skillnader mellan de två domänerna i deltagarnas konfidensbedömningar. Inga skillnader mellan genus kunde spåras och kognitiv stil (Need for Cognition) hade ingen effekt på deltagarnas konfidensbedömningar. Studie III undersökte barns (11-12 år) konfidensbedömningar till svar på frågor gällande deras minne (det episodiska minnet) av en kort videofilm. Fyra olika skalor att skatta konfidensbedömningar med testades; den numeriska skalan, bildskalan, linjeskalan och den verbala skalan. Vilken skala som användes påverkade inte barnens konfidensbedömningar. Barnen visade sig mer överkonfidenta i relation till sina svar än de vuxna som tidigare använt samma material i tidigare studier. Dessutom, barnens frekvensbedömningar (uppskattning av det totala antalet korrekt besvarade frågor) visade på att deltagarna överskattade sin faktiska prestation. Studie IV undersökte hur social återkoppling påverkade barns (12 år) konfidensbedömningar till svar på frågor gällande deras minne (det episodiska minnet) av en kort videofilm (samma material som användes i Studie III). Mellan-individ faktorn var relaterad till huruvida återkopplingen barnet fick kom från en lärare eller en kamrat. Inom-individ faktorn gällde olika typer av återkoppling; konfirmerande eller icke-konfirmerande återkoppling på såväl korrekta som inkorrekta svar. Resultatet visade att barnen (12 år) var överkonfidenta oavsett vilken typ av återkoppling de fick. Dock, konfirmerande återkoppling resulterade i sämre realism i barnens konfidensbedömningar än icke-konfirmerande återkoppling. Deltagarnas frekvensbedömningar (totalt antal korrekt besvarade frågor) visade återigen (se Studie III) på överskattning. Resultatet av denna avhandling visar att ytterligare två faktorer, individuella skillnader och utvecklingspsykologiska aspekter, bör läggas till de fem; tid, återkoppling, kontext, motivation och erfarenhet inom domän, vilka introducerades av Allwood och Granhag (1999) som påverkande faktorer av människors konfidensbedömningar. This dissertation investigates the realism in people's confidence judgments. Study I investigated whether mood influences the confidence people have in their event memory. However, there were no significant differences in the realism of the participants' confidence judgments between conditions (elated and neutral). This study concluded that moderate levels of elation might not influence the realism in confidence judgments. In Study II the stability and variability in the realism of confidence judgments over time, content domain and gender were investigated. Two tests, WORD (word knowledge)and DTK (logical/spatial ability), from the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test were administered on three occasions. The results showed that there were stable individual differences over time and domain in the participants' confidence judgments. No gender differences were found and no effect was found of the cognitive style Need-for-Cognition, NfC. Study III investigated children's (11-12 year old) confidence judgments of answers to questions on their episodic memories. Four different confidence scales were tested; the numeric scale, the picture scale, the line scale and the written scale. The four scales showed no difference for the children's confidence judgments. Further, the children were more overconfident than adults who had used the same material in recent studies. Also, the children's frequency judgments showed overestimation. Finally, Study IV investigated how social feedback influence children's (12 year old)confidence judgments (the same material as in Study III was used). The between-subject factor related to whether the feedback was given by a teacher or a classmate and the within-subject factor concerned type of feedback; confirmatory or disconfirmatory feedback on both correct and incorrect answers. The results showed that the children were overconfident independent of what kind of feedback they recieved and no effect of the source of the feedback was found. However, confirmatory feedback resulted in worse realism in the children's confidence judgments than disconfirmatory feedback. The children's frequency judgments again showed overestimation. In summary, the results in this thesis show that individual differences and developmental aspects should be added to the five factors that were argued by Allwood and Granhag (1999) to influence confidence judgments; time, feedback, contextual, motivational and experience within the domain.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    SVT Play om jag får be!2013In: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, no 12-13, p. 32-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det vita lysrörsljuset skapar mörka skuggor i min kollegas ansikte när hen läser sin föreläsning, direkt från manus, vilket befinner sig under kamerabilden. När denna universitetslärare försöker titta upp för att möta en inbillad studentpublik (fortfarande med dessa fladdrande skuggor i ansiktet som får mig att associera till en gammal Hitchcockfilm) tappar hen tråden i manus, kommer av sig, stirrar desperat ned i texten, för att till slut hitta var hen var och ta om från början. Är denna webbaserade inspelade föreläsning av större kvalitet än när min kollega får träffa sina studenter personligen? Är detta skuggspel en mer effektiv pedagogisk metod som ökar studenternas lärande jämfört med när lärare och student träffas "live"?

  • 16.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    A problem of democracy: Stereotypical notions of intelligence and identity in college preparatory academic porgrammes in the Swedish upper secondary school2013In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 50-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present article, based on a qualitative analysis, we focus stereotypes held by students on college preparatory academic programmes. Two stereotypes are in focus: those that these students attribute to themselves, and those that they attribute to students in vocational programmes. 224 students in grade 3 were involved. The stereotype of the academic student that emerged characterised emphatic language skills that provided an opportunity to develop one’s intellect and participate actively in society. The stereotype of the vocational student was the antithesis of this. Vocational students were said to lack language ability and interests and to have an undeveloped or under-developed intellect due to not engaging in the same kind of language acts as academic students. The students also associated their skills with effort, interest and hard work as opposed to being innate.

  • 17.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Reproduction of social class in teacher education: The influence of scientific theories on future teachers’ implicit beliefs.2010In: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 2051-0969, E-ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article was to investigate the influence of a hegemonic class concept in teacher education, more specifically, the changes in the construction of implicit theories of intelligence within future teachers when they were exposed to the scientific g-factor theory of intelligence. A 2 x 2 ANOVA (first versus last semester at the teacher education) x (experimental versus control condition) was used on 102 student teachers who had been exposed to a short vignette of the gfactor theory. Implicit theories of intelligence as fixed and innate were significantly stronger when exposed to this theory. This result was confirmed in a second study with 177 student teachers. Two 2 x 2 (fixed versus incremental) x (experimental versus control condition) ANOVAs in both mathematics and social science were conducted. When exposed to g-factor theory (experimental condition) the fixed theories increased and the incremental theories decreased in relation to both mathematics and social science.

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The beliefs behind the preference for person-focused versus process-focused feed-back preise2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Korp, Helena
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Personal epistemological beliefs, influences and change within teacher students2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Korp, Helena
    Erlandson, Peter
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Teachers implicit theories of intelligence and personality: influences from different disciplines and scientific theories2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Orlenius, Kennert
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Plagiarism in higher education: A question of moral development or sociocultural influence of discipline2013In: Open Journal of Education, ISSN 2328-4994, Vol. 1, no 8, p. 194-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates firstly the relations between students‟ moral standards and acceptance of plagiarism, cheating, collaboration and equity of treatment, and secondly, the effects of educational experience and discipline on these factors. The participants were 357 university students, 183 enrolled in the teacher education and 136 informatics students and 35 students of cognitive science/consciousness. The instrument included 29 items and was found valid by factor analyzes. The relations were investigated with Pearson‟s correlation and variance analyses (ANOVA) in SPSS. The results showed a close to zero relation between students‟ personal, conventional moral standards and their acceptance of plagiarism. Instead students‟ moral standards had significant relations toward cheating and equity of treatment. Dependent on educational discipline, teacher education versus informatics, norms and ethical value systems influence not only to what degree students find plagiarism unacceptable, but also in what degree they accept cheating and collaboration.

  • 22.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Those who know more do not know more about how much they know2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23. Korp, Helena
    et al.
    Erlandson, Peter
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    What counts as being smart around here? Students' identity making and valued discourses in vocational upper secondary education2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Persson, NK.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Jonsson, AC.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rethinking Available Production Technologies: the case of a thermally insulating footwear concept2012In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487, Vol. 1, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    overwhelming studies are on the general public and its behaviour. Here we discuss a way for the company to lower consumption by avoiding inventory investments. Added value in terms of sustainability can be gained by using standard manufacturing technologies frequently found in the textile industry to produce new products beyond present paradigms. Specifically we develop knitting techniques on a circular knitting machine to enable production of a thermally insulating textile composite for a multicomponent footwear system. Four cornerstones defined the project; sustainability, availability, comfort and flexibility. The first two relate here to the production, while the last two are coupled to the wearer’s experience of the product. Two key questions initiated this project. The first question elaborated on the possibility to produce an untraditional material for a new type of product on a circular knitting machine, which is generally used for high speed production of full-width fabrics. The second question explored the possibility to apply the three-layer principle - generally used in sportswear - on footwear. We show that we can answer both these questions positively. Using an elaborated functional design tool the footwear system was theoretically divided into functional layers; inner, middle and outer, combined with an inner and outer sole. These detachable layers together create a flexible footwear system. A ready-made product, the middle layer with thermal insulating properties, was practically developed, taking use of a heat and water soaking protocol for inducing relaxation in the material and by this air encapsulation.

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