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  • 1. Ali, Majid
    et al.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Optimization of oCVD Process for the Production of Conductive Fibers2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electro active textile fibers are key components in smart and interactive textile applications. In our previous study, we produced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coat edviscose fibers by using oxidative chemical vapordeposition (OCVD) technique. We tried FeCl3 as oxidant and found optimum reaction conditions at which better electrical as well as mechanical properties of conductive fibers could be achieved.

  • 2. Ali, Majid
    et al.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Stretch Sensing Properties of PEDOT Coated Conductive Yarns Produced by OCVD Process2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gabriel Martinez Gil, Jose
    Linköping University.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköpimg University.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University.
    Microfabrication of conjugated polymer actuators on textiles and study of textile structures for scaling up the actuation2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been developed over the last decade for applications as artificial muscle. These polymers can be synthesized on the conventional yarns to prepare actuators. When a single yarn is functionalized with such polymers, the isotonic generated strain is very low  (around 0.075%). In order to reach the early stages of commercialisation, especially in exo-skeleton devices, it is critical to amplify the actuation mechanism in both isometric force transfer and strain generation. In our previous study we showed that by using a 2´1 rib knitted fabric as a viscoelastic substrate, the generated strain enhances to 3%.

    However, viscoelastic properties of fabrics are determined not only by the constitutive operators of the fibers but also by the fabric pattern and its structures, which governs the fibre deformation. Here we have studied the actuation mechanism of polypyrrole on various fabric structures.

    Polyamide 6 and stretchable polyamide 6/PU fibers were used to knit the fabrics. Fabrics were pre-modified with tannic acid and bath sonicated for its stress relaxation. Then, they were dip-coated in PEDOT:PSS solution in order to achieve an electrode layer. Dynamic elastic behaviour of samples was measured before and after applying the seed layer. Further, electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole on PEDOT:PSS was taken place by a 3-electrode electrochemical cell setup. A dual-mode muscle lever was used to characterize the textile actuators. The results show that the efficiency of actuation mechanism is determined by both viscoelastic properties and stress-relaxation time of textiles.

  • 4.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of eco-friendly flame retardant polypropylene fibers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Salehi, Masoud
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rissanen, Marja
    Nousiainen, Pertti
    Novel aligned hemp fibre reinforcement for structural biocomposites: Porosity, water absorption, mechanical performances and viscoelastic behaviour2014In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 61, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the thermal and mechanical behaviour as well as moisture absorption of aligned hemp composites using hemp/PLA wrap spun yarns. Uniaxial composites were fabricated with 30 mass% hemp using compression moulding. The properties of composites in terms of hemp fibre orientation (aligned and random), off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated. It was found that the testing direction influenced the mechanical properties of the composites. Compared with all the fabricated composites, the aligned alkali hemp/PLA yarn composite possessed the best mechanical properties, including tensile, flexural and impact strengths, lower porosity and water absorption. The water absorption for all composites was higher than for neat PLA, both at room temperature and 80 C. The PLA in its treated composites had higher crystallinity, which was attributed to effective heterogeneous nucleation induced by hemp. Based on SEM observation and theoretical analysis of DMTA data, there was a favourable interfacial adhesion in all composites.

  • 6.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ingman, Petri
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    Synthesis and characterization of unsaturated lactic acid based thermoset bio-resins2014In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 67, p. 570-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based thermoset resins have been synthesized using lactic acid oligomers, which were functionalized with carbon–carbon double bonds, in order to allow their crosslinking by a free radical mechanism. Two different resin structures were synthesized. One resin was composed of an allyl alcohol terminated lactic acid oligomer, which was end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride (MLA resin). The second resin was a mixture of the same allyl alcohol-lactic acid oligomer, and penthaerythritol. This mixture was end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride, in order to get a methacrylate functionalized lactic acid oligomer, and methacrylate functionalized penthaerythritol (PMLA resin). The synthesized resins were characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry as well as dynamic mechanical analysis to confirm the resin structure and reactivity. The flow viscosities were also measured in order to evaluate the suitability of the resins to be used as a matrix in composite applications. The results showed that the PMLA resin has better mechanical, thermal and rheological properties than the MLA resin, and both had properties which were comparable with a commercial unsaturated polyester resin. The high biobased content of 90% and the high glass transition temperature at 100 °C for the PMLA resin makes it an attractive candidate for composite applications where crude oil based unsaturated polyester resins are normally used.

  • 7.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Conjugated Polymer-based Conductive Fibers for Smart Textile Applications2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive or electro-active fibers are the key components of smart and interactive textiles, which could be used in medical, sports, energy, and military applications in the near future. The functionalization of high-performance textile yarns/fibers with conjugated polymers can produce conductive fibers with better electro-mechanical properties, which is difficult with commonly used spinning techniques. In this thesis work, textile-based conductive yarns/fibers were prepared by coating viscose and polyester (PET) yarns with the conjugated polymer PEDOT. For coating purposes, an efficient technique called chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used, which is a solventless technique and can produce PEDOT polymer layers with high conductivity values. The polymerization of EDOT monomer vapors and coating of oxidant (FeCl3 or FepTS) enriched viscose and PET yarns took place simultaneously. The PEDOT-coated viscose and polyester yarns showed relatively high conductivity values, which could be sufficient for many electronic applications. The polymerization process and the quality of PEDOT polymer strongly depends on different reaction conditions. In this research work, the impact of most of these reaction parameters on the electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of PEDOT-coated conductive yarns was considered separately. Under specific reaction conditions, it was found that viscose fibers were successfully coated with PEDOT polymer and showed rather high electrical conductivity (≥ 15 S/cm). However, due to the acid hydrolysis of viscose fibers in FeCl3 solutions, the mechanical properties were drastically reduced. In order to improve the mechanical properties of conductive yarns, a relatively stable and chemical-resistant substrate (PET) was coated with PEDOT polymer. Comparative studies between PEDOT-coated viscose and PET conductive yarns showed that the electrical and mechanical properties were enhanced by changing the substrate material. Later on, PEDOT-coated conductive fibers were treated with silicone elastomer solution and due to the thin silicone layers, the hydrophobic properties, flexibility, and durability of coated yarns was improved. Furthermore, a novel electrical resistance-measuring setup was developed, which can be used not only for fibers but also for fabric structures. The electrical characterization of PEDOT-coated conductive yarns showed that it can be used effectively for sensitive fibers without damaging their surface morphology. Finally, the use of conductive yarns as stretch sensors was evaluated. For this purpose, small rectangular knitted patches of conductive yarns were prepared and then the change in electrical resistance values at different extension percentages (5–50%) was investigated. The constant variations in electrical resistance values at different extension and relaxation cycles for longer periods of time revealed that the conductive yarns produced have the potential to be used as stretch sensors for monitoring of vital signs in medical and sports applications.

  • 8.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ali, Majid
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    OCVD polymerization of PEDOT: effect of pre-treatment steps on PEDOT-coated conductive fibers and a morphological study of PEDOT distribution on textile yarns2013In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionalization of textile fibers with intrinsically conductive polymers has become a prominent research area throughout the world. A number of coating techniques have already been utilized and optimized to get the uniform layers of conductive polymers on the surface of different substrates. In our previous study, we produced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-coated conductive fibers by employing oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) technique. This paper describes the effects of pre-treatment steps, such as surface treatment of textile fibers with organic solvents, drying of oxidant-enriched fibers at variable temperatures and time, and oxidant type on the electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of PEDOT-coated conductive fibers. Two well-known oxidants, ferric(III)chloride and ferric(III)p-toluenesulfonate (FepTS), were studied, and then their results were compared. In order to verify the PEDOT-coated layer and, to some extent, its impregnation inside the viscose yarns, a morphological study was carried out by using the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging technique and computed tomography scanning across the obtained conductive fibers. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to investigate the thermal properties and the contents of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated fibers. The mechanical properties of conductive fibers were evaluated by tensile strength testing of produced fibers. Effects of all of these pre-treatment steps on electrical properties were analyzed with Kiethly picoammeter. This study cannot only be exploited to improve the properties of conductive fibers but also to optimize the oCVD process for the production of conductive textile fibers by coating with different conjugated polymers.

  • 9.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ali, Majid
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Stretch Sensing Properties of Conductive Knitted Structures of PEDOT-coated Viscose and Polyester Yarns2013In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable textile-based stretch sensors for health-care monitoring allow physiological and medical evaluation without interfering in the daily routine of the patient. In our previous work, we successfully coated viscose and polyester (PES)fibers with the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. In the present paper we report the possibility of producing a large quantity of PEDOT-coated conductive fibers with acceptable mechanical strength and frictional properties, so that knitted stretch sensors can be produced. In utilizing these knitted structures we have demonstrated the possibility of producing a textile-based monitoring device which is more readily integrated into wearable clothing than the previous metal-containing structures. The performance of viscose and PES knitted structures as stretch sensors has been investigated using a cyclic tester of our own design. For imitation of respiratory and joint movement, the variation in electrical properties of the knitted structures was examined at 5 to 50% elongation, and the performance of knitted viscose and PES structures was then compared on the basis of the cyclic testing results. In order to determine the effect of washing on PEDOT coatings and the knitted structures, two washing cycles were performed. After washing, the persistence of PEDOT coating on knitted structures was investigated using FT–IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. In the case of PES fiber, it was revealed that stretch sensing behavior persisted even after the washing cycles. These structures thus have the potential to be utilized in medical textiles for monitoring the physiological activities of patients, such as breathing rate and joint movement.

  • 10.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mehrjerdi, Adib Kalantar
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Influence of different organic solvents and oxidants on insulating and film-forming properties of PEDOT polymer2013In: Iranian polymer journal, ISSN 1026-1265, E-ISSN 1735-5265, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 599-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing of conjugate polymers has always been a challenge because of their poor solubility and infusibility in organic and inorganic solvents. The processibility and applications of intrinsically conductive polymers (ICPs) can be enhanced by producing their solutions or dispersions in different suitable solvents. It can also be achieved by preparing un-doped or electrically neutral polymers, which can further be transformed in semiconductor after oxidation/reduction reaction. The present study focuses on the preparation of active dispersions of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conductive polymer in various organic solvents. For this purpose, the polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer was carried out in three different organic solvents, ethanol, 1-butanol and acetonitrile with two commonly used oxidants, ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) and ferric (III) p-toluenesulfonate (FepTS). In this regard, the oxidant and monomer solutions with variable molar concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 M) were prepared in particular solvents and then these solutions were mixed with different monomer/oxidant volume ratios. The obtained dispersions of PEDOT can readily be polymerized on the surface of different materials after solvent evaporation and a uniform film can be achieved. The effect of molar as well as volume concentrations of EDOT monomer and oxidant on insulating (undoped/neutral) and film forming properties of PEDOT was investigated. These dispersions were applied on a transparent PET film and cellulosic fibers (viscose), dried at room temperature and analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope and ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The electrical characterization of undoped PEDOT-coated fibers was performed on Keithly picoammeter. This study contributes to obtain a simpler and instantaneous polymerization method of PEDOT preparation and to enhance its application area.

  • 11.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fast, Lars
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Electrical Resistance Measurement Methods and Electrical Characterization of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- Coated Conductive Fibers2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 2954-2961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile fibers and yarns of high conductivity, and their integration into wearable textiles for different electronic applications, have become an important research field for many research groups throughout the world. We have produced novel electrically conductive textile yarns by vapor-phase polymerization (VPP) of a conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), on the surface of commercially available textile yarns (viscose). In this article, we have presented a novel setup for electrical resistance measurements, which can be used not only for fibrous structures but also for woven structures of specific dimensions. We have reported a two-point resistance- measuring method using an already manufactured setup and also a comparison with the conventionally used method (so-called crocodile clip method). We found that the electrical properties of PEDOT-coated viscose fibers strongly depend on the concentration of oxidant (FeCl3)and the doping (oxidation) process of PEDOT. To evaluate the results, we used mass specific resistance values of PEDOT-coated viscose yarns instead of normal surface resistance values. The voltage–current (V–I) characteristics support the ohmic behavior of coated fibers to some extent. Monitoring of the charging effect of the flow of current through conductive fibers for prolonged periods of time showed that conductivity remains constant. The change in electrical resistance values with increase in the length of coated fibers was also reported. The resistance measuring setup employed could also be used for continuous measurement of resistance in the production of conductive fibers, as well as for four-point resistance measurement.

  • 12.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Söderlöv, Erik
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cellulosic Smart Textile Fibers based on Organic Electronics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigm shift of merging structural properties of materials with other functionalities prevails and cellulose based fibres are no exception. For the realisation of so called smart materials, including smart textiles, electrical conductivity is of special importance, enabling sensorics, signal transmission, energy supply, energy generation, and actuation. We here discuss taking use of the advancement within the organic electronics community of conjugated polymeric systems producing smart textile fibres for inclusion into garment as well as interior and technical textiles. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) known as PEDOT is studied as a model system. PEDOT has relevance being a working horse within the organic electronics community. Our emerging pilot line is based on creating conductivity by vapour polymerization of EDOT monomers on an oxidant coated textile fibre where these could be taken from arrange of materials. Here we focus on cellulose based fibres. It is shown that Tencell-Lyocell is a suitable substrate offering many  anchoring sites and that multiple depositions with layers deposited directly on each other decreased the resistance from 5.1 (± 1.6) kΩ/10 cm to 1.0 (± 0.1) kΩ/10 cm, for one layer and multiple layers respectively. Furthermore, adding 15 wt. % of the copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG to the oxidant solution decreased the resistance from 6.8 (± 1.2) kΩ/10 cm to 3.9 (± 0.8) kΩ/10 cm.

  • 13.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    FUNCTIONAL TEXTILES: Micro-porous Conductive Membranes for Bio-fuel Cell and Anti-static Air Filter Applications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive membranes are the highly demanding materials in the field of bio-fuel generation, bio-electrodes, sensors and anti-static air filter systems. The conductive membranes can effectively be utilized for above mentioned applications if they have better conductivity, lower weight, flexibility and cost effectiveness. Textile materials are extremely versatile in nature because their synergic combinations with other functional materials could be used for a wide range of applications, such as medical, sports, defence, energy generation and chemical industry. The non-woven micro-porous textile substrates can effectively be functionalized by coating them with conjugated polymers, such as PEDOT and polypyrrole. Coating with conjugated polymers not only gives better conductivity values but also maintain the lower molecular weight of the substrate material. In our research, we have prepared micro-porous conductive membranes by coating cellulosic non-woven fabrics with conductive polymer PEDOT. For coating purpose, we utilized most effective deposition technique, which is called chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. The deposition of PEDOT by CVD process showed advantages over other conventionally used methods, such as the micro-pores were not blocked even after PEDOT deposition. The electrical characterization on produced conductive membranes was performed by using Kiethely 6000 picoammeter. The surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy and structural properties were determined by ATR-FTIR analysis. In order to see the behaviour of these conductive membranes, electrochemical impedance scanning (EIS) was performed in different electrolyte solutions. The produced conductive membranes might have potential to be utilized as active electrode in bio-fuel cells and also can be used in anti-static air filter systems.

  • 14.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Functionalization of Textile Materials by Coating with Conjugated Polymers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, smart textiles have attracted an enormous attention of researchers and found extraordinary applications in biomedical, sports, defense, energy, and fashion industry. These textiles are able to accept the physical signals from external stimuli and then generate a reaction in the form of thermal, electrical, chemical and magnetic signals. They should be in the form of functionalized fabric or electro-active fibers. A numerous techniques for the production of electrically conductive fibers have already been developed. In this study, we have prepared relatively highly conductive fibers with better mechanical properties. For this purpose, we have functionalized the commercially available textile fibers by coating with intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). An efficient coating technique, so called oxidative chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was utilized for making uniform, thin and highly conductive polymer layers on the surface of textile fibers. For our initial experiments, we used viscose and polyester fibers as substrate materials. After performing a series of experiments, we have optimized a number of reaction parameters at which good electro-mechanical properties of conductive fibers can be achieved. At specific reaction conditions, the conductivity level which we have attained is approximately 15 S/cm. The PEDOT coated viscose and polyester fibers were compared in order to find out the best suitable substrate material. For increasing the service life of obtained conductive fibers, a thin layer of silicon resin was applied on the surface of PEDOT coated fibers.

  • 15.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Synthesis of electro-active membranes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process2014In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1501-1508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, many research is being carried out on coating of textile membranes with conductive polymers. In order to functionalize the textile membranes, coating of different intrinsically conductive polymers can be applied on these membranes through appropriate coating techniques like electrochemical polymerization, wet chemical oxidation and chemical vapor deposition(CVD. Noticeably, CVD process is one of the most suitable and environment friendly technique. In this research, microporous polyester and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were coated with conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by CVD process in the presence of ferric(III)chloride (FeCl3) used as an oxidant. Polymerization of PEDOT on the surface of membranes and pore size was examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural analysis investigated with ATR-FTIR, which revealed the successful deposition of PEDOT on membranes without damaging their parent structures. The amount of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated polyester and PTFE membranes was explored with the help of thermogravimeteric analysis. Electrical resistance values of PEDOT-coated membranes were measured by two probe method. The effect of different electrolyte solutions such as, distilled H2O, Na2SO4, HCl, and H2SO4 on electrical properties of produced conductive membranes was investigated after dipping for certain period of time. It was found that membranes dipped in H2SO4 show very low electrical resistance values, i.e. 0.85 kΩ for polyester membrane and 1.17 kΩ for PTFE membrane. The obtained PEDOT-coated electro-active membranes may find their possible utility in fuel cells, enzymatic fuel cells, and antistatic air filter applications.

  • 16.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Smart Textiles: A novel concept of functionalizing textile materials2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive textile materials are the key components in smart and interactive textile applications. In our research, we introduced functionalities in commercially available textile substrates (fibers and fabrics) by coating them with conjugated polymer, such as poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) [1-2]. In order to get conductivities that are of use, an efficient technique, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was used. The obtained coated fibers and fabrics exhibited good electro-mechanical properties and can be utilized for a number of electronic applications, such as stretch sensors, anti-static air filters and electrodes for bio-fuel cells.

  • 17.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, N-K.
    [external].
    Functionalization of textile yarns by coating with conjugated polymer (PEDOT) for smart textile applications2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Electroactive textile fibers produced by coating commercially available textile fibers with conductive polymer2010In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of electrically conductive fibers, exhibiting higher mechanical properties and their integration in smart and interactive textiles, has become a prominent research area throughout the world. Smart textiles have increasingly been used in medical, sports and military applications. In other words, we can say, smart textiles are going to shape our future. This paper describes our ongoing research in which, we have produced relatively highly conductive fibers by coating commercially available textile fibers (viscose, polyester) with conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). A novel coating technique, called oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD), was used for this purpose. Different testing and characterization techniques were then employed to investigate electrical, mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of PEDOT coated fibers. The surface modification of electrically conductive textile fibers with silicone resins is also discussed and an analysis is given to show how silicone coating enhances the mechanical as well as hydrophobic properties of coated textile fibers. The obtained PEDOT coated textile fibers showed good electrical as well as mechanical properties. From this research, we can easily select the most appropriate type of fiber according to the specific electronic application, exhibiting the required end-used properties. These conductive fibers could also be used as substrates for heat generation devices, such as solar cells, and organic fuel cells.

  • 19.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    E-Textiles: A Synergic Combination of Conjugated Polymers and Textile Fibers2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strength electrically conductive fibers: functionalization of polyamide, aramid and polyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 310-318, article id 10.1002/pat.4116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

  • 21.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Oxidative Chemical Vapour Deposition Polymerization of Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on Viscose Yarns: A Route to Conductive Textile Structures2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of conductive yarns by chemical vapour deposition technique of PEDOT viscose fibres2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Production of Highly Conductive Textile Viscose Yarns by Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique: A Route to Continuous Process2010In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2214-2221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD) process was used to coat flexible textile fiber (viscose) with highly conductive polymer, poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in resence of ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) oxidant. OCVD is a solvent free process used to get uniform, thin, and highly conductive polymer layer on different substrates. In this paper, PEDOT coated viscose fibers, prepared under specific conditions, exhibited high conductivity 14.2 S/cm. The effects of polymerization conditions, such as polymerization time, oxidant concentration, dipping time of viscose fiber in oxidant solution, and drying time of oxidant treated viscose fiber, were carefully investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR analysis revealed that polymerization of PEDOT on surface of viscose fiber has been taken place and structural analysis showed strong interactions between PEDOT and viscose fiber. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the amount of PEDOT in PEDOT coated viscose fiber and interaction of PEDOT with viscose fiber. The effect of PEDOT coating on the mechanical properties of the viscose fiber was evaluated by tensile strength testing of the coated fibers. The obtained PEDOT coated viscose fiber having high conductivity, could be used in smart clothing for medical and military applications, heat generation, and solar cell demonstrators.

  • 24.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    [external].
    Production of PEDOT Coated Conductive Fibers for Smart & Interactive Textile Applications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Surface Modification of Conductive PEDOT Coated Textile Yarns with Silicone Resin2011In: Materials technology (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1066-7857, E-ISSN 1753-5557, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 135-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroactive textile fibres and fabrics have been used in smart and interactive clothing for medical,military and sports applications. The improved surface properties of conductive textiles are required for their successful integration in all of the above mentioned applications. This paper presents the production of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coated viscose yarns in longer length, i.e. 5 m, and the surface modification of the coated yarns by treating with silicone solution. The structural properties of silicone coated conductive yarns were then investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of silicone coating on the mechanical, electrical and hydrophobic properties was also evaluated and then compared with the PEDOT coated viscose yarns without surface treatment. Results show that the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of conductive yarns were improved by surface modification with silicone without affecting their structural properties. The surface modified PEDOT coated yarns could be used as pressure and stretch sensors in health care applications.

  • 26.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Synthesis of High Performance, Conductive PEDOT-coated Polyester Yarns by OCVD Technique2012In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 611-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of high performance conductive textile yarn fibers for different electronic applications has become a prominent area of many research groups throughout the world. We have used oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD) technique to coat flexible and high strength polyester yarns with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in presence of ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) oxidant. OCVD is an efficient solvent free technique used to get uniform, thin, and highly conductive polymer layers on different substrates. In this paper, PEDOT-coated polyester (PET) yarns were prepared under specific reaction conditions, and the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties were compared to previously studied PEDOT-coated viscose yarns. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR analysis revealed that polymerization of PEDOT on the surface of the polyester yarns has been taken place successfully and structural analysis showed that PEDOT has strong interactions with viscose yarns as compared to PET yarns. The voltage–current (V–I) characteristics showed that PET yarns are more conductive than PEDOT-coated viscose yarns. The variation in the conductivity of PEDOT-coated yarns and the heat generation properties during the flow of current through coated yarns for longer period of time, was studied by time–current (t–I) characteristics. Thermogravimeteric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal properties and the amount of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated PET yarns compared to PEDOT-coated viscose. The effect of PEDOT coating and ferric (III) chloride concentration on the mechanical properties of coated yarns was evaluated by tensile testing. The obtained PEDOT-coated conductive polyester yarns could be used in smart clothing for medical and military applications.

  • 27.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    All-organic conductive fibers for smart and interactive textile applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bresky, Erik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electroconductive textiles and textile-based electromechanical sensors — integration in as an approach for smart textiles2016In: Smart Textiles and their Applications / [ed] Vladan Koncar, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2016, 1, p. 657-693Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unification of textiles and electrics opens up many interesting possibilities for sensorics, actuation, energy transport, energy storage, and information transport. Electrics need conductive structures. Industrially knittable and weavable filaments and yarns are in this chapter overviewed in a typology of seven classes. These are the basics for the integration in approach that is put forward as a concept for successful production of smart textiles.Integration means that a "device" is (1) made by a textile production process and (2) made as a textile. We focus on smart textiles for mechanical sensoring that give an electrical output as these embrace such basic quantities as position, movement, speed, acceleration, elongation, forces, pressure, and vibration. Cases of mechanical sensors are demonstrated based on piezoelectricity and capacitive techniques. It is shown that these are promising technologies for smart textiles in general and the integration approach specifically.

  • 29.
    Hatamvand, Mohammad
    et al.
    Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
    Mirjalili, Seyed Abbas
    Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
    Fattahi, Saeid
    Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    OPTIMUM DRAFTING CONDITIONS OF POLYESTER AND VISCOSE BLEND YARNS2016In: AUTEX Research Journal, ISSN 1470-9589, E-ISSN 2300-0929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the influence of the total draft, break draft, distancebetween the aprons (Clips) and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum draftingconditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV) blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex ×38 mm long) and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long) to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%)/CV (30%) blend ratio.When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controllingand leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a highquality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained underdrafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure ofthe production top roller.

  • 30.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mulder, Roos
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Milad, Asadi Miankafshe
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Disposable, green smart textiles based on conductive graphite fibres2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles, a part of the present boom of wearables, is at the risk of being a newenvironmental problem as many axioms of sustainability are violated here, that of driving(mass) consumption, mixing of components of different material origin and no obvious wastehandling system when used and worn out. Smartness has been synonymous with integration ofelectronic conductivity functionality, typically realised by metal wires. Carbon allomorphsshowing low electrical resistivity might be an environmental friendly alternative.

    Here we report on attempts with simple conductive graphite systems from which we makeconductive textile fibres, the production of which could be up-scaled to industrial volumes.Coating textile bulk fibers as polyester, polyamide, wool and cellulose based regenerate onesrather than (melt/wet) spinning new fibers, the mechanical properties are sustained makingthem processable within existing textile processes infrastructure.

    Several different graphite compositions and different yarn topologies are compared. Twisting isshown to greatly increase the overall yarn conductance. Fabrics are manufactured with thegraphite yarns in the double role of being structural as well as functional. Furthermore, analphabet of fundamental electrical circuitry elements are demonstrated; conductor, capacitor,inductor. The devices are consisting of non-toxic components that are disposable andcompostable; showing the benefits of carbon based soft electronics.

  • 31.
    Milad, Asadi Miankafshe
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The role and importance of surface modification of polyester fabrics by chitosan and hexadecylpyridinium chloride for the electrical and electro-thermal performance of graphene-modified smart textiles2019In: New Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 1144-0546, E-ISSN 1369-9261, Vol. 17, no 43, p. 6643-6658, article id 10.1039/c8nj05445bArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene has the potential to create highly valuable electrical conductive textile systems with maintained pliability and psychological comfort. There have already been numerous studies regarding electrically functionalized graphene-coated textiles. However, processing development is far from being exhausted. Here we have studied electro-thermal textiles based on the most common fibers, polyester, and an industry-relevant graphene impregnation method by introducing surface pre-modification of fabrics for graphene-modified textile processing. For this purpose, polyester fabrics were treated with four different cationic agents and impregnated with graphene oxide (GO) colloidal particles. Then, direct chemical reduction of GO to an electrically conductive graphene oxide (rGO) was performed. A pristine fabric modified by rGO showed a high resistance of 27.3 kΩ □−1 without any electro-thermal activity, whilst chitosan-treated (CS) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride-treated (HDPC) fabrics had resistance values of 2.7 and 0.59 kΩ □−1 respectively, and excellent heat propagation with a good temperature distribution. The steady-state temperature of CS-treated and HDPC-treated fabrics increased from 28 °C and 33 °C to 60 °C and 120 °C, respectively, as the voltage applied increased from 10 V to 30 V. These rGO-modified fabrics also have excellent electro-mechanical performance, and are good candidates for flexible strain sensor applications.

  • 32.
    Milad, Asadi Miankafshe
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The role and optimization of cationic agents for adhesion and electrical conductivity of graphene-coated e-textiles2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles with electrical properties, known as e-textiles, are realized by different methods. Among these, graphene-coated textiles have attracted great attention due to its multifunctional properties such as being flexible lightweight; and offering interesting optical and electrical properties. While Aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) could be prepared and applied as a dye to textiles via a simple and cost-effectivene dip-coating method. Moreover, the GO could be reduced to graphene directly on the surface of the textiles. However, the GO flakes do not adhere properly to most textiles at any pH values probably because of electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the textile substrate as both the aqueous solution of GO and most textiles carry negative surface charges. Though, GO flakes could be easily assembled on a positively charged surface. Therefore, textiles need to be cationized before the dip-coating in the GO dispersion. In this work a number of both organic and inorganic cationic agents such as chitosan, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), Hexadecylpyridinium chloride, and Polyethylenimine are applied to the textiles before the coating process. Further on the so formed systems are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR measurement, four-terminal sensing surface resistance measurement, diffusion reflection spectroscopy, electro-thermal analysis, and electro-mechanical analysis. The results display the fact that utilizing an appropriate cationic agent not only enhances the absorption of GO onto the textile surfaces but also play a critical role for the electrical conductivities and electro-thermal properties of the coated fabrics, with values varying between 12 to 0.6 kΩ.cm-1.

  • 33.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brorström, Björn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hedegård, Lars
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlson Ingdahl, Tina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oudhuis, Margaretha
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Påhlsson, Birgitta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Re: en ny samhällssektor spirar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resurser och hållbarhet är nära förknippade. Hållbarhet innebär att hushålla med resurser - materiella, miljömässiga och mänskliga. Och hushållning är per definition kärnan i ekonomi. Man börjar alltmer se framväxten av en hel arsenal av verktyg och förhållnings- och angreppssätt för att bygga hållbarhet. Detta förenas av ett synsätt att det som hitintills setts  om avfall och värdelöst, och rent utav besvärligt att ta hand om, nu blir en värdefull resurs. Det glömda och gömda kommer åter. Faktum är att många ord och begrepp kring detta börjar på just åter- eller re- . Internationellt talar man om Redesign, Recycling, Remake, Recycle, Recraft, Reuse, Recreate, Reclaim, Reduce, Repair, Refashion.

    Vad är då allt detta? Ja, vill man dra det långt, är det inte mindre än framväxten av ett nyvunnet sätt att tänka, ja av en ny samhällssektor, en bransch och en industri,  sammanbundet av filosofin att återanvändningen, spillminskningen, vidarebruket, efterlivet anses som viktiga faktorer för ett miljömedvetet samhälle. Re: blir paraplytermen för detta. I denna antologi av forskare från skilda discipliner vid Högskolan i Borås lyfts ett antal av dessa begrepp inom Re: fram.

  • 34.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biocomposites From Regenerated Cellulose Textile Fibers And Bio-Based Thermoset Matrix For Automotive Applications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites were produced from regenerated cellulose fiber reinforcement and soybean based bio-matrix. Mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic and morphological results show the good potential of these composites to be used as structural materials in automotive industries. This article focuses on manufacturing and testing of these composites for engineering materials. Regenerated cellulose fibers such as Lyocell and viscose were reinforced in soybean based thermoset matrix to produce composites by compression molding. Hybrid composites were produced by mixing both these fibers at known ratio and the total fiber content in composite was between 40 and 60 weight %. In general, Lyocell based composites showed better tensile properties than viscose based composites. Composites consisting 60 weight % Lyocell and rest with matrix had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. These composites also showed good flexural properties; flexural strength of 127 Mpa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed that these composites had good viscoelastic properties. Viscose based composites had better percentage elongation during tensile test. These composites also showed relatively good impact and viscoelastic properties. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the composites had good fiber-matrix adhesion. Several efforts are made to produce sustainable biomaterials to replace synthetic materials due to inherent properties like renewable, biodegradable and low density. Biocomposites play significant role in sustainable materials which has already found applications in automotive and construction industries. Many researchers produced biocomposites from natural fiber and bio-based/synthetic matrix and it had found several applications. There are several disadvantages of using natural fiber in composites; quality variation, place dependent, plant maturity, harvesting method, high water absorption etc. These composites also give odor which has to be avoided in indoor automotive applications. These natural fibers can be replaced with lignocelluloses, agro mass and biomass to develop biocomposites as they are from natural origin. Lyocell and viscose are manmade regenerated cellulose fibers which is from natural origin has excellent properties. These fibers can be used as reinforcements to produce biocomposites which can overcome most of the above listed disadvantages of natural fibers. Many composites were made from natural fiber reinforcement and petroleum based synthetic matrix. Researchers have been finding ways to get matrix out of natural resources like soybean and linseed on chemical modifications. This article is focused on producing and testing sustainable material with regenerated cellulose and soybean based bio-matrix for automotive applications.

  • 35.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Characterization Of Wood Based Fiber Reinforced Bio-Composites2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites have got more focus in recent times due to their intrinsic properties such as lightweight, biodegradable, low cost etc. Several researchers have made bio-composites out of many natural fibers such as jute, flax, sisal. These composites have large market in Europe and North America where it is used in automobile and construction industry. A lot of research has been done to improve the properties such as surface modification of fiber, manufacturing hybrid composites. However, the natural fibers are dissimilar and vary largely due to many factors such as variety, harvest, maturity, climate etc. Apart from technical drawbacks, these fibers grow only in certain countries such as India and China. High demand raised the price of these fibers which increases the product price as well. Wood-based fibers such as Lyocell and Viscose was used to make composites in order to make less variation in products, decrease the dependency of natural fibers, promoting locally available fibers and encourage forest products as value-added products. Lyocell and viscose fibers have relatively less variation and high quality. Bio-composites were made by reinforcing wood-based fibers in soybean based thermoset matrix. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing two different wood-based fibers in known ratio. The fiber content in the composites was between 40 and 60 weight%. Mechanical properties were characterized by tensile, flexural and impact tests. Lyocell and viscose based composites had better mechanical properties than jute fiber composites. Alkali treatment of Lyocell fibers improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The behaviour of wood-based fiber composites were studied under wet environment as well. In wet environment, the mechanical properties of wood-based fiber composites were superior to jute fiber composites. Lyocell based composites had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. The composites had flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Better percentage elongation was obtained when viscose fiber was reinforced in matrix. Viscose composites had better impact strength and viscoelastic properties. The change in properties in two different wood-based fibers (Lyocell and viscose) lies in the morphology of the fiber itself. Hybrid composites were produced and the effect of hybridization was clear in most of the cases. The properties were able to be tailored by making hybrid composites, by changing the amount of each fiber in the composites. The results (tensile and flexural) were competitive and fulfil the requirements of these composites to be used in several applications including automotive headliners, car door panel, construction door frame etc. The forest products such as wood fibers could be used in composites to produce environmentally friendly products and promote forest industry. Wood-based fibers such as Lyocell and Viscose was used to make composites in order to make less variation in products, decrease the dependency of natural fibers, promoting locally available fibers and encourage forest products. Bio-composites were made by reinforcing wood-based fibers in soybean based thermoset matrix. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing two different wood-based fibers in known ratio. Mechanical properties were characterized by tensile, flexural and impact tests. Lyocell and viscose based composites had better mechanical properties than jute fiber composites. Alkali treatment of Lyocell fibers improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The behaviour of wood-based fiber composites were studied under wet environment as well. In wet environment, the mechanical properties of wood-based fiber composites were superior to jute fiber composites. Lyocell based composites had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. The composites had flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Viscose composites had better impact strength and viscoelastic properties. The result fulfils the requirements of these composites to be used in several applications including automotive headliners, car door panel etc. The forest products could be used in composites to produce environmentally friendly products and promote forest industry.

  • 36.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Properties of green composites with regenerated cellulose fiber and soybean-based thermoset for technical applications2014In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 193-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites were developed by reinforcing available non-woven Lyocell and viscose in acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). Compression molding was used to make composites with 40–60 wt% fiber content. The fiber content comprises only Lyocell or viscose fiber, or mixture of these fibers in known ratio. Hybrid composites were made by a mixture of both the fibers in known ratio and it affects the properties. The effect of hybridization was evident in most tests which gives us an opportunity to tailor the properties according to requirement. Lyocell fiber reinforced composites with 60 wt% fiber content had a tensile strength and modulus of about 135 MPa and 17 GPa, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the Lyocell fiber reinforced composites had good viscoelastic properties. The viscose fiber reinforced composites had the high percentage elongation and also showed relatively good impact strength and flexural modulus. Good fiber-matrix adhesion reflected in mechanical properties. SEM images were made to see the fiber-matrix compatibility.

  • 37.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Regenerated Cellulose Fiber Reinforced Composites2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood pulp based regenerated cellulose fibers like Lyocell and viscose which are from natural origin have high and even quality; used to develop superior composites with good properties. In this project, Lyocell and viscose fibers were reinforced in chemically modified soybean based bio-matrix, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) by compression molding technique. The composites are characterized for mechanical performance by tensile, flexural and impact tests, viscoelastic performance by dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In general, Lyocell composites had better tensile and flexural properties than viscose based composites. The same goes with elastic and viscous response of the composites. Hybrid composites were formed by fiber blending; on addition of Lyocell to viscose based composites improved the properties. The amount of Lyocell and viscose fibers used determined the properties of hybrid composites and the possibility of tailoring properties for specific application was seen. Hybrid composites showed better impact strength. Morphological analysis showed that the viscose composites had small fiber pull out whereas Lyocell composites had few pores. Hybrid composite analysis showed that they had uneven spreading of matrix; delamination occurred on constant heating and cooling. To overcome the above mentioned issue and to reduce the water absorption, surface modification of the fiber was done by alkali treatment and silane treatment. The effect of treatment is done through swelling, water absorption and morphological analysis tests. The properties could be increased on proper modification of the fibers. The results show the good potential of these composites to be used in automotives and construction industries.

  • 38.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Green Composites Based On Regenerated Cellulose Textile Fibers For Structural Composites2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites were manufactured from regenerated cellulose and biobased matrix by compression molding. The reinforcing materials used were Lyocell and viscose, while the matrix used was chemically modified soybean oil. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing both the fibers. The total fiber content in the composites was between 40-60 weight %. Lyocell based composites had better tensile properties than viscose based composites; composites consisting 60 weight % Lyocell impregnated with matrix had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. These composites also showed better flexural properties; flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis results showed that these composites had good viscoelastic properties. Viscose based composites had better percentage elongation; these composites also showed relatively good impact and viscoelastic properties. Hybrid composites showed good mechanical and viscoelastic properties. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the composites had good fiber-matrix adhesion.

  • 39.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ingman, Petri
    University of Turku.
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
    Synthesis and characterisation of unsaturated lactic acid based thermoset bio-resins2015In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 67, no June 2015, p. 570-582Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conductive textile fibres by melt spinning and coating methods by utilising carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers2009Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 40 of 40
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