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  • 1.
    Egerod, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet.
    Kaldan, Gudrun
    University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet.
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Saetre Hansen, Britt
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Stavanger University Hospital.
    Froulund Jensen, Janet
    Department of Anesthesiology, Holbæk Hospital.
    Oxenboll Collet, Marie
    Department of Intensive Care 4131, Copenhagen University Hospital.
    Halvorsen, Krisitin
    Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo Metropolitan University.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Olausson, Sepideh
    Jensen, Hanne Irene
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Vejle and Middelfart Hospitals.
    Trends and recommendations for critical care nursing research in the Nordic countries: Triangulation of review and survey dataIn: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Priorities for critical care nursing research have evolved with societal trends and values. In the 1980s priorities were the nursing workforce, in 1990s technical nursing, in 2000s evidence-based nursing and in 2010s symptom management and family-centred care.

    Objectives

    To identify current trends and future recommendations for critical care nursing research in the Nordic countries.

    Methods

    We triangulated the results of a literature review and a survey. A review of two selected critical care nursing journals (2016–2017) was conducted using content analysis to identify contemporary published research. A self-administered computerised cross-sectional survey of Nordic critical care nursing researchers (2017) reported current and future areas of research.

    Results

    A review of 156 papers identified research related to the patient (13%), family (12%), nurse (31%), and therapies (44%). Current trends in the survey (n = 76, response rate 65%) included patient and family involvement, nurse performance and education, and evidence-based protocols. The datasets showed similar trends, but aftercare was only present in the survey. Future trends included symptom management, transitions, rehabilitation, and new nursing roles.

    Conclusion

    Critical care nursing research is trending toward increased collaboration with patient and family, delineating a shift toward user values. Recommendations include long-term outcomes and impact of nursing.

  • 2.
    Egerod, Ingrid
    et al.
    Copenhagen University Hospital.
    Kaldan, Gudrun
    Copenhagen University Hospital.
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Saetre Hansen, Britt
    Universitetet i Stavanger.
    Froulund Jensen, Janet
    Copenhagen University Hospital.
    Oxenbøll Collet, Marie
    Rikshospitalet Köpenhamn.
    Halvorsen, Kristin
    Oslo Metropolitan.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Olausson, Sepideh
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Jensen, Hanne
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Vejle and Middelfart Hospitals.
    Trends and recommendations for critical care nursing research in the Nordic countries: triangulation of review and survey data.In: Intensive and Critical Care NursingArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Priorities for critical care nursing research have evolved with societal trends and values. In the 1980s priorities were the nursing workforce, in 1990s technical nursing, in 2000s evidence-based nursing and in 2010s symptom management and family-centred care.

    Objectives

    To identify current trends and future recommendations for critical care nursing research in the Nordic countries.

    Methods

    We triangulated the results of a literature review and a survey. A review of two selected critical care nursing journals (2016–2017) was conducted using content analysis to identify contemporary published research. A self-administered computerised cross-sectional survey of Nordic critical care nursing researchers (2017) reported current and future areas of research.

    Results

    A review of 156 papers identified research related to the patient (13%), family (12%), nurse (31%), and therapies (44%). Current trends in the survey (n = 76, response rate 65%) included patient and family involvement, nurse performance and education, and evidence-based protocols. The datasets showed similar trends, but aftercare was only present in the survey. Future trends included symptom management, transitions, rehabilitation, and new nursing roles.

    Conclusion

    Critical care nursing research is trending toward increased collaboration with patient and family, delineating a shift toward user values. Recommendations include long-term outcomes and impact of nursing.

  • 3. Eriksson, Thomas
    Närståendes besök hos patienter som vårdas på intensivvårdsavdelning2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall objective of the present thesis was to describe and assess the importance and impact of visits by the patients’ families in an ICU, from patient and family perspectives, and to develop, from a hermeneutic perspective, a research method to study the interplay between patient and family during the visit. Method: The comprehensive methodology of the thesis was hermeneutic. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were applied to elucidate the issues at stake. In paper I, 198 patients were consecutively included, and data were statistically analysed to establish patient mortality and length of stay at the hospital, in relation to visits of families in the ICU. In paper II, ten patients and 24 visitors were observed during visits. In paper III, seven patients and five relatives were interviewed about their memories of the visits in the ICU. Field notes from the observations, and the interviews with patients and relatives, were interpreted and analysed inspired by Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy. Paper IV represents a theoretical discourse, and presents methodological aspects of the hermeneutic interpretation of data from the observations. Results: There were no significant differences between the patients having visitors and those who did not. The patient group with no visits comprised 25 %; they were older, and lived in single households, which contrasted to the patient group having visitors. Analyses of the three clinical studies revealed four themes. The themes relate to the meaning of visiting for patients and their relatives, and are as follows: the visit means to see and realize, to guard and watch, to meet, and to sacrifice. The caring entails that you witness and see with your own eyes, and that you feel a communion with the sick. From the patient perspective, the visit signifies that you are confirmed, empowering you to fight to get back to life. Communion and availability in conjunction enable an individual to achieve a thorough involvement with another being. The results of study IV disclosed that what you observe is depending on your theoretical view. If you see from your heart, you interpret from your heart. Conclusions: The conclusions drawn from the studies of the present thesis are that opportunities to create a presence in the community - a communion - between patients, relatives, and carers, are at want. The present fundamental view of caring in intensive care units is in need of change, in order to create optimal conditions for a communion. Visits need to be regarded as an essential part of caring, and relatives’ visits ought to be facilitated and encouraged. Furthermore, visits are important both for patients and their relatives, as sharing the event of critical illness, in the sense of sharing the suffering, the healing, and the restoration of health, is considered a precondition for their recovery. Care should be organized around the patients and their families. Families and patients bring their fellow stories of life, including values and beliefs, thereby increasing the probability of dignified individualized care.

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  • 4.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg.
    Bergbom, I
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    The experiences of patients and their families of visiting during whilst in an intensive care unit: A hermeneutic interview study2011In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 60-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of this study was to interpret and understand the meanings of the lived experiences of visiting of patients in an ICU and their families. Method The research design was hermeneutic, based on interviews. This study includes 12 interviews with seven patients and five relatives who had been in an ICU. The interview text was interpreted in a Gadamerian manner as different plays with actors and plots. Findings Patients’ narratives could be divided into two parts; recall of real life and unreal life experiences, the unreal being more common. Relatives’ narratives are described as being on stage and being backstage, i.e. in the room with the patient and outside it. Conclusion The final interpretation elucidated the experience of visiting as the sudden shift between being present in real life vs. being present in the real life of unreality. It was a process whereby the patient and the family build a new understanding of life that creates a new form of interplay within the family. The pre-critical illness life is no longer there – a new life has begun. To support patients and their families in this process of change a family-centred care perspective is necessary.

  • 5. Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Visits to intensive care unit patients: frequency, duration and impact on outocme2007In: Nursing in Critical Care, ISSN 1362-1017, E-ISSN 1478-5153, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of the presence of patients’ loved ones during their intensive care unit (ICU) stay is a frequently discussed topic among ICU staff. Today, ICU patients’ loved ones are seen as important for the care of the patient. There is a gap in knowledge and research concerning the frequency and duration of visits by loved ones and the effect of such visits on patient outcome. The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and duration of loved ones’ visits and whether or not such visits have an impact on patient outcome. A prospective, explorative observational study design was used. The sample included 198 ICU patients from a general ICU in Sweden. Twenty-five per cent of the patients had no visitors whatsoever. Forty-seven per cent of the patients who had visitors had visits of ≤0·5 h/day, 36% had visits of between 0·6 and 2 h/day and 17% had visits of >2 h/day. The most frequent visitors were spouses and children. Significant differences between the groups were that the patients who had no visitors were older, had a shorter ICU stay, lower nine equivalents of nursing manpower score and more often lived alone. There were no significant differences in mortality and length of hospital stay over time. We could not establish that patients who had no visitors had a poorer outcome. Most of the older patients had no visitors, which indicates that elderly people may have a poorer social network; thus, there may be a greater need for professional caring relationships and care planning.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hermeneutiska observationsstudier: från ett metodologiskt perspektiv.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan några år har det varit en pågående diskussion om hur observationer kan användas i den vårdvetenskapliga forskningen, när det gäller att samla in kvalitativa forskningsdata och att tolka dessa data med hjälp av hermeneutik. Syftet med denna artikel var att reflektera, argumentera och bidra med ett innehåll i en pågående diskurs som rör utveckling av hermeneutisk tolkning av observationer som vetenskaplig metod via ett exempel genomfört inom intensivvård. I den hermeneutiska observationsstudie som används för att belysa metoden ligger forskningens fokus på att fånga det vårdande i besöken av patienter som vårdas på intensivvårdsavdelning. Den främsta anledningen till varför det finns ett behov av att utveckla och använda observation som datainsamling i det kliniska fältet är behovet av att få insikt i och synliggöra vad vårdandets innersta kärna kan innebära. Men det innefattar även kunskapsbildning om det som innebär att kunna se och vittna om vad som händer.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    The experiences of patients and their families of visiting whilst in an intensive care unit--a hermeneutic interview study.2011In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to interpret and understand the meanings of the lived experiences of visiting of patients in an ICU and their families. METHOD: The research design was hermeneutic, based on interviews. This study includes 12 interviews with seven patients and five relatives who had been in an ICU. The interview text was interpreted in a Gadamerian manner as different plays with actors and plots. FINDINGS: Patients' narratives could be divided into two parts; recall of real life and unreal life experiences, the unreal being more common. Relatives' narratives are described as being on stage and being backstage, i.e. in the room with the patient and outside it. CONCLUSION: The final interpretation elucidated the experience of visiting as the sudden shift between being present in real life vs. being present in the real life of unreality. It was a process whereby the patient and the family build a new understanding of life that creates a new form of interplay within the family. The pre-critical illness life is no longer there--a new life has begun. To support patients and their families in this process of change a family-centred care perspective is necessary.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    The visiting situation in an ICU: an observational hermeneutic study –oral presentation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to interpret the interplay between critically ill patients and their next of kin in an ICU to understand the visiting situation. Method: A hermeneutic research design with non-participant observation was chosen as the data collection method. Ten observations of 10 patients and 24 loved ones over a 20 hour period were conducted. The text describing the observations of the interplay was interpreted in accordance with Gadamer. Data were analysed by considering the text as a play with scenes, actors and plots. Results: The interpretation of the scenes revealed two themes describing the patient’s interplay and six themes describing the next of kin’s interplay. The understanding of the plot concerns people who had entered a situation where normal everyday life was disconnected. The path from health to illness was a totally unfamiliar environment and perception of life, where the body constituted a new and unknown world. As a result of the fact that the patients were unable to use their bodies in the usual way, which sends different signals to their loved ones, who in turn have difficulty deciding how to respond. Both parties become trapped or locked out by their own bodies. Conclusion: A hindrance to the interplay could be the room, which was designed for medical and technical use and thus did not promote healing. The professionals were crucial for interpreting the signals from both patients and next of kin, as well as for finding caring strategies, such as physical contact, that promote interplay, which in turn create a caring and healing atmosphere.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Egerod, Ingrid
    Granberg Axell, Anetth
    Storli, Sissel Lisa
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ågård, Anne Sophie
    Henricson, Maria
    Harden, Sue
    Danielsen, Astrid
    The Nordic Association for Intensive Care Nursing Research (NOFI)2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic nursing studies have a strong tradition within the qualitative approach. This approach has been applied to explore the lived experience of critical illness and intensive care therapy from the perspectives of the patient and the patient’s family. In 2003, the Nordic Association for Intensive Care Nursing Research (NOFI) was established by nursing scholars from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The purpose of NOFI was to encourage research in intensive care nursing in the Nordic countries, to establish a network of intensive care nursing scholars, to exchange research experience and research outcomes among the Nordic research communities, and to increase the visibility of research in intensive care nursing in the Nordic countries. Although the focus was on nursing research, an interdisciplinary approach has also been encouraged with joint research and conference activities. NOFI have arranged biannual conferences for members and other individuals interested in the activities of the network. The venue has rotated among the tree Nordic countries, and the themes of the meetings have been: Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environment and acoustics, relatives of ICU-patients, ways of knowing, sedation, ethics, patient diaries, multimodal interventions, research designs, ICU-delirium, psychometrics, burns, and mechanical ventilation. Other activities have been presentations of newly completed PhD-studies in the Nordic countries. Since 2006, nursing scholars from the three Scandinavian countries have collaborated on a study of diaries written for ICU patients (patient diaries). The three countries share common values, culture and language, which has facilitated the exchange of ideas among the Nordic nurses. Intensive care nursing is a young domain of research. We still need to encourage more scholars within this area to increase our knowledge base, improve the ICU-experience and formalize rehabilitation of post-ICU patients. Intensive care is a collaborative practice and future research should reflect the interdisciplinary aspect of the field.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lindahl, Berit
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Fridh, Isabell
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    The Patient’s Situation During Interhospital Intensive Care Unit-to-Unit Transfers: A Hermeneutical Observational Study2019In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interhospital intensive care unit-to-unit transfers are an increasing phenomenon, earlier mainly studied from a patient safety perspective. Using data from video recordings and participant observations, the aim was to explore and interpret the observed nature of the patient’s situation during interhospital intensive care unit-to-unit transfers. Data collection from eight transfers resulted in over 7 hours of video material and field notes. Using a hermeneutical approach, three themes emerged: being visible and invisible; being in a constantly changing space; and being a fettered body in constant motion. The patient’s situation can be viewed as an involuntary journey, one where the patient exists in a constantly changing space drifting in and out of the health personnel’s attention and where movements from the journey become part of the patient’s body. Interhospital transfers of vulnerable patients emerge as a complex task, challenging the health personnel’s ability to maintain a caring atmosphere around these patients.

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    The Patient’s Situation During Interhospital Intensive Care Unit to Unit Transfers A Hermeneutical Observational Study
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Fridh, Isabell
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Designing and Conducting Observational Research on the Move Within High-Tech Environments2017Conference paper (Refereed)
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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    eNursing - IT-stöd i omvårdnadsteamets arbete: FoU - Bidrag & behov (eNursing WP4)2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    eNursing WP4
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