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  • 1.
    Klaar, Susanne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Arguments for Early Childhood Science Education; a Review of Research Articles 2006-20162016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to analyse research articles connected to Early Childhood Science Education (ECSE) with a specific focus on “why it is important to teach and learn science in preschool practices”.

    To teach and learn about science in preschool practices can be understood as e.g. learn to care for nature or to create knowledge about natural phenomena and processes. With a specific focus on Early Childhood Education, Hedefalk et.al (2015) and Somerville and Williams (2015) present surveys connected to Education for Sustainable Development, and Zohar and Barzilai (2013) present a review on research in Science Education in the field of metacognition.

    This present study will use curriculum theory to analyse and critically discuss teaching traditions and learning content (see Svennbeck 2003, Öhman 2006).  

    Words used in the ERIC database search was: early childhood, natural science,  science education.

    Approximately 90 articles from Early Childhood Journals and Science Education Journals will be scrutinized regarding arguments for ECSE, using a coding scheme based on introductions and purposes of the studies.

    Initial results from this ongoing review of articles show arguments that focus on ECSE as: i) laying the foundation for knowledge and interest in science, preparing for school, ii) making children able to engage in environmental issues, iii) offering children to explore everyday-science as lived experiences.  

    Only peer-reviewed articles were chosen, and the same words were used during the complete search.

    The result can be used in critical reflections on arguments for teaching and learning science in preschool, to create multifaceted teaching and learning environments.

  • 2.
    Klaar, Susanne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Att väva samman lärande, fostran och omsorg när förskolebarn möter natur2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Klaar, Susanne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ett mångfacetterat naturinnehåll och naturlärande i förskolan2016In: Naturvetenskap i ett förskoleperspektiv: Kreativa lärandeprocesser / [ed] Susanne Thulin, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Klaar, Susanne
    Örebro universitet.
    Naturorienterad utbildning i förskolan: Pragmatiska undersökningar av meningsskapandets individuella, sociala och kulturella dimensioner2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Klaar, Susanne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    To challenge: one of many aspects when teachers teach science in preschool2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim is to deepen the understanding about teaching processes when preschool children learn about nature. Research into the teaching and learning of science in the preschool tends to either focus on teaching for children’s conceptual development (Charlton, 2003; Zembylas, 2009) or practices that prioritises child-centred activities (Garbett, 2003; Thulin, 2011). Nature content in these practices can be either everything or nothing, but still, preferably cognitive. However, in my previous research into preschool children´s learning about nature, I show that teachers guide towards learning contents that intertwine cognitive, moral, aesthetical and practical learning qualities (Klaar and Öhman, 2013). In this study, teaching processes are investigated by the use of a methodology based on John Dewey’s pragmatic philosophy and the concept of transactions (Dewey and Bentley, 1949/1991; Garrison, 2001). Outdoor nature experiences of preschool children (aged one to three) were video-recorded, transcribed and analysed by the use of 'epistemological move analysis' (Lidar et al., 2006), here oriented towards teaching processes and teachers' guidance in children's nature learning. The preschool teachers and the parents gave their written approval and the participants were told that they could withdraw at any time during the recordings. The analyses show that the relations between teaching and nature-learning processes are intertwined and include education and care. The teachers’ guide towards different qualities in learning about nature by challenging, admonishing, instructional, confirming, generative, reorienting and reconstructing moves. The results contribute to nature-oriented teaching practice and nature-oriented preschool research when critically discussing teachers´ guidance in learning processes.

  • 6.
    Klaar, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Öhman, Johan
    A multi-dimensional approach to quality in preschool teachers' teaching and children's learning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to deepen understanding about learning contents by empirically investigating relations between preschool teachers’ teaching and child ren’s content learning. The aim is also to present an analysis method that facilitates these investigations. Research has shown that early childhood science education is based on education and care, sometimes stressed as a dichotomy. Additionally, ECE rese arch seldom concerns teachers and their teaching activities, i.e. what they do when they teach. There is therefore a need for more research into what teaching in early childhood education actually entails. The approach is informed by John Dewey’s pragmatic philosophy and his use of transactions. A transactional analysing tool called SLQA (Substantive Learning Quality Analysis) is developed and used to facilitate investigations of specific learning qualities in terms of which learning content the teacher gui des towards. The empirical material consists of video - recorded situations where preschool children (1 - 3 years of age) experience nature together with their teachers In this study the preschool teachers and the parents gave their written approval and the pa rticipants were told that they could withdraw at any time during the recordings. The analyses show that the relations between teaching and learning processes and content are intertwined and include education and care. The teachers guide towards aesthetical , moral, cognitive and physical qualities in learning. A multi - dimensional approach on quality can be useful for teachers as a tool for reflections about teaching and learning content in preschool in their work within the area of pedagogical documentation.

  • 7.
    Klaar, Susanne
    et al.
    [external].
    Öhman, Johan
    Action with friction: a transactional approach to toddlers’ physical meaning making of natural phenomena and processes in preschool2012In: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 439-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into preschool education has paid a lot of attention to investigating children's conceptual development and cognitive learning about nature, with methods based on observations and verbal interviews before and after a teaching period. The purpose of this study has been to present and illustrate an approach that facilitates the analysis of practical meaning making in Early Childhood Education. The study is largely based on John Dewey's pragmatism and has a particular focus on his use of transaction, functional coordination, inquiry, educative experience and nature. In this context meaning making is understood as the growing, learning process that contributes to further actions in extended ways. A transactional approach to physical experiences, with a focus on analyses of toddlers' bodily actions in nature encounters, is illustrated by a video recording of a toddler's encounter with icy and clay surfaces. This encounter was analysed using Practical Epistemological Analysis. Toddlers' inquiry processes were studied with a specific focus on functional coordination, i.e. relations between different actions and their consequences when meeting the environment. The methodological approach contributes to further research by focusing on practical and physical learning processes. It can also be seen as a contribution to Early Childhood Science Education by showing the relation between previous experiences of natural phenomena and meaning making for further actions in extended ways.

  • 8.
    Klaar, Susanne
    et al.
    [external].
    Öhman, Johan
    [external].
    Children’s meaning-making of nature in an outdoor-oriented and democratic Swedish preschool practice2014In: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, ISSN 1350-293X, E-ISSN 1752-1807, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 229-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the Swedish preschool educational tradition is characterised by outdoor-oriented and democratic approaches. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate what consequences these approaches have for preschool children's meaning-making of nature, when studied in practice, in children's spontaneous outdoor activities. The methodology is based on John Dewey's pragmatism with a specific focus on transaction, habits and customs. A transactional analysis method has been developed to fulfil the purpose of the investigation. The analysis illuminates relations between: (1) the Swedish preschool's educational tradition in terms of national customs; and (2) the local customs expressed in practice. Fifty-seven events were chosen for further analysis including play with water and sand, and sliding on snow. Consequences for children's meaning-making of nature are shown as possibilities for experience-based inquiry based on children's own choices and also for enjoying and feeling good in nature. The results show fewer possibilities for scientific concept learning. The results can thus be seen as a contribution to the early childhood educational discussion about how to arrange learning situations of natural phenomena and processes in preschools and at the same time maintain their democratic/outdoor-oriented characteristics.

  • 9.
    Klaar, Susanne
    et al.
    [external].
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro University.
    Doing, knowing, caring and feeling: Exploring relations between nature-oriented teaching and preschool children’s learning2014In: International Journal of Early Years Education, ISSN 0966-9760, E-ISSN 1469-8463, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 37-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that early childhood science education is based on education and care, sometimes stressed as a dichotomy. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the relations between teachers' teaching and children's learning in preschool practice, both in terms of educative processes and nature-oriented content. The ambition is also to develop and present an analysis method that facilitates these investigations. Outdoor nature experiences of preschool children (aged one to three) were video-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The methodology is based on John Dewey's pragmatic philosophy. Here, epistemological move analysis (oriented towards teachers' guiding processes as moves) and substantive learning quality analysis (oriented towards multi-dimensional learning qualities) are developed and used as analysis tools. The analyses show that the relations between teaching and learning processes and nature content are intertwined and include education and care. The teachers guide towards aesthetical, moral, cognitive and physical qualities in learning by challenging, admonishing, instructional, confirming, generative, reorienting and reconstructing moves. The results contribute to nature-oriented teaching practice and nature-oriented preschool research when discussing and investigating teaching and learning processes and nature content.

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