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  • 1.
    Abelsson, A.
    et al.
    Department of Nursing Science, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Appelgren, J.
    Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Enhanced self-assessment of CPR by low-dose, high-frequency training2021In: International Journal of Emergency Services, ISSN 2047-0894, E-ISSN 2047-0908, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate what effect an intervention of low-dose, high-frequency cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with feedback for one month would have on professionals' subjective self-assessment skill of CPR.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study had a quantitative approach. In total, 38 firefighters performed CPR for two minutes on a Resusci Anne QCPR. They then self-assessed their CPR through four multiple-choice questions regarding compression rate, depth, recoil and ventilation volume. After one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the firefighters once more performed CPR and self-assessed their CPR.

    Findings: With one month of low-dose, high-frequency training with visual feedback, the level of self-assessment was 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of compression rate, 95% (n = 36) correct self-assessment of compression depth, 68% (n = 26) correct self-assessment of recoil and 87% (n = 33) correct self-assessment of ventilations volume. The result shows a reduced number of firefighters who overestimate their ability to perform CPR.

    Originality/value: With low-dose, high-frequency CPR training with visual feedback for a month, the firefighters develop a good ability to self-assess their CPR to be performed within the guidelines. By improving their ability to self-assess their CPR quality, firefighters can self-regulate their compression and ventilation quality. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 2.
    Alsholm, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Niva, My
    Department of Ambulance Care, Jönköping County Hospital.
    Claesson, Lisa
    Department of Ambulance Care, Halland County Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Rosengren, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Jood, Katarina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Interrupted transport by the emergency medical service in stroke/transitory ischemic attack: A consequence of changed treatment routines in prehospital emergency care.2019In: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, article id e01266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The discovery that not all patients who call for the emergency medical service (EMS) require transport to hospital has changed the structure of prehospital emergency care. Today, the EMS clinician at the scene already distinguishes patients with a time-critical condition such as stroke/transitory ischemic attack (TIA) from patients without. This highlights the importance of the early identification of stroke/TIA.

    AIM: To describe patients with a final diagnosis of stroke/TIA whose transport to hospital was interrupted either due to a lack of suspicion of the disease by the EMS crew or due to refusal by the patient or a relative/friend.

    METHODS: Data were obtained from a register in Gothenburg, covering patients hospitalised due to a final diagnosis of stroke/TIA. The inclusion criterion was that patients were assessed by the EMS but were not directly transported to hospital by the EMS.

    RESULTS: Among all the patients who were assessed by the EMS nurse and subsequently diagnosed with stroke or TIA in 2015, the transport of 34 of 1,310 patients (2.6%) was interrupted. Twenty-five of these patients, of whom 20 had a stroke and five had a TIA, are described in terms of initial symptoms and outcome. The majority had residual symptoms at discharge from hospital. Initial symptoms were vertigo/disturbed balance in 11 of 25 cases. Another three had symptoms perceived as a change in personality and three had a headache.

    CONCLUSION: From this pilot study, we hypothesise that a fraction of patients with stroke/TIA who call for the EMS have their direct transport to hospital interrupted due to a lack of suspicion of the disease by the EMS nurse at the scene. These patients appear to have more vague symptoms including vertigo and disturbed balance. Instruments to identify these patients at the scene are warranted.

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  • 3.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Magnusson, Carl
    University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital,.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Seffel, Elin
    Department of Ambulance Care, Södra Älvsborg Hospital.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Munters, Monica
    Department of Ambulance Care, Region of Dalarna.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens högskola.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Adverse events in prehospital emergency care: a trigger tool study2019In: BMC Emergency Medicine, Vol. 19, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prehospital emergency care has developed rapidly during the past decades. The care is given in a complex context which makes prehospital care a potential high-risk activity when it comes to patient safety. Patient safety in the prehospital setting has been only sparsely investigated. The aims of the present study were 1) To investigate the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in prehospital care and 2) To investigate the factors contributing to AEs in prehospital care.

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  • 4.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Linköping University.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Kängström, Anna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Patient safety and patient assessment in pre-hospital care: a study protocol2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient safety issues in pre-hospital care are poorly investigated. The aim of the planned study is to

    survey patient safety problems in pre-hospital care in Sweden.

    Methods/Design: The study is a retro-perspective structured medical record review based on the use of 11 screening

    criteria. Two instruments for structured medical record review are used: a trigger tool instrument designed for

    pre-hospital care and a newly development instrument designed to compare the pre-hospital assessment with

    the final hospital assessment. Three different ambulance organisations are participating in the study. Every month,

    one rater in each organisation randomly collects 30 medical records for review. With guidance from the review

    instrument, he/she independently reviews the record. Every month, the review team meet for a discussion of

    problematic reviews. The results will be analysed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression.

    Discussion: The findings will make an important contribution to knowledge about patient safety issues in prehospital

    care.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Larsson, Anna
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Bång, Angela
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ljungström, Lars
    The early chain of care in bacteraemia patients: Early suspicion, treatment and survivalin prehospital emergency care2018In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Bacteraemia is a first stage for patients risking conditions such as septic shock. The primary aim ofthis study is to describe factors in the early chain of care in bacteraemia, factors associated with increased chanceof survival during the subsequent 28 days after admission to hospital. Furthermore, the long-term outcome wasassessed.

    Methods: This study has a quantitative design based on data fromEmergencyMedical Services (EMS) and hospitalrecords.

    Results: In all, 961 patients were included in the study. Of these patients, 13.5% died during the first 28 days. TheEMS was more frequently used by non-survivors. Among patients who used the EMS, the suspicion of sepsis alreadyon scene was more frequent in survivors. Similarly, EMS personnel noted the ESS code “fever, infection”more frequently for survivors upon arriving on scene. The delay time fromcall to the EMS and admission to hospitaluntil start of antibiotics was similar in survivors and non-survivors. The five-year mortality rate was 50.8%.Five-year mortalitywas 62.6% among those who used the EMS and 29.5% among those who did not (p b 0.0001).

    Conclusion: This study shows that among patientswith bacteraemiawho used the EMS, an early suspicion of sepsisor fever/infection was associated with improved early survival whereas the delay time from call to the EMSand admission to hospital until start of treatment with antibiotics was not. 50.8% of all patients were deadafter five years.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jan-Otto
    et al.
    Ambulance Service, Skaraborg Hospital.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Hjertonsson, Erik
    Department of Medicine, Skövde County Hospital.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    The intensity of pain in the prehospital setting is most strongly reflected in the respiratory rate among physiological parameters.2019In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 2125-2131, article id S0735-6757(19)30038-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In order to treat pain optimally, the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) clinician needs to be able to make a reasonable estimation of the severity of the pain. It is hypothesised that various physiological parameters will change as a response to pain.

    AIM: In a cohort of patients who were seen by EMS clinicians, to relate the patients' estimated intensity of pain to various physiological parameters.

    METHODS: Patients who called for EMS due to pain in a part of western Sweden were included. The intensity of pain was assessed according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) or the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). The following were assessed the same time as pain on EMS arrival: heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, moist skin and paleness.

    RESULTS: In all, 19,908 patients (≥18 years), were studied (51% women). There were significant associations between intensity of pain and the respiratory rate (r = 0.198; p < 0.0001), heart rate (r = 0.037; p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.029; p < 0.0001), moist skin (r = 0.143; p < 0.0001) and paleness (r = 0.171; p < 0.0001). The strongest association was found with respiratory rate among patients aged 18-64 years (r = 0.258; p < 0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: In the prehospital setting, there were significant but weak correlations between intensity of pain and physiological parameters. The most clinically relevant association was found with an increased respiratory rate and presence of pale and moist skin among patients aged < 65 years. Among younger patients, respiratory rate may support in the clinical evaluation of pain.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, C
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. [external].
    Axelsson, Å
    Nestin, J
    Svensson, L
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. [external].
    Clinical consequences of the introduction of mechanical chest compression in the EMS system for treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest-a pilot study.2006In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To evaluate the outcome among patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) after the introduction of mechanical chest compression (MCC) compared with standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (SCPR) in two emergency medical service (EMS) systems. METHODS: The inclusion criterion was witnessed OHCA. The exclusion criteria were age < 18 years, the following judged etiologies behind OHCA: trauma, pregnancy, hypothermia, intoxication, hanging and drowning or return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) prior to the arrival of the advanced life support (ALS) unit. Two MCC devices were allocated during six-month periods between four ALS units for a period of two years (cluster randomisation). RESULTS: In all, 328 patients fulfilled the criteria for participation and 159 were allocated to the MCC tier (the device was used in 66% of cases) and 169 to the SCPR tier. In the MCC tier, 51% had ROSC (primary end-point) versus 51% in the SCPR tier. The corresponding values for hospital admission alive (secondary end-point) were 38% and 37% (NS). In the subset of patients in whom the device was used, the percentage who had ROSC was 49% versus 50% in a control group matched for age, initial rhythm, aetiology, bystander-/crew-witnessed status and delay to CPR. The percentage of patients discharged alive from hospital after OHCA was 8% versus 10% (NS) for all patients and 2% versus 4%, respectively (NS) for the patients in the subset (where the device was used and the matched control population). CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, the results did not support the hypothesis that the introduction of mechanical chest compression in OHCA improves outcome. However, there is room for further improvement in the use of the device. The hypothesis that this will improve outcome needs to be tested in further prospective trials

  • 8.
    Axelsson, C
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. [external].
    Axelsson, Å
    Svensson, L
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. [external].
    Characteristics and outcome among patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with the emphasis on availability for intervention trials.2007In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 460-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To describe all patients treated for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) according to the Utstein criteria and their characteristics and outcome with emphasis on whether they were available for early intervention trials. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a study where data were collected prospectively. SETTING: The Municipality of Göteborg/Mölndal in Sweden. PATIENTS: All patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Municipality of Göteborg/Mölndal in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted between May 2003 and May 2005. INTERVENTIONS: Part of the study cohort, i.e. patients with a witnessed, non-traumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were distributed (cluster) to mechanical (LUCAS) or manual chest compression. RESULTS: The overall survival to discharge from hospital among the 508 patients was 8.5%. The corresponding value for non-cardiac cases was 5.1% and for cardiac cases if crew witnessed 16.1%, bystander witnessed 12.7% and non-witnessed 1.4%. Fifty-nine percent of the patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the trial and had no exclusion criteria and 9.7% of these survived to discharge. Ten percent of patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria but were excluded and 20.4% survived to discharge. Thirty-one percent of patients did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and 2.5% survived. Among patients included in the LUCAS group, many of the survivors, 10/13 (77%), experienced a rapid return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before the application of the device. CONCLUSION: Among patients with OHCA in whom CPR was started 8.5% survived to hospital discharge and 59% were theoretically available for an early intervention trial. These patients have a different outcome compared with patients not available. However, among those available, the majority of survivors had a rapid ROSC before the application of the intervention (LUCAS). This raises concerns about the potential for early intervention trials to improve outcome after OHCA.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, C
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Borgström, J
    Karlsson, T
    Axelsson, Å
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Dispatch codes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be diagnosis related rather than symptom related2010In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 265-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in relation to (i) whether OHCA was coded by the dispatcher as a diagnosis or as a symptom and (ii) the delay until the first unit was alerted at the dispatch centre. Methods: OHCA patients in Göteborg, during 17 months, excluding OHCA after calling the rescue team. Results: Among 250 cases, 20% were coded as a diagnosis (i.e. CA) with or without ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Dispatch codes for the remaining 200 patients (80%) were mostly symptom related (unconsciousness in 61%, codes related to breathing problems in 10%, other codes in 24% and missing in 5%). Patients in whom the dispatchers coded the call as CA had an earlier start to CPR after collapse (median 2 vs. 10 min; P<0.0001) and a higher rate of bystander CPR (86% vs. 42%; P<0.0001). Furthermore, they tended to have a higher rate of survival to hospital discharge (14.0% vs. 6.5%; P  = 0.09). The median delay until the first unit was alerted was 1.8 min. Survival to hospital discharge was 10.0% if the delay was below median and 6.7% if the delay was above median (P = 0.48). Conclusion: Patients with OHCA who were not coded by dispatchers as such had a long delay to the start of CPR and a low survival. Dispatching according to diagnosis, that is, CA seems to improve these parameters most likely reflecting a more optimal communication between the dispatcher and the caller as well as the rescue team.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, C
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herrera, MJ
    Fredriksson, M
    Lindqvist, J
    Herlitz, J
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Implementation of mechanical chest compression in out-of-hospital carfdiac arrest in an emergency medical service system2013In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1196-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the outcome changes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Gothenburg, Sweden, after introduction of mechanical chest compression (MCC). METHODS: Following introduction of MCC, 1183 OHCA patients were treated from November 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011 (period 2). They were compared with 1218 OHCA patients before MCC was introduced from January 1, 1998, to May 30, 2003 (period 1). Patients in period 2 were evaluated for survival in relation to MCC use. RESULTS: The percentage of patients admitted to hospital alive increased from 25.4% to 31.9% (P < .0001). Survival to 1 month increased from 7.1% to 10.7% (P = .002) from period 1 to period 2. The proportion of ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia decreased in period 2 (P = .002). However, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (P < .0001), crew-witnessed cases (P = .04), percutaneous coronary intervention (P < .0001), therapeutic hypothermia (P < .0001), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use (P = .01) increased, as did time from call to emergency medicine service arrival (P < .0001) and to defibrillation (P = .006). In period 2, 60% of OHCA patients were treated with MCC. The percentages admitted alive to hospital (MCC vs no MCC) were 28.6% and 36.1% (P = .008). Corresponding figures for survival to 1 month were 5.6% and 17.6% (P < .0001). In the MCC group, we found increase in the delay from collapse to defibrillation (P < .0001), greater use of adrenaline (P < .0001), and fewer crew-witnessed cases (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Survival to 1 month after implementation of MCC was higher than before introduction. However, patients receiving MCC had low survival. Although case selection might play a role, results do not support a widespread use of MCC after OHCA.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, C
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Holmberg, S
    Axelsson, ÅB
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Passive leg raising during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Does it improve circulation and outcome?2010In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 81, no 12, p. 1615-1620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Passive leg raising (PLR), to augment the artificial circulation, was deleted from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines in 1992. Increases in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) during CPR have been associated with increased pulmonary blood flow reflecting cardiac output. Measurements of PETCO2 after PLR might therefore increase our understanding of its potential value in CPR. We also observed the alteration in PETCO2 in relation to the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and no ROSC. Methods and results The PETCO2 was measured, subsequent to intubation, in 126 patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), during 15min or until ROSC. Forty-four patients were selected by the study protocol to PLR 35cm; 21 patients received manual chest compressions and 23 mechanical compressions. The PLR was initiated during uninterrupted CPR, 5min from the start of PETCO2 measurements. During PLR, an increase in PETCO2 was found in all 44 patients within 15s (p=0.003), 45s (p=0.002) and 75s (p=0.0001). Survival to hospital discharge was 7% among patients with PLR and 1% among those without PLR (p=0.12). Among patients experiencing ROSC (60 of 126), we found a marked increase in PETCO2 1min before the detection of a palpable pulse. Conclusion Since PLR during CPR appears to increase PETCO2 after OHCA, larger studies are needed to evaluate its potential effects on survival. Further, the measurement of PETCO2 could help to minimise the hands-off periods and pulse checks.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, C
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jimenez, M
    Herlitz, J
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    PCI de Lucs. A safety and feasibility study on a pathway to the cath lab for patients with OHCA2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Axelsson, C
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. [external].
    Karlsson, T
    Axelsson, ÅB
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. [external].
    Mechanical active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ACD-CPR) versus manual CPR according to pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2) during CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).2009In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1099-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: In animal and human studies, measuring the pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2) has been shown to be a practical non-invasive method that correlates well with the pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output (CO) generated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This study aims to compare mechanical active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR with standard CPR according to P(ET)CO2 among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), during CPR and with standardised ventilation. METHODS: This prospective, on a cluster level, pseudo-randomised pilot trial took place in the Municipality of Göteborg. During a 2-year period, all patients aged >18 years suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac etiology were enrolled. The present analysis included only tracheally intubated patients in whom P(ET)CO2 was measured for 15 min or until the detection of a pulse-giving rhythm. RESULTS: In all, 126 patients participated in the evaluation, 64 patients in the mechanical chest compression group and 62 patients in the control group. The group receiving mechanical ACD-CPR obtained the significantly highest P(ET)CO2 values according to the average (p=0.04), initial (p=0.01) and minimum (p=0.01) values. We found no significant difference according to the maximum value between groups. CONCLUSION: In this hypothesis generating study mechanical ACD-CPR compared with manual CPR generated the highest initial, minimum and average value of P(ET)CO2. Whether these data can be repeated and furthermore be associated with an improved outcome after OHCA need to be confirmed in a large prospective randomised trial.

  • 14.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Evaluation of various strategies to improve outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with particular focus on mechanical chest compressions2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills vary among health care professionals. A previous study revealed that chest compressions were only performed half the time in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Field conditions and fatigue could be possible explanations. The aim of this thesis was to study the impact of the introduction of mechanical chest compression in OHCA according to survival and its usability and b) passive leg raising (PLR), to augment the artificial circulation, during CPR. ... mer Methods: This thesis is based on a pilot study conducted in the Gothenburg/Mölndal and Södertälje Emergency Medical Service systems in 2003-2005. Witnessed OHCA (adult >18 years) received either mechanical (n=159) or manual (n=169) chest compressions. The pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) has been shown to correlate with cardiac output (CO) during CPR. To compare the effect of the different strategies, the PETCO2 was measured, during CPR, with standardised ventilation. Result: PLR during CPR increased the PETCO2 value within 30 seconds. Mechanical active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR, compared with manual compressions, produced the highest mean of initial, minimum and average values of PETCO2. However, mechanical chest compressions did not appear to result in improved survival. Clinical circumstances such as unidentified cardiac arrests (CAs) resulted in a large drop-out in the intervention group or a late start to the intervention in relation to CA. The late start meant that the intervention targeted a high-risk population with a low chance of survival. The majority of identified CAs were coded by the Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC) according to symptoms (usually unconsciousness), while the minority were coded according to the diagnosis of CA. Patients coded according to the diagnosis of CA had an earlier start of CPR, a higher rate of bystander CPR and a tendency toward higher survival rates. Conclusion: Since PLR during CPR appears to improve circulation after OHCA, larger studies are needed to evaluate its potential effects on survival. Compared with manual compressions, mechanical ACD CPR produces probably the most effective CPR. However, different clinical circumstances make the device difficult to study outside hospital. Coding a CA according to diagnosis rather than symptoms appears to improve the out-of-hospital care.

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  • 15.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Azeli, Youcef
    Jiminez, Maria
    Ordonez Campana, A
    Might the bainbridge reflex have a role in resuscitation when chest compression is combined with passive leg raising?2014In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 85, no 1, p. e21-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of passive leg raising (PLR) in cardiac arrest is not clearly established but PLR has been associated with increased coronary perfusion pressure and increase in End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).1 A case in which PLR was used successfully has recently been published.

  • 16.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Nationella regler krävs för ambulanssjukvård2011In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ambulanssjukvården i Sverige saknar nationella riktlinjer. En konsekvens av detta är brister i tillgängligheten vilket fått allvarliga konsekvenser för flera personer under den senaste tiden. En av dem är Maximilian och hans mamma som blev påkörda på trottoaren av en 23-årig förare som hade tappat kontrollen över sin bil. Det tog nästan en timme innan pojken flögs till sjukhus med helikopter från olycksplatsen på Tjörn utanför Stenungsund. Maximilian blev bara tio veckor.

  • 17.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Englund, Lotta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Så skapas världens bästa ambulanssjukvård2011In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tiden från larm till dess att ambulans kommer har ökat dramatiskt de senaste tio åren i Västra Götaland. Samtidigt bedöms allt fler i behov av snabb utryckning. Kompetens finns att råda bot på detta – om den tillåts styra utvecklingen, skriver bland andra professor Johan Herlitz.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Claesson, Andreas
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Engdahl, J
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hollenberg, J
    Lindqvist, J
    Rosenqvist, M
    Svensson, L
    Outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest witnessed by EMS: changes over time and factors of importance for outcome in Sweden.2012In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 1253-1258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Among patients who survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a large proportion are recruited from cases witnessed by the Emergency Medical Service (EMS), since the conditions for success are most optimal in this subset. Aim To evaluate outcome after EMS-witnessed OHCA in a 20-year perspective in Sweden, with the emphasis on changes over time and factors of importance. Methods All patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Register from 1990 to 2009 were included. Results There were 48,349 patients and 13.5% of them were EMS witnessed. There was a successive increase in EMS-witnessed OHCA from 8.5% in 1992 to 16.9% in 2009 (p for trend < 0.0001). Among EMS-witnessed OHCA, the survival to one month increased from 13.9% in 1992 to 21.8% in 2009 (p for trend < 0.0001). Among EMS-witnessed OHCA, 51% were found in ventricular fibrillation, which was higher than in bystander-witnessed OHCA, despite a lower proportion with a presumed cardiac aetiology in the EMS-witnessed group. Among EMS-witnessed OHCA overall, 16.0% survived to one month, which was significantly higher than among bystander-witnessed OHCA. Independent predictors of a favourable outcome were: (1) initial rhythm ventricular fibrillation; (2) cardiac aetiology; (3) OHCA outside home and (4) decreasing age. Conclusion In Sweden, in a 20-year perspective, there was a successive increase in the proportion of EMS-witnessed OHCA. Among these patients, survival to one month increased over time. EMS-witnessed OHCA had a higher survival than bystander-witnessed OHCA. Independent predictors of an increased chance of survival were initial rhythm, aetiology, place and age.

  • 19.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Karlsson, Anders
    Sjöberg, Henrik
    Jiménez-Herrera, Maria
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andersson, Henrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Gellerstedt, Martin
    Ljungström, Lars
    The Early Chain of Care in Patients with Bacteraemia with the Emphasis on the Prehospital Setting2016In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:  There is a lack of knowledge  about the early phase of severe infection. This reportdescribes the early chain of care in bacteraemia as follows:  (a) compare patients who were and were not transported by the Emergency Medical Services (EMS); (b) describe various aspects of the EMS chain; and (c) describe factors of importance for the delay to the start ofintravenous antibiotics. It was hypothesized that, for patients with suspected sepsis judged by the EMS clinician, the delay until the onset of antibiotic treatment would be shorter.

    Basic Procedures: All  patients  in the Municipality of Gothenburg  (Sweden) with apositive blood culture, when assessed at the Laboratory of Bacteriology in the Municipality of Gothenburg, from February 1 through April 30, 2012 took part in the survey.

    Main Findings/Results:  In all, 696 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Their mean agewas 76 years and 52% were men. Of all patients, 308 (44%) had been in contact with the EMS and/or the emergency department (ED). Of these 308 patients, 232 (75%) were transported by the EMS and 188 (61%) had “true pathogens” in blood cultures. Patients who were transported by the EMS were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms  and signs.The EMS nurse  suspected sepsis in only six percent of the cases. These patients had a delay from arrival at hospital until the start of antibiotics of one hour and 19 minutes  versus three hours and 21 minutes among the remaining patients (P = .0006). The corresponding figures for cases with “true pathogens” were one hour and19 minutes  versus three hours and 15 minutes  (P = .009).

    Conclusion:  Among patients with bacteraemia, 75% used the EMS, and these patients were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms  and signs. The EMS nurse  suspected sepsis in six percent of cases. Regardless  of whether or not patients with true pathogens  were isolated,  a suspicion of sepsis by the EMS clinician at thescene was associated with a shorter delay to the start of antibiotic treatment.

  • 20.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herrera, Maria Jimenez
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    How the context of ambulance care influences learning to become a specialist ambulance nurse a Swedish perspective.2015In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Ambulance emergency care is multifaceted with extraordinary challenges to implement accurate assessment and care. A clinical learning environment providing opportunities for mastering these essential skills is a key component in ensuring that prehospital emergency nurse (PEN) students acquire the necessary clinical competence.

    AIM: The aim is to understand how PEN students experience their clinically based training, focusing on their learning process.

    METHOD: We applied content analysis with its qualitative method to our material that consisted of three reflections each by 28 PEN students over their learning process during their 8weeks of clinical ambulance practice. The research was carried out at the Center for Prehospital Care, University of Borås, Sweden.

    RESULTS: The broad spectrum of ambulance assignments seems to awaken great uncertainty and excessive respect in the students. Student vulnerability appears to decrease when the clinical supervisor behaves calmly, knowledgeably, confidently and reflectively. Early traumatic incidents on the other hand may increase the students' anxiety. Each student is offered a unique opportunity to learn how to approach patients and relatives in their own environments, and likewise an opportunity to gather information for assessment. Infrequency of missions seems to make PEN students less active in their student role, thereby preventing them from availing themselves of potential learning situations. Fatigue and hunger due to lack of breaks or long periods of transportation also inhibit learning mode.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the need for appraisal of the significance of the clinical supervisor, the ambulance environment, and student vulnerability. The broad spectrum of conditions in combination with infrequent assignments make simulation necessary. However, the unique possibilities provided for meeting patients and relatives in their own environments offer the PEN student excellent opportunities for learning how to make assessments.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Holmen, Johan
    Herreira, Maria
    Canardo, Guillermo
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    PCI De Lucs.: A clinical pathway directly to the PCI lab in out of hospital cardiac arrest2016In: American Heart Association, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In Sweden, the ambulance response time from call to arrival is 11 minutes in patients with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, there is a small group of OHCA patients (20%) in whom this delay is minimized, namely those that occur minutes before or after the arrival of the ambulance. Despite CPR and/or defibrillation within one minute, only 20% survive to hospital discharge. The objective was therefore to determine whether a pathway with direct transportation to the cath lab, using mechanical chest compression (LUCAS), could improve survival in this selected group.

    Aim: To describe characteristics, feasibility and outcome among a selected group of OHCA patients transported directly to the cath lab by the ambulance in a new pathway

    Method: A prospective observational study from November 2013 to November 2015

    Inclusion criteria: 1. Crew-witnessed cardiac arrest (CA) of cardiac origin or CA immediately defibrillated to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) by public access. 2. CA occurring two to three minutes before ambulance arrival where the patient had immediate bystander CPR of high quality. 4. CA occurring two to three minutes before ambulance arrival where the patient was still breathing at ambulance arrival.

    Exclusion criteria: Non-cardiac origin CA or high physiologic age (hospice patients)

    Result: Sixty-four patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and 14 were excluded. Of the remaining 50 patients, 25 were transported with mechanical CPR to the cath lab. The time from CA to hospital was a median of 38 minutes. Survival to 30 days was 38% among all patients, 47% among VF (N=34) and 12% (N=25) among those who were transported with mechanical CPR.

    Conclusion: The pathway appears safe and feasible, but the inclusion criteria need to be less complex. The vast majority of survivors were found in the VF population. There were survivors (12%) among patients transported with ongoing CPR (N=25) directly to the cath lab by the ambulance.

  • 22.
    Axelsson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Pande, Katarina
    Wigertz, Kristin
    Örtenwall, Per
    Nordanstig, Joakim
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    A description of the prehospital phase of aortic dissection in terms of early suspicion and treatment.2015In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 30, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Aortic dissection is difficult to detect in the early phase due to a variety of symptoms. This report describes the prehospital setting of aortic dissection in terms of symptoms, treatment, and suspicion by the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) staff.

    BASIC PROCEDURES: All patients in the Municipality of Gothenburg, Sweden, who, in 2010 and 2011, had a hospital discharge diagnosis of aortic dissection (international classification of disease (ICD) I 71,0) were included. The exclusion criteria were: age<18 years of age and having a planned operation. This was a retrospective, descriptive study based on patient records. In the statistical analyses, Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for analyses of dichotomous and continuous/ordered variables.

    MAIN FINDINGS: Of 92 patients, 78% were transported to the hospital by the EMS. The most common symptom was pain (94%). Pain was intensive or very intensive in 89% of patients, with no significant difference in relation to the use of the EMS. Only 47% of those using the EMS were given pain relief with narcotic analgesics. Only 12% were free from pain on admission to the hospital. A suspicion of aortic dissection was reported by the EMS staff in only 17% of cases. The most common preliminary diagnosis at the dispatch center (31%) and by EMS clinicians (52%) was chest pain or angina pectoris. In all, 79% of patients were discharged alive from the hospital (75% of those that used the EMS and 95% of those that did not).

    CONCLUSION: Among patients who were hospitalized due to aortic dissection in Gothenburg, 78% used the EMS. Despite severe pain in the majority of patients, fewer than half received narcotic analgesics, and only 12% were free from pain on admission to the hospital. In fewer than one-in-five patients was a suspicion of aortic dissection reported by the EMS staff.

  • 23.
    Azeli, Y.
    et al.
    Sistema d’Emergències Mèdiques de Catalunya, Carrer de Pablo Iglesias 101–115, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bardají, A.
    Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), Reus, Spain.
    Barbería, E.
    Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Lopez-Madrid, V.
    Emergency Department, Sant Joan University Hospital, Reus, Spain.
    Bladé-Creixenti, J.
    Atenció Primaria, Institut Català de la Salut, Tarragona, Spain.
    Fernández-Sender, L.
    Llevant Clinic Unit, Santa Tecla Hospital, Tarragona, Spain.
    Bonet, G.
    Cardiology Department, Joan XXIII, University Hospital, Tarragona, Spain.
    Rica, E.
    Department de Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Álvarez, S.
    Department de Enginyeria Informàtica i Matemàtiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Fernández, A.
    Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jiménez-Herrera, M. F.
    Department of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Clinical outcomes and safety of passive leg raising in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized controlled trial2021In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 25, no 1, article id 176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are data suggesting that passive leg raising (PLR) improves hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This trial aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of PLR during CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

    Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment of the outcomes that assigned adults OHCA to be treated with PLR or in the flat position. The trial was conducted in the Camp de Tarragona region. The main end point was survival to hospital discharge with good neurological outcome defined as cerebral performance category (CPC 1–2). To study possible adverse effects, we assessed the presence of pulmonary complications on the first chest X-rays, brain edema on the computerized tomography (CT) in survivors and brain and lungs weights from autopsies in non-survivors.

    Results: In total, 588 randomized cases were included, 301 were treated with PLR and 287 were controls. Overall, 67.8% were men and the median age was 72 (IQR 60–82) years. At hospital discharge, 3.3% in the PLR group and 3.5% in the control group were alive with CPC 1–2 (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.4–2.3, p = 0.91). No significant differences in survival at hospital admission were found in all patients (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.7–1.6, p = 0.95) and among patients with an initial shockable rhythm (OR 1.7; 95% CI 0.8–3.4, p = 0.15). There were no differences in pulmonary complication rates in chest X-rays [7 (25.9%) vs 5 (17.9%), p = 0.47] and brain edema on CT [5 (29.4%) vs 10 (32.6%), p = 0.84]. There were no differences in lung weight [1223 mg (IQR 909–1500) vs 1239 mg (IQR 900–1507), p = 0.82] or brain weight [1352 mg (IQR 1227–1457) vs 1380 mg (IQR 1255–1470), p = 0.43] among the 106 autopsies performed.

    Conclusion: In this trial, PLR during CPR did not improve survival to hospital discharge with CPC 1–2. No evidence of adverse effects has been found.

    Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01952197, registration date: September 27, 2013, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01952197. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] 

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  • 24.
    Azeli, Youcef
    et al.
    Sistema d'Emergències Mèdiques de Catalunya, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
    Barberia, E
    Institut de Medicina Legal y Forense de Catalunya, Tarragona, Spain.
    Jimenez Herrera, Maria
    Departamento de Enfermería, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Ameijide, A
    Unidad de Bioestadística, Fundació Lliga per a la Investigació i Prevenció del Càncer, Reus, Tarragona, Spain.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Bardaji, Alfredo
    Institut d'Investigació Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Tarragona, España. Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.
    Serious injuries secondary to cardiopulmonary resuscitation: incidence and associated factors.2019In: Emergencias, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 327-334, article id 31625304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    To determine the incidence of serious rib cage damage (SRD) and serious visceral damage (SVD) secondary to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and to explore associated factors.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS:

    We analyzed data from the prospective registry of cases of sudden death in Tarragona, Spain (the ReCaPTa study). Cases were collected from multiple surveillance sources. In this study we included the cases of autopsied nonsurvivors after attempted manual CPR between April 2014 and May 2016. A specific protocol to detect injuries secondary to CPR was used during the autopsies.

    RESULTS:

    We analyzed 109 cases. The mean age at death was 63 years and 32.1% were women. SRD were found in 63.3% and SVD in 14.7%. The group with SRD were significantly older (63 vs 59 years, P=.031) and included higher percentages of persons with a chest circumference over 101 cm (56.5 vs 30%, P=.016) and a waist circumference over 100 cm (62.3 vs 37.5%, P=.017). A multivariable analysis confirmed chest circumference over 101 cm as the only risk factor for SRD (odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% CI, 1.03-5.84) and female sex as the only risk factor for SVD (OR, 5.02; 95% CI, 1.18-21.25).

    CONCLUSION:

    Women and any patient with a chest circumference greater than 101 cm are at greater risk for serious injuries related to CPR.

  • 25. Azeli, Youcef
    et al.
    Barberia, E
    Jimenez Herrera, Maria
    Bonet, G
    Valero-Mora, Eva
    Lopez-Gomariz, A
    Lucas-Guarque, Isac
    Guillen-Lopez, A
    Alonso-Villaverde, C
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Bardaji, Alfredo
    The ReCaPTa study - a prospective out of hospital cardiac arrest registry including multiple sources of surveillance for the study of sudden cardiac death in the Mediterranean area2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, ISSN ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the industrialized world. Sudden cardiac death is very often the first manifestation of the disease and it occurs in the prehospital setting. The determination of the sudden cardiac death phenotype is challenging. It requires prospective studies in the community including multiple sources of case ascertainment that help to identify the cause and circumstances of death. The aim of the Clinical and Pathological Registry of Tarragona (ReCaPTa) is to study incidence and etiology of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Tarragona region (Catalonia, Spain). Methods: ReCaPTa is a population-based registry of OHCA using multiple sources of surveillance. The population base is 511,662. This registry is compiled chronologically in a relational database and it prospectively contains data on all the OHCA attended by the EMS from April 2014 to April 2017. ReCaPTa collects data after each emergency medical assistance using an online application including variables of the onset of symptoms. A quality control is performed and it permits monitoring the percentage of cases included by the emergency crew. Simultaneously, data from the medico-legal autopsies is taken from the Pathology Center of the area. All the examination findings following a specific protocol for the sudden death study are entered into the ReCaPTa database by one trained person. Survivors admitted to hospital are followed up and their clinical variables are collected in each hospital. The primary care researchers analyze the digital clinical records in order to obtain medical background. All the available data will be reviewed after an adjudication process with the aim of identifying all cases of sudden cardiac death. Discussion: There is a lack of population-based registries including multiple source of surveillance in the Mediterranean area. The ReCaPTa study could provide valuable information to prevent sudden cardiac death and develop new strategies to improve its survival.

  • 26.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jimenéz-Herrera, Maria
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Burjalés Martí, D
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Casali, Luca
    Ethical values in emergency medical services: A pilot study.2015In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 928-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ambulance professionals often address conflicts between ethical values. As individuals’ values represent basic convictions of what is right or good and motivate behaviour, research is needed to understand their value profiles. Objectives: To translate and adapt the Managerial Values Profile to Spanish and Swedish, and measure the presence of utilitarianism, moral rights and/or social justice in ambulance professionals’ value profiles in Spain and Sweden. Methods: The instrument was translated and culturally adapted. A content validity index was calculated. Pilot tests were carried out with 46 participants. Ethical considerations: This study conforms to the ethical principles for research involving human subjects and adheres to national laws and regulations concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Findings: Spanish professionals favoured justice and Swedish professionals’ rights in their ambulance organizations. Both countries favoured utilitarianism least. Gender differences across countries showed that males favoured rights. Spanish female professionals favoured justice most strongly of all. Discussion: Swedes favour rights while Spaniards favour justice. Both contexts scored low on utilitarianism focusing on total population effect, preferring the opposite, individualized approach of the rights and justice perspectives. Organizational investment in a utilitarian perspective might jeopardize ambulance professionals’ moral right to make individual assessments based on the needs of the patient at hand. Utilitarianism and a caring ethos appear as stark opposites. However, a caring ethos in its turn might well involve unreasonable demands on the individual carer’s professional role. Since both the justice and rights perspectives portrayed in the survey mainly concern relationship to the organization and peers within the organization, this relationship might at worst be given priority over the equal treatment and moral rights of the patient. Conclusion: A balanced view on ethical perspectives is needed to make professionals observant and ready to act optimally – especially if these perspectives are used in patient care. Research is needed to clarify how justice and rights are prioritized by ambulance services and whether or not these organization-related values are also implemented in patient care.

  • 27.
    Bremer, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jiménez Herrera, María
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Burjalés Martí, Dolors
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Casali, Gian Luca
    Ethical values in emergency medical services: A pilot study2015In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 928-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ambulance professionals often address conflicts between ethical values. As individuals' values represent basic convictions of what is right or good and motivate behaviour, research is needed to understand their value profiles. OBJECTIVES: To translate and adapt the Managerial Values Profile to Spanish and Swedish, and measure the presence of utilitarianism, moral rights and/or social justice in ambulance professionals' value profiles in Spain and Sweden. METHODS: The instrument was translated and culturally adapted. A content validity index was calculated. Pilot tests were carried out with 46 participants. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: This study conforms to the ethical principles for research involving human subjects and adheres to national laws and regulations concerning informed consent and confidentiality. FINDINGS: Spanish professionals favoured justice and Swedish professionals' rights in their ambulance organizations. Both countries favoured utilitarianism least. Gender differences across countries showed that males favoured rights. Spanish female professionals favoured justice most strongly of all. DISCUSSION: Swedes favour rights while Spaniards favour justice. Both contexts scored low on utilitarianism focusing on total population effect, preferring the opposite, individualized approach of the rights and justice perspectives. Organizational investment in a utilitarian perspective might jeopardize ambulance professionals' moral right to make individual assessments based on the needs of the patient at hand. Utilitarianism and a caring ethos appear as stark opposites. However, a caring ethos in its turn might well involve unreasonable demands on the individual carer's professional role. Since both the justice and rights perspectives portrayed in the survey mainly concern relationship to the organization and peers within the organization, this relationship might at worst be given priority over the equal treatment and moral rights of the patient. CONCLUSION: A balanced view on ethical perspectives is needed to make professionals observant and ready to act optimally - especially if these perspectives are used in patient care. Research is needed to clarify how justice and rights are prioritized by ambulance services and whether or not these organization-related values are also implemented in patient care.

  • 28.
    Claesson, A
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Svensson, L
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ottosson, L
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Bergfeldt, L
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Engdahl, J
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ericson, C
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Sandén, P
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Defibrillation before EMS arrival in western Sweden.2017In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1043-1048, article id S0735-6757(17)30117-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bystanders play a vital role in public access defibrillation (PAD) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Dual dispatch of first responders (FR) alongside emergency medical services (EMS) can reduce time to first defibrillation. The aim of this study was to describe the use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in OHCAs before EMS arrival.

    METHODS: All OHCA cases with a shockable rhythm in which an AED was used prior to the arrival of EMS between 2008 and 2015 in western Sweden were eligible for inclusion. Data from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) were used for analysis, on-site bystander and FR defibrillation were compared with EMS defibrillation in the final analysis.

    RESULTS: Of the reported 6675 cases, 24% suffered ventricular fibrillation (VF), 162 patients (15%) of all VF cases were defibrillated before EMS arrival, 46% with a public AED on site. The proportion of cases defibrillated before EMS arrival increased from 5% in 2008 to 20% in 2015 (p<0.001). During this period, 30-day survival increased in patients with VF from 22% to 28% (p=0.04) and was highest when an AED was used on site (68%), with a median delay of 6.5min from collapse to defibrillation. Adjusted odds ratio for on-site defibrillation versus dispatched defibrillation for 30-day survival was 2.45 (95% CI: 1.02-5.95).

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of AEDs before the arrival of EMS increased over time. This was associated with an increased 30-day survival among patients with VF. Thirty-day survival was highest when an AED was used on site before EMS arrival.

  • 29. Claesson, Andreas
    et al.
    Djärv, Therese
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Nordberg, Pär
    Ring, Mattias
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Ravn-Fischer, Annika
    Strömsöe, Annelie
    Medical versus non medical etiology in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest-Changes in outcome in relation to the revised Utstein template.2016In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 110, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    The Utstein-style recommendations for reporting etiology and outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from 2004 have recently been revised. Among other etiologies a medical category is now introduced, replacing the cardiac category from Utstein template 2004.

    AIM:

    The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and temporal trends from reporting OHCA etiology according to the revised Utstein template 2014 in regards to patient characteristics and 30-day survival rates.

    METHODS:

    This registry study is based on consecutive OHCA cases reported from the Emergency medical services (EMS) to the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) 1992-2014. Characteristics, including a presumed cardiac etiology in Utstein template 2004, were transcribed to a medical etiology in Utstein template 2014.

    RESULTS:

    Of a total of n=70,846 cases, 92% were categorized as having a medical etiology and 8% as having a non-medical cause. Using the new classifications, the 30-day survival rate has significantly increased over a 20-year period from 4.7% to 11.0% in the medical group and from 3% to 9.9% in the non-medical group (p≤0.001). Trauma was the most common cause in OHCA of a non-medical etiology (26%) with a 30-day survival rate of 3.4% whilst drowning and drug overdose had the highest survival rates (14% and 10% respectively).

    CONCLUSION:

    Based on Utstein 2014 categories of etiology, overall survival after OHCA with a medical etiology has more than doubled in a 20-year period and tripled for non-medical cases. Patients with a medical etiology found in a shockable rhythm have the highest chance of survival. There is great variability in characteristics among non-medical cases.

  • 30. Claesson, Andreas
    et al.
    Djärv, Therese
    Norberg, Per
    Ring, Mattias
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ravn-Fisher, Annica
    Stromsoe, Annelie
    Medicalversus non medical etiology in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest-Changes inoutcome in relation to the revised Utstein template2016In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 110, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The Utstein-style recommendations for reporting etiology and outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from 2004 have recently been revised. Among other etiologies a medical category is now introduced, replacing the cardiac category from Utstein template 2004. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and temporal trends from reporting OHCA etiology according to the revised Utstein template 2014 in regards to patient characteristics and 30-day survival rates. METHODS: This registry study is based on consecutive OHCA cases reported from the Emergency medical services (EMS) to the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) 1992-2014. Characteristics, including a presumed cardiac etiology in Utstein template 2004, were transcribed to a medical etiology in Utstein template 2014. RESULTS: Of a total of n=70,846 cases, 92% were categorized as having a medical etiology and 8% as having a non-medical cause. Using the new classifications, the 30-day survival rate has significantly increased over a 20-year period from 4.7% to 11.0% in the medical group and from 3% to 9.9% in the non-medical group (p</=0.001). Trauma was the most common cause in OHCA of a non-medical etiology (26%) with a 30-day survival rate of 3.4% whilst drowning and drug overdose had the highest survival rates (14% and 10% respectively). CONCLUSION: Based on Utstein 2014 categories of etiology, overall survival after OHCA with a medical etiology has more than doubled in a 20-year period and tripled for non-medical cases. Patients with a medical etiology found in a shockable rhythm have the highest chance of survival. There is great variability in characteristics among non-medical cases.

  • 31.
    Djarv, T
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Stromsoe, A
    Mälardalen University.
    Israelsson, J
    Linnaeus University.
    Claesson, A
    Linköping University.
    Traumatic cardiac arrest in Sweden 1990-2016 - a population-based national cohort study.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Trauma is a main cause of death among young adults worldwide. Patients experiencing a traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) certainly have a poor prognosis but population-based studies are sparse. Primarily to describe characteristics and 30-day survival following a TCA as compared with a medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (medical CA).

    METHODS: A cohort study based on data from the nationwide, prospective population-based Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR), a medical cardiac arrest registry, between 1990 and 2016. The definition of a TCA in the SRCR is a patient who is unresponsive with apnoea where cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or defibrillation have been initiated and in whom the Emergency Medical Services (EMS, mainly a nurse-based system) reported trauma as the aetiology. Outcome was overall 30-day survival. Descriptive statistics as well as multivariable logistic regression models were used.

    RESULTS: In all, between 1990 and 2016, 1774 (2.4%) cases had a TCA and 72,547 had a medical CA. Overall 30-day survival gradually increased over the years, and was 3.7% for TCAs compared to 8.2% following a medical CA (p < 0.01). Among TCAs, factors associated with a higher 30-day survival were bystander witnessed and having a shockable initial rhythm (adjusted OR 2.67, 95% C.I. 1.15-6.22 and OR 8.94 95% C.I. 4.27-18.69, respectively).

    DISCUSSION: Association in registry-based studies do not imply causality but TCA had short time intervals in the chain of survival as well as high rates of bystander-CPR.

    CONCLUSION: In a medical CA registry like ours, prevalence of TCAs is low and survival is poor. Registries like ours might not capture the true incidence. However, many individuals do survive and resuscitation in TCAs should not be seen futile.

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  • 32.
    Hagiwara, M
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bremer, A
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Claesson, A
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Axelsson, C
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Norberg, Gabriella
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, J
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    The impact of direct admission to a catheterisation lab/CCU in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction on the delay to reperfusion and early risk of death: results of a systematic review including meta-analysis2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 22, no 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background For each hour of delay from fist medical contact until reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) there is a 10% increase in risk of death and heart failure. The aim of this review is to describe the impact of the direct admission of patients with STEMI to a Catheterisation laboratory (cath lab) as compared with transport to the emergency department (ED) with regard to delays and outcome. Methods Databases were searched for from April-June 2012 and updated January 2014: 1) Pubmed; 2) Embase; 3) Cochrane Library; 4) ProQuest Nursing and 5) Allied Health Sources. The search was restricted to studies in English, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian languages. The intervention was a protocol-based clinical pre-hospital pathway and main outcome measurements were the delay to balloon inflation and hospital mortality. Results Median delay from door to balloon was significantly shorter in the intervention group in all 5 studies reported. Difference in median delay varied between 16 minutes and 47 minutes. In all 7 included studies the time from symptom onset or first medical contact to balloon time was significantly shorter in the intervention group. The difference in median delay varied between 15 minutes and 1 hour and 35 minutes. Only two studies described hospital mortality. When combined the risk of death was reduced by 37%. Conclusion An overview of available studies of the impact of a protocol-based pre-hospital clinical pathway with direct admission to a cath lab as compared with the standard transport to the ED in ST-elevation AMI suggests the following. The delay to the start of revascularisation will be reduced. The clinical benefit is not clearly evidence based. However, the documented association between system delay and outcome defends the use of the pathway.

  • 33. Hasselqvist-Ax, Ingela
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Svensson, Leif
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Early CPR in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.2015In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 373, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Herlitz, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Wireklint-Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lundberg, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Suspicion and treatment of severe sepsis. An overview of the prehospital chain of care.2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 20, no 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sepsis is a life-threatening condition where the risk of death has been reported to be even higher than that associated with the major complications of atherosclerosis, i.e. myocardial infarction and stroke. In all three conditions, early treatment could limit organ dysfunction and thereby improve the prognosis. Aim To describe what has been published in the literature a/ with regard to the association between delay until start of treatment and outcome in sepsis with the emphasis on the pre-hospital phase and b/ to present published data and the opportunity to improve various links in the pre-hospital chain of care in sepsis. Methods A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Embase (Ovid SP) and Cochrane Library databases. Results In overall terms, we found a small number of articles (n=12 of 1,162 unique hits) which addressed the prehospital phase. For each hour of delay until the start of antibiotics, the prognosis appeared to become worse. However, there was no evidence that prehospital treatment improved the prognosis. Studies indicated that about half of the patients with severe sepsis used the emergency medical service (EMS) for transport to hospital. Patients who used the EMS experienced a shorter delay to treatment with antibiotics and the start of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). Among EMS-transported patients, those in whom the EMS staff already suspected sepsis at the scene had a shorter delay to treatment with antibiotics and the start of EGDT. There are insufficient data on other links in the prehospital chain of care, i.e. patients, bystanders and dispatchers. Conclusion Severe sepsis is a life-threatening condition. Previous studies suggest that, with every hour of delay until the start of antibiotics, the prognosis deteriorates. About half of the patients use the EMS. We need to know more about the present situation with regard to the different links in the prehospital chain of care in sepsis.

  • 35.
    Herlitz, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lundgren, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Larsson, Glenn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Rawshani, Araz
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Den prehospitala akutsjukvården i Sverige har stora utmaningar2021In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, article id 21119Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Herlitz, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lundgren, Peter
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg .
    Larsson, Glenn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg .
    Wibring, Kristoffer
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Över 100 doktorsavhandlingar inom den prehospitala akutsjukvården i Sverige2023In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 120Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    HUVUDBUDSKAP

    • Över 100 avhandlingar har i dagsläget skrivits om den prehospitala akutsjukvården i Sverige.
    • Dessa täcker ett omfattande kunskapsfält, allt ifrån prognostiska faktorer vid akut sjukdom till ambulans personalens psykiska och fysiska hälsa.
    • Endast ett kunskapsområde har belysts mera om fattande, och det är hjärt–lungräddning vid plötsligt hjärtstopp.
    • Vården av patienter med psykisk ohälsa har inte belysts i någon avhandling.
    • Det finns stora kunskapsluckor, och vidare forskning inom området behövs.
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  • 37.
    Holmén, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Queen Silvia’s Children’s Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Immediate coronary intervention in prehospital cardiac arrest-Aiming to save lives.2018In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 202, p. 144-147, article id S0002-8703(18)30158-3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Holmén, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Queen Silvia’s Children’s Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. SU Ambulansen.
    Immediatecoronary intervention in prehospital cardiac arrest-Aiming to save lives.2018In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 202, p. 144-147Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Holmén, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Prehospital and Emergency Care, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Queen Silvia's Children's Hospital Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jimenez-Herrera, Maria
    Department of Nursing, Universitat Rovira i Virgili Spain.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Health Metrics Unit, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Passive leg raising in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.2019In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 137, p. 94-101, article id S0300-9572(18)30888-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The use of passive leg raising (PLR) in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is sometimes discussed and even recommended. The effect of this intervention has never been properly addressed. We planned to determine whether PLR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with an improved survival to 30 days.

    METHODS: In eight districts in western Sweden, we introduced PLR within five minutes after the start of CPR, among patients with OHCA. Patients in whom PLR was not performed, within the same district, served as a control group. Thirty-day survival was the primary endpoint. A propensity score analysis, as well as a standard multivariate analysis, was used to assess possible differences between the two groups.

    RESULTS: We identified 3554 patients with OHCA from the eight districts. Forty-four percent were treated with PLR during CPR. Patients who received PLR differed from those who did not, by having more risk factors for an adverse outcome (fewer crew-witnessed cases, more OHCA at home, a greater need for medication and prolonged delays to treatment). The overall survival to 30 days was 7.9% among patients who received PLR versus 13.5% among those who did not. A comparison of the groups, using propensity score matching, revealed a 30 -day survival of 8.6% in the PLR group versus 8.2% in the control group (odds ratio 1.07; 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.44).

    CONCLUSION: In an observational study, we introduced PLR as an addition to standard treatment in patients with OHCA. We did not find any evidence that this treatment improves survival to 30 days.

  • 40.
    Holmén, Johan
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Herrera, Maria Jiménez
    Sistema Emergències Mèdiques de Catalunya.
    Azeli, Youcef
    Sistema Emergències Mèdiques de Catalunya.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Survival in ventricular fibrillation with emphasis on the number of defibrillations in relation to other factors at resuscitation.2017In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 113, p. 33-38, article id S0300-9572(17)30017-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Mortality after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is high and a shockable rhythm is a key predictor of survival. A concomitant need for repeated shocks appears to be associated with less favorable outcome.

    AIM: To, among patients found in ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) describe: (a) factors associated with 30-day survival with emphasis on the number of defibrillatory shocks delivered; (b) the distribution of and the characteristics of patients in relation to the number of defibrillatory shocks that were delivered.

    METHODS: Patients who were reported to The Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) between January 1 1990 and December 31 2015 and who were found in VF/pVT took part in the survey.

    RESULTS: In all there were 19,519 patients found in VF/pVT. The 30-day survival decreased with an increasing number of shocks among all patients regardless of witnessed status and regardless of time period in the survey. In a multivariate analysis there were 12 factors that were associated with the chance of 30-day survival one of which was the number of shocks that was delivered. For each shock that was added the chance of survival decreased. Factors associated with an increased 30-day survival included CPR before arrival of EMS, female sex, cardiac etiology and year of OHCA (increasing survival over years). Factors associated with a decreased chance of 30-day survival included: increasing age, OHCA at home, the use of adrenaline and intubation and an increased delay to CPR, defibrillation and EMS arrival.

    CONCLUSION: Among patients found in VF/pVT, 7.5% required more than 10 shocks. For each shock that was added the chance of 30-day survival decreased. There was an increase in 30-day survival over time regardless of the number of shocks. On top of the number of defibrillations, eleven further factors were associated with 30-day survival.

  • 41.
    Jensen, Emil
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Rentzhog, Helena
    University of Borås.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lundgren, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Changes in temperature in preheated crystalloids at ambient temperatures relevant to a prehospital setting: an experimental simulation study with the application of prehospital treatment of trauma patients suffering from accidental hypothermia2024In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 24, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Accidental hypothermia is common in all trauma patients and contributes to the lethal diamond, increasing both morbidity and mortality. In hypotensive shock, fluid resuscitation is recommended using fluids with a temperature of 37–42°, as fluid temperature can decrease the patient’s body temperature. In Sweden, virtually all prehospital services use preheated fluids. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the temperature of preheated infusion fluids is affected by the ambient temperatures and flow rates relevant for prehospital emergency care.

    Methods

    In this experimental simulation study, temperature changes in crystalloids preheated to 39 °C were evaluated. The fluid temperature changes were measured both in the infusion bag and at the patient end of the infusion system. Measurements were conducted in conditions relevant to prehospital emergency care, with ambient temperatures varying between − 4 and 28 °C and flow rates of 1000 ml/h and 6000 ml/h, through an uninsulated infusion set at a length of 175 cm.

    Results

    The flow rate and ambient temperature affected the temperature in the infusion fluid both in the infusion bag and at the patient end of the system. A lower ambient temperature and lower flow rate were both associated with a greater temperature loss in the infusion fluid.

    Conclusion

    This study shows that both a high infusion rate and a high ambient temperature are needed if an infusion fluid preheated to 39 °C is to remain above 37 °C when it reaches the patient using a 175-cm-long uninsulated infusion set. It is apparent that the lower the ambient temperature, the higher the flow rate needs to be to limit temperature loss of the fluid.

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  • 42. Jimenez, Maria
    et al.
    Azeli, Youcef
    Valero Mora, Eva
    Lucas Guarquel, Isac
    Lopes Gomariz, Alfredo
    Castro Naval, E
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Passive leg raise (plr) during cardiopulmonary (cpr): a method article on a randomised study of survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (ohca)2014In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 14, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background It is estimated that about 275,000 inhabitants experience an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) every year in Europe. Survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is relatively low, generally between five per cent and 10%. Being able to explore new methods to improve the relatively low survival rate is vital for people with these conditions. Passive leg raise (PLR) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been found to improve cardiac preload and blood flow during chest compressions. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether early PLR during CPR also has an impact on one-month survival in sudden and unexpected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Method/Design A prospective, randomized, controlled trial in which all patients (≥18 years) receiving out-of hospital CPR are randomized by envelope to be treated with either PLR or in the flat position. The ambulance crew use a special folding stool which allows the legs to be elevated about 20 degrees. Primary end-point: survival to one month. Secondary end-point: survival to hospital admission to one month and to one year with acceptable cerebral performance classification (CPC) 1–2. Discussion PLR is a simple and fast maneuver. We believe that the greatest benefit with PLR is when performed early in the process, during the first minutes of CPR and before the first defibrillation. To reach power this study need 3000 patients, we hope that this method article will encourage other sites to contact us and take part in our study. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01952197.

  • 43.
    Jimenez-Herrera, Maria F.
    et al.
    Nursing Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av/ Catalunya, 35 43002, Tarragona, Spain.
    Llaurado-Serra, Mireia
    Faculty of Medicine and Health science, Nursing Department, University Internacional of Catalonia (UIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Acebedo-Urdiales, Sagrario
    Nursing Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av/ Catalunya, 35 43002, Tarragona, Spain.
    Bazo-Hernandez, Leticia
    Nursing Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av/ Catalunya, 35 43002, Tarragona, Spain.
    Font-Jimenez, Isabel
    Nursing Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av/ Catalunya, 35 43002, Tarragona, Spain.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Emotions and feelings in critical and emergency caring situations: a qualitative study2020In: BMC Nursing, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 19, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Moral emotions are a key element of our human morals. Emotions play an important role in the caring process. Decision-making and assessment in emergency situations are complex and they frequently result in different emotions and feelings among health-care professionals. Methods The study had qualitative deductive design based on content analysis. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with sixteen participants. Results The emerging category “emotions and feelings in caring” has been analysed according to Haidt, considering that moral emotions include the subcategories of “Condemning emotions”, “Self-conscious emotions”, “Suffering emotions” and “Praising emotions”. Within these subcategories, we found that the feelings that nurses experienced when ethical conflicts arose in emergency situations were related to caring and decisions associated with it, even when they had experienced situations in which they believed they could have helped the patient differently, but the conditions at the time did not permit it and they felt that the ethical conflicts in clinical practice created a large degree of anxiety and moral stress. The nurses felt that caring, as seen from a nursing perspective, has a sensitive dimension that goes beyond the patient’s own healing and, when this dimension is in conflict with the environment, it has a dehumanising effect. Positive feelings and satisfaction are created when nurses feel that care has met its objectives and that there has been an appropriate response to the needs. Conclusions Moral emotions can help nurses to recognise situations that allow them to promote changes in the care of patients in extreme situations. They can also be the starting point for personal and professional growth and an evolution towards person-centred care.

  • 44. Jiminez Herrera, Maria F
    et al.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Some ethical conflicts in emergency care2015In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 928-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background: Decision-making and assessment in emergency situations are complex and result many times in ethical conflicts between different healthcare professionals. Aim: To analyse and describe situations that can generate ethical conflict among nurses working in emergency situations. Methods: Qualitative analysis. A total of 16 emergency nurses took part in interviews and a focus group. Ethical considerations: Organisational approval by the University Hospital, and informed consent and confidentiality were ensured before conducting the research. Result/conclusion: Two categories emerged: one in ‘ethical issues’ and one in ‘emotions and feelings in caring’. The four ethical subcategories are presented: Autonomy, the first sub category: first, the nurse’s ability to practise care on an emergency ward and, second, to support the patient and/or relatives in terms of care and medical treatment. The conflicts arise when the nurse ends up in the middle between the patient and the physician responsible for the diagnosis and treatment from a nature scientific perspective. Reification of injured body: patient was often reified and fragmented, becoming just a leg or arm. Different factors contributed in this perspective. Pain: pain relief was often inadequate but more effectively treated in the emergency medical services than at the emergency department. The nurses highlighted the phenomenon of suffering because they felt that pain was only an object, forgetting the patients’ care need, like separating mind from body. Death: the nurses felt that the emergency services are only prepared to save lives and not to take care of the needs of patients with ‘end-of-life’ care. Another issue was the lack of ethical guidelines during a cardiac arrest. Resuscitation often continues without asking about the patient’s ‘previous wishes’ in terms of resuscitation or not. In these situations, the nurses describe an ethical conflict with the physician in performing their role as the patient’s advocate. The nurses express feelings of distress, suffering, anger and helplessness.

  • 45.
    Kauppi, Wivica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jiménez-Herrera, Maria F.
    Nursing Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Tarragona, Spain.
    Palmér, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Patients' lived experiences of breathlessness prior to prehospital care – A phenomenological study2022In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 2179-2189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Aims and objectives The study aimed to describe how breathlessness is experienced by patients prior to prehospital care. Design A qualitative phenomenological design. Methods Lifeworld interviews were conducted with 14 participants. The analysis was carried out within the descriptive phenomenological framework. Results The essential meaning of the breathlessness phenomenon is described as an existential fear in terms of losing control over one?s body and dying, which involves a battle to try to regain control. This is further described by four constituents: being in an unknown body, striving to handle the situation, the ambiguity of having loved ones close and reaching the utmost border. Conclusions Patients describe a battling for survival. It is at the extreme limit of endurance that patients finally choose to call the emergency number. It is a challenge for the ambulance clinician (AC) to support these patients in the most optimal fashion.

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  • 46.
    Kauppi, Wivica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Emergency Medical Service (EMS), Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jiménez‐Herrera, Maria
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden; Nursing Department, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Tarragona, Spain.
    Palmér, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lived experiences of being cared for by ambulance clinicians when experiencing breathlessness—A phenomenological study2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Breathlessness is a serious and distressing symptom and a common reason why patients require prehospital care by ambulance clinicians. However, little is known about how patients experience this care when they are in a state of breathlessness.

     

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to describe the lived experiences of being cared for by ambulance clinicians when experiencing breathlessness.

     

    Methods

    Fourteen lifeworld interviews were conducted with patients who experienced breathlessness and were cared for by ambulance clinicians. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative phenomenological approach.

     

    Findings

    The essential meaning of being cared for by ambulance clinicians when experiencing breathlessness is described in two ways: existential humanising care, in which the experience is that of being embraced by a genuine presence or existential dehumanising care, in which feeling exposed to an objectifying presence is the main experience. This meaning has four constituents: surrendering to and trusting in the care that will come; being exposed to an objectifying presence is violating; being embraced by a genuine presence is relieving; and knowing is dwelling.

     

    Conclusion

    The findings reveal that the ability of ambulance clinicians to provide existential humanising and trustful care, which is the foundation of professional judgement, was essential in how patients responded to and handled the overall situation when breathlessness.

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  • 47.
    Kauppi, Wivica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Carl
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmér, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Pre-hospital predictors of an adverse outcome among patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom assessed by prehospital emergency nurses- a retrospective observational study2020In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 20, no 89, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dyspnoea is one of the most common reasons for patients contacting emergency medical services (EMS). Pre-hospital Emergency Nurses (PENs) are independently responsible for advanced care and to meet thesepatients individual needs. Patients with dyspnoea constitute a complex group, with multiple different final diagnoses and with a high risk of death. This study aimed to describe on-scene factors associated with an increased risk of a time-sensitive final diagnosis and the risk of death.

    Methods: A retrospective observational study including patients aged ≥16 years, presenting mainly with dyspnoea was conducted. Patients were identified thorough an EMS database, and were assessed by PENs in the southwestern part of Sweden during January to December 2017. Of 7260 missions (9% of all primary missions), 6354 were included. Among those, 4587 patients were randomly selected in conjunction with adjusting for uniquepatients with single occasions. Data were manually collected through both EMS- and hospital records and final diagnoses were determined through the final diagnoses verified in hospital records. Analysis was performed usingmultiple logistic regression and multiple imputations.

    Results: Among all unique patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom, 13% had a time-sensitive final diagnosis. The three most frequent final time-sensitive diagnoses were cardiac diseases (4.1% of all diagnoses), infectious/inflammatory diseases (2.6%), and vascular diseases (2.4%). A history of hypertension, renal disease, symptoms of pain, abnormal respiratory rate, impaired consciousness, a pathologic ECG and a short delay until call for EMS were associated with an increased risk of a time-sensitive final diagnosis. Among patients with time-sensitive diagnoses, approximately 27% died within 30 days. Increasing age, a history of renal disease, cancer, low systolic bloodpressures, impaired consciousness and abnormal body temperature were associated with an increased risk of death.

    Conclusions: Among patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom, age, previous medical history, deviating vital signs, ECG pattern, symptoms of pain, and a short delay until call for EMS are important factors to consider in the prehospital assessment of the combined risk of either having a time-sensitive diagnosis or death.

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    Pre-hospital predictors of an adverse outcome
  • 48.
    Kauppi, Wivica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmér, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Characteristics and outcomes of patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom, assessed by prehospital emergency nurses- a retrospective observational study2020In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dyspnoea (breathing difficulty) is among the most commonly cited reasons for contacting emergency medical services (EMSs). Dyspnoea is caused by several serious underlying medical conditions and, based on patients individual needs and complex illnesses or injuries, ambulance staff are independently responsible for advanced care provision. Few large-scale prehospital studies have reviewed patients with dyspnoea. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and final outcomes of patients whose main symptom was classified as dyspnoea by the prehospital emergency nurse (PEN).

    Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients aged >16 years whose main symptom was dyspnoea. All the enrolled patients were assessed in the south-western part of Sweden by PENs during January and December, 2017. Of 7,260 assignments (9% of all primary missions), 6,354 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, and the tests used were odds ratios and Kaplan-Meier analysis.

    Results: The patients mean age was 73 years, and approximately 56% were women. More than 400 different final diagnostic codes (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD]-10th edition) were observed, and 11% of the ICD-10 codes denoted time-critical conditions. The three most commonly observed aetiologies were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.4%), pulmonary infection (17.1%), and heart failure (15%). The comorbidity values were high, with 84.4% having previously experienced dyspnoea. The overall 30-day mortality was 11.1%. More than half called EMSs more than 50 hours after symptom onset.

    Conclusions:  Among patients assessed by PENs due to dyspnoea as the main symptom there were more than 400 different final diagnoses, of which 11% were regarded as time-critical. These patients had a severe comorbidity and 11% died within the first 30 days.

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  • 49.
    Larsson, Glenn
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; PICTA, Prehospital Innovation Arena, Lindholmen Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. PreHospen.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Klementsson, Håkan
    Register Centre South, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Troëng, Thomas
    Register Centre South, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Epidemiology of patients assessed for trauma by Swedish ambulance services: a retrospective registry study2024In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the epidemiology of severe trauma assessed by Swedish emergency medical services (EMS).

    Aim

    To investigate the prevalence of trauma in Sweden assessed by EMS from a national perspective and describe patient demography, aetiology, trauma type, prehospital triage and clinical outcomes.

    Methods

    Data from two national quality registries, the Swedish Ambulance Registry and the Swedish Trauma Registry (SweTrau) were collected from January 1 to December 31, 2019. Inclusion criteria were an Emergency Symptoms and Signs code equivalent to trauma in the Swedish Ambulance Registry and criteria fulfilled for SweTrau inclusion. Exclusion criteria were patients < 18 years old, those not transported to a hospital and those without a personal identification number.

    Results

    In total, 53,120 patients with trauma were included (14% of primary EMS missions involving a personal identification number). Of those, 2,278 (4.3%) patients (median age: 45 years; 32% women) were reported in SweTrau to have severe or potentially severe trauma (penetrating: 7%, blunt: 93%). In terms of including all causes of trauma, the code for ‘trauma alert activation’ was most frequent (55%). The most frequent injury mechanism was an injury caused by a car (34%). Most (89%) cases were assigned Priority 1 (life-threatening condition) at the dispatch centre. 62% were regarded as potentially life threatening upon EMS arrival, whereas 29% were assessed as non-life-threatening. Overall, 25% of the patients had new injury severity scores > 15. 12% required invasive treatment, 11% were discharged with severe disability and the 30-day mortality rate was 3.6%.

    Conclusion

    In this cross-sectional study, 14% of the primary EMS missions for one year were caused by trauma. However, only a small proportion of these cases are severe injuries, and the risk of severe disabilities and death appears to be limited. The most frequent aetiology of a severe trauma is injury caused by a car, and most severe traumas are blunt. Severe traumas are given the highest priority at the dispatch centre in the vast majority of cases, but nearly one-third of these cases are considered a low priority by the EMS nurse. The latter leaves room for improvement.

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  • 50.
    Larsson, Glenn
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Characteristics of a trauma population in an ambulance organisation in Sweden: results from an observational study2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Globally, injuries are a major health problem, and in Sweden, injuries are the second most common reason for ambulance dispatch. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the epidemiology of injuries requiring assessment by emergency medical services (EMS) in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to describe the prehospital population with injuries that have been assessed and treated by EMS.

    Methods

    A randomly selected retrospective sample was collected from 1 January through 31 December 2019 in a region in southwestern Sweden. Data were collected from ambulance and hospital medical records.

    Results

    Among 153,724 primary assignments, 26,697 (17.4%) were caused by injuries. The study cohort consisted of 5,235 patients, of whom 50.5% were men, and the median age was 63 years. The most common cause of injury was low-energy fall (51.4%), and this was the cause in 77.8% of those aged > 63 years and in 26.7% of those aged ≤ 63 years. The injury mechanism was a motor vehicle in 8.0%, a motorcycle in 2.1% and a bicycle in 4.0%. The most common trauma location was the residential area (55.5% overall; 77.9% in the elderly and 34.0% in the younger group). In the prehospital setting, the most frequent clinical sign was a wound (33.2%), a closed fracture were seen in 18.9% and an open fracture in 1.0%. Pain was reported in 74.9% and 42.9% reported severe pain. Medication was given to 42.4% of patients before arrival in the hospital. The most frequent triage colour according to the RETTS was orange (46.7%), whereas only 4.4% were triaged red. Among all patients, 83.6% were transported to the hospital, and 27.8% received fracture treatment after hospital admission. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.4%.

    Conclusion

    Among EMS assignments in southwestern Sweden, 17% were caused by injury equally distributed between women and men. More than half of these cases were caused by low-energy falls, and the most common trauma location was a residential area. The majority of the victims had pain upon arrival of the EMS, and a large proportion appeared to have severe pain.

     

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