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  • 1. Ali, Majid
    et al.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Optimization of oCVD Process for the Production of Conductive Fibers2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electro active textile fibers are key components in smart and interactive textile applications. In our previous study, we produced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coat edviscose fibers by using oxidative chemical vapordeposition (OCVD) technique. We tried FeCl3 as oxidant and found optimum reaction conditions at which better electrical as well as mechanical properties of conductive fibers could be achieved.

  • 2. Ali, Majid
    et al.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Stretch Sensing Properties of PEDOT Coated Conductive Yarns Produced by OCVD Process2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 104, no 12, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Optical modelling of one folded tandem solar cell and four types of stacked tandem solar cells has been performed, using the finite element method and the transfer matrix method for the folded cell and the stacked cells, respectively. The results are analysed by comparing upper limits for short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies. In the case of serial connected tandems all of the five cell types may be compared, and we find that the folded cells are comparable to stacked tandem cells in terms of currents and power conversion efficiencies.

  • 4.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska strumpor för rörelsemonitorering - En känslighetsanalys2015In: Abstracts - Medicinteknikdagarna 2015, Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ali, Majid
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    OCVD polymerization of PEDOT: effect of pre-treatment steps on PEDOT-coated conductive fibers and a morphological study of PEDOT distribution on textile yarns2013In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionalization of textile fibers with intrinsically conductive polymers has become a prominent research area throughout the world. A number of coating techniques have already been utilized and optimized to get the uniform layers of conductive polymers on the surface of different substrates. In our previous study, we produced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-coated conductive fibers by employing oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) technique. This paper describes the effects of pre-treatment steps, such as surface treatment of textile fibers with organic solvents, drying of oxidant-enriched fibers at variable temperatures and time, and oxidant type on the electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of PEDOT-coated conductive fibers. Two well-known oxidants, ferric(III)chloride and ferric(III)p-toluenesulfonate (FepTS), were studied, and then their results were compared. In order to verify the PEDOT-coated layer and, to some extent, its impregnation inside the viscose yarns, a morphological study was carried out by using the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging technique and computed tomography scanning across the obtained conductive fibers. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to investigate the thermal properties and the contents of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated fibers. The mechanical properties of conductive fibers were evaluated by tensile strength testing of produced fibers. Effects of all of these pre-treatment steps on electrical properties were analyzed with Kiethly picoammeter. This study cannot only be exploited to improve the properties of conductive fibers but also to optimize the oCVD process for the production of conductive textile fibers by coating with different conjugated polymers.

  • 6.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ali, Majid
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Stretch Sensing Properties of Conductive Knitted Structures of PEDOT-coated Viscose and Polyester Yarns2013In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable textile-based stretch sensors for health-care monitoring allow physiological and medical evaluation without interfering in the daily routine of the patient. In our previous work, we successfully coated viscose and polyester (PES)fibers with the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. In the present paper we report the possibility of producing a large quantity of PEDOT-coated conductive fibers with acceptable mechanical strength and frictional properties, so that knitted stretch sensors can be produced. In utilizing these knitted structures we have demonstrated the possibility of producing a textile-based monitoring device which is more readily integrated into wearable clothing than the previous metal-containing structures. The performance of viscose and PES knitted structures as stretch sensors has been investigated using a cyclic tester of our own design. For imitation of respiratory and joint movement, the variation in electrical properties of the knitted structures was examined at 5 to 50% elongation, and the performance of knitted viscose and PES structures was then compared on the basis of the cyclic testing results. In order to determine the effect of washing on PEDOT coatings and the knitted structures, two washing cycles were performed. After washing, the persistence of PEDOT coating on knitted structures was investigated using FT–IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. In the case of PES fiber, it was revealed that stretch sensing behavior persisted even after the washing cycles. These structures thus have the potential to be utilized in medical textiles for monitoring the physiological activities of patients, such as breathing rate and joint movement.

  • 7.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fast, Lars
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Electrical Resistance Measurement Methods and Electrical Characterization of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- Coated Conductive Fibers2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 2954-2961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile fibers and yarns of high conductivity, and their integration into wearable textiles for different electronic applications, have become an important research field for many research groups throughout the world. We have produced novel electrically conductive textile yarns by vapor-phase polymerization (VPP) of a conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), on the surface of commercially available textile yarns (viscose). In this article, we have presented a novel setup for electrical resistance measurements, which can be used not only for fibrous structures but also for woven structures of specific dimensions. We have reported a two-point resistance- measuring method using an already manufactured setup and also a comparison with the conventionally used method (so-called crocodile clip method). We found that the electrical properties of PEDOT-coated viscose fibers strongly depend on the concentration of oxidant (FeCl3)and the doping (oxidation) process of PEDOT. To evaluate the results, we used mass specific resistance values of PEDOT-coated viscose yarns instead of normal surface resistance values. The voltage–current (V–I) characteristics support the ohmic behavior of coated fibers to some extent. Monitoring of the charging effect of the flow of current through conductive fibers for prolonged periods of time showed that conductivity remains constant. The change in electrical resistance values with increase in the length of coated fibers was also reported. The resistance measuring setup employed could also be used for continuous measurement of resistance in the production of conductive fibers, as well as for four-point resistance measurement.

  • 8.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Söderlöv, Erik
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cellulosic Smart Textile Fibers based on Organic Electronics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigm shift of merging structural properties of materials with other functionalities prevails and cellulose based fibres are no exception. For the realisation of so called smart materials, including smart textiles, electrical conductivity is of special importance, enabling sensorics, signal transmission, energy supply, energy generation, and actuation. We here discuss taking use of the advancement within the organic electronics community of conjugated polymeric systems producing smart textile fibres for inclusion into garment as well as interior and technical textiles. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) known as PEDOT is studied as a model system. PEDOT has relevance being a working horse within the organic electronics community. Our emerging pilot line is based on creating conductivity by vapour polymerization of EDOT monomers on an oxidant coated textile fibre where these could be taken from arrange of materials. Here we focus on cellulose based fibres. It is shown that Tencell-Lyocell is a suitable substrate offering many  anchoring sites and that multiple depositions with layers deposited directly on each other decreased the resistance from 5.1 (± 1.6) kΩ/10 cm to 1.0 (± 0.1) kΩ/10 cm, for one layer and multiple layers respectively. Furthermore, adding 15 wt. % of the copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG to the oxidant solution decreased the resistance from 6.8 (± 1.2) kΩ/10 cm to 3.9 (± 0.8) kΩ/10 cm.

  • 9.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    FUNCTIONAL TEXTILES: Micro-porous Conductive Membranes for Bio-fuel Cell and Anti-static Air Filter Applications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive membranes are the highly demanding materials in the field of bio-fuel generation, bio-electrodes, sensors and anti-static air filter systems. The conductive membranes can effectively be utilized for above mentioned applications if they have better conductivity, lower weight, flexibility and cost effectiveness. Textile materials are extremely versatile in nature because their synergic combinations with other functional materials could be used for a wide range of applications, such as medical, sports, defence, energy generation and chemical industry. The non-woven micro-porous textile substrates can effectively be functionalized by coating them with conjugated polymers, such as PEDOT and polypyrrole. Coating with conjugated polymers not only gives better conductivity values but also maintain the lower molecular weight of the substrate material. In our research, we have prepared micro-porous conductive membranes by coating cellulosic non-woven fabrics with conductive polymer PEDOT. For coating purpose, we utilized most effective deposition technique, which is called chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. The deposition of PEDOT by CVD process showed advantages over other conventionally used methods, such as the micro-pores were not blocked even after PEDOT deposition. The electrical characterization on produced conductive membranes was performed by using Kiethely 6000 picoammeter. The surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy and structural properties were determined by ATR-FTIR analysis. In order to see the behaviour of these conductive membranes, electrochemical impedance scanning (EIS) was performed in different electrolyte solutions. The produced conductive membranes might have potential to be utilized as active electrode in bio-fuel cells and also can be used in anti-static air filter systems.

  • 10.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Functionalization of Textile Materials by Coating with Conjugated Polymers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, smart textiles have attracted an enormous attention of researchers and found extraordinary applications in biomedical, sports, defense, energy, and fashion industry. These textiles are able to accept the physical signals from external stimuli and then generate a reaction in the form of thermal, electrical, chemical and magnetic signals. They should be in the form of functionalized fabric or electro-active fibers. A numerous techniques for the production of electrically conductive fibers have already been developed. In this study, we have prepared relatively highly conductive fibers with better mechanical properties. For this purpose, we have functionalized the commercially available textile fibers by coating with intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). An efficient coating technique, so called oxidative chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was utilized for making uniform, thin and highly conductive polymer layers on the surface of textile fibers. For our initial experiments, we used viscose and polyester fibers as substrate materials. After performing a series of experiments, we have optimized a number of reaction parameters at which good electro-mechanical properties of conductive fibers can be achieved. At specific reaction conditions, the conductivity level which we have attained is approximately 15 S/cm. The PEDOT coated viscose and polyester fibers were compared in order to find out the best suitable substrate material. For increasing the service life of obtained conductive fibers, a thin layer of silicon resin was applied on the surface of PEDOT coated fibers.

  • 11.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Synthesis of electro-active membranes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process2014In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1501-1508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, many research is being carried out on coating of textile membranes with conductive polymers. In order to functionalize the textile membranes, coating of different intrinsically conductive polymers can be applied on these membranes through appropriate coating techniques like electrochemical polymerization, wet chemical oxidation and chemical vapor deposition(CVD. Noticeably, CVD process is one of the most suitable and environment friendly technique. In this research, microporous polyester and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were coated with conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by CVD process in the presence of ferric(III)chloride (FeCl3) used as an oxidant. Polymerization of PEDOT on the surface of membranes and pore size was examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural analysis investigated with ATR-FTIR, which revealed the successful deposition of PEDOT on membranes without damaging their parent structures. The amount of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated polyester and PTFE membranes was explored with the help of thermogravimeteric analysis. Electrical resistance values of PEDOT-coated membranes were measured by two probe method. The effect of different electrolyte solutions such as, distilled H2O, Na2SO4, HCl, and H2SO4 on electrical properties of produced conductive membranes was investigated after dipping for certain period of time. It was found that membranes dipped in H2SO4 show very low electrical resistance values, i.e. 0.85 kΩ for polyester membrane and 1.17 kΩ for PTFE membrane. The obtained PEDOT-coated electro-active membranes may find their possible utility in fuel cells, enzymatic fuel cells, and antistatic air filter applications.

  • 12.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Smart Textiles: A novel concept of functionalizing textile materials2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive textile materials are the key components in smart and interactive textile applications. In our research, we introduced functionalities in commercially available textile substrates (fibers and fabrics) by coating them with conjugated polymer, such as poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) [1-2]. In order to get conductivities that are of use, an efficient technique, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was used. The obtained coated fibers and fabrics exhibited good electro-mechanical properties and can be utilized for a number of electronic applications, such as stretch sensors, anti-static air filters and electrodes for bio-fuel cells.

  • 13.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, N-K.
    [external].
    Functionalization of textile yarns by coating with conjugated polymer (PEDOT) for smart textile applications2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Electroactive textile fibers produced by coating commercially available textile fibers with conductive polymer2010In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of electrically conductive fibers, exhibiting higher mechanical properties and their integration in smart and interactive textiles, has become a prominent research area throughout the world. Smart textiles have increasingly been used in medical, sports and military applications. In other words, we can say, smart textiles are going to shape our future. This paper describes our ongoing research in which, we have produced relatively highly conductive fibers by coating commercially available textile fibers (viscose, polyester) with conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). A novel coating technique, called oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD), was used for this purpose. Different testing and characterization techniques were then employed to investigate electrical, mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of PEDOT coated fibers. The surface modification of electrically conductive textile fibers with silicone resins is also discussed and an analysis is given to show how silicone coating enhances the mechanical as well as hydrophobic properties of coated textile fibers. The obtained PEDOT coated textile fibers showed good electrical as well as mechanical properties. From this research, we can easily select the most appropriate type of fiber according to the specific electronic application, exhibiting the required end-used properties. These conductive fibers could also be used as substrates for heat generation devices, such as solar cells, and organic fuel cells.

  • 15.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strength electrically conductive fibers: functionalization of polyamide, aramid and polyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 310-318, article id 10.1002/pat.4116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

  • 16.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Oxidative Chemical Vapour Deposition Polymerization of Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on Viscose Yarns: A Route to Conductive Textile Structures2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of conductive yarns by chemical vapour deposition technique of PEDOT viscose fibres2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Production of Highly Conductive Textile Viscose Yarns by Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique: A Route to Continuous Process2010In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2214-2221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD) process was used to coat flexible textile fiber (viscose) with highly conductive polymer, poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in resence of ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) oxidant. OCVD is a solvent free process used to get uniform, thin, and highly conductive polymer layer on different substrates. In this paper, PEDOT coated viscose fibers, prepared under specific conditions, exhibited high conductivity 14.2 S/cm. The effects of polymerization conditions, such as polymerization time, oxidant concentration, dipping time of viscose fiber in oxidant solution, and drying time of oxidant treated viscose fiber, were carefully investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR analysis revealed that polymerization of PEDOT on surface of viscose fiber has been taken place and structural analysis showed strong interactions between PEDOT and viscose fiber. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the amount of PEDOT in PEDOT coated viscose fiber and interaction of PEDOT with viscose fiber. The effect of PEDOT coating on the mechanical properties of the viscose fiber was evaluated by tensile strength testing of the coated fibers. The obtained PEDOT coated viscose fiber having high conductivity, could be used in smart clothing for medical and military applications, heat generation, and solar cell demonstrators.

  • 19.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    [external].
    Production of PEDOT Coated Conductive Fibers for Smart & Interactive Textile Applications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Surface Modification of Conductive PEDOT Coated Textile Yarns with Silicone Resin2011In: Materials technology (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1066-7857, E-ISSN 1753-5557, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 135-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroactive textile fibres and fabrics have been used in smart and interactive clothing for medical,military and sports applications. The improved surface properties of conductive textiles are required for their successful integration in all of the above mentioned applications. This paper presents the production of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coated viscose yarns in longer length, i.e. 5 m, and the surface modification of the coated yarns by treating with silicone solution. The structural properties of silicone coated conductive yarns were then investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of silicone coating on the mechanical, electrical and hydrophobic properties was also evaluated and then compared with the PEDOT coated viscose yarns without surface treatment. Results show that the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of conductive yarns were improved by surface modification with silicone without affecting their structural properties. The surface modified PEDOT coated yarns could be used as pressure and stretch sensors in health care applications.

  • 21.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Synthesis of High Performance, Conductive PEDOT-coated Polyester Yarns by OCVD Technique2012In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 611-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of high performance conductive textile yarn fibers for different electronic applications has become a prominent area of many research groups throughout the world. We have used oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD) technique to coat flexible and high strength polyester yarns with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in presence of ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) oxidant. OCVD is an efficient solvent free technique used to get uniform, thin, and highly conductive polymer layers on different substrates. In this paper, PEDOT-coated polyester (PET) yarns were prepared under specific reaction conditions, and the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties were compared to previously studied PEDOT-coated viscose yarns. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR analysis revealed that polymerization of PEDOT on the surface of the polyester yarns has been taken place successfully and structural analysis showed that PEDOT has strong interactions with viscose yarns as compared to PET yarns. The voltage–current (V–I) characteristics showed that PET yarns are more conductive than PEDOT-coated viscose yarns. The variation in the conductivity of PEDOT-coated yarns and the heat generation properties during the flow of current through coated yarns for longer period of time, was studied by time–current (t–I) characteristics. Thermogravimeteric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal properties and the amount of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated PET yarns compared to PEDOT-coated viscose. The effect of PEDOT coating and ferric (III) chloride concentration on the mechanical properties of coated yarns was evaluated by tensile testing. The obtained PEDOT-coated conductive polyester yarns could be used in smart clothing for medical and military applications.

  • 22.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    All-organic conductive fibers for smart and interactive textile applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Åström, Linn
    University of Gothenburg.
    Roslund, Sofia
    Petersson, Hanna
    Johansson, Mats
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Quantifying shedding of synthetic fibers from textiles; a source ofmicroplastics released into the environment2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, article id 10.1007/s11356-017-0528-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics in the environment are a subject of intense research as they pose a potential threat to marine organisms. Plastic fibers from textiles have been indicated as a major source of this type of contaminant, entering the oceans via wastewater and diverse non-point sources. Their presence is also documented in terrestrial samples. In this study, the amount of microfibers shedding from synthetic textiles was measured for three materials (acrylic, nylon, polyester), knit using different gauges and techniques. All textiles were found to shed, but polyester fleece fabrics shed the greatest amounts, averaging 7360 fibers/m−2/L−1 in one wash, compared with polyester fabrics which shed 87 fibers/m−2/L−1. We found that loose textile constructions shed more, as did worn fabrics, and high twist yarns are to be preferred for shed reduction. Since fiber from clothing is a potentially important source of microplastics, we suggest that smarter textile construction, prewashing and vacuum exhaustion at production sites, and use of more efficient filters in household washing machines could help mitigate this problem.

  • 24. Gomez, P.F.
    et al.
    Lennartsson, P.R.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, N.K.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Heavy metal biosorption by Rhizopus sp. biomass immobilized on textiles2014In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution by heavy metals is at present one of the major environmental concerns. In the present study, the potential of the filamentous zygomycete fungus Rhizopus sp. to absorb/adsorb metal ions from solution was investigated. With the aim to develop a feasible process, the fungus was immobilized on 10 different textile materials during the cultivation. All immobilized biosorbents reduced the Cu2+ concentrations initially from 20 to 3.1–5.6 mg/l within 150 min, with the exception of the biomass immobilized on wool, which reduced the Cu2+ level to 10.2 mg/l. The immobilized biomass (with the exception of wool) fitted well into a pseudo-second-order model. The uptake of copper showed a slight dependence on initial metal concentration. By reapplying immobilized Rhizopus sp. to a solution containing a low concentration of Cu2+ after going through a first step of biosorption, a decrease of the concentration to below 2 mg/l was accomplished, meeting the stipulated level for Cu2+ in human drinking water. Immobilization of fungal biomass in a cushion was also successfully applied in the biosorption process. The positive results obtained in a two-step biosorption indicate that a sequential arrangement could be the foundation for a commercial product.

  • 25.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bresky, Erik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electroconductive textiles and textile-based electromechanical sensors — integration in as an approach for smart textiles2016In: Smart Textiles and their Applications / [ed] Vladan Koncar, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2016, 1, p. 657-693Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unification of textiles and electrics opens up many interesting possibilities for sensorics, actuation, energy transport, energy storage, and information transport. Electrics need conductive structures. Industrially knittable and weavable filaments and yarns are in this chapter overviewed in a typology of seven classes. These are the basics for the integration in approach that is put forward as a concept for successful production of smart textiles.Integration means that a "device" is (1) made by a textile production process and (2) made as a textile. We focus on smart textiles for mechanical sensoring that give an electrical output as these embrace such basic quantities as position, movement, speed, acceleration, elongation, forces, pressure, and vibration. Cases of mechanical sensors are demonstrated based on piezoelectricity and capacitive techniques. It is shown that these are promising technologies for smart textiles in general and the integration approach specifically.

  • 26.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Concas, Alessandro
    Linköping University.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jager, Edwin WH
    Linköping University.
    Knitting and weaving artificial muscles2017In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

  • 27. Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lund, Anja
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Hagström, Bengt
    Piezoelektrisk textil fiber för medicinska applikationer2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Resiliens:: långsiktigt hållbar livskraft i organisationer och företag2016In: Re:: en ny samhällssektor spirar / [ed] Nils-Krister, Persson, Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2016, p. 69-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nanopartiklar gör nya plaster2007In: Kemivärlden Biotech: med Kemisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1653-5596, no 9, p. 34-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nextgeneration Smart Textiles - morphing and actuating devices2017In: E-MRS 2017 Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Re: en ny samhällssektorspirar2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Textile as Artificial Nature - From Synthetic Sea Grass to Fibrous Implants,2017In: Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN 1662-0356, Vol. 100, p. 181-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop the hypothesis that textile and nature have much in common and that in a time of biomimetics textile is a unique class of material that provides a bridge between artefacts, by definition synthetic, and biofacts - material entities found in and produced by nature, i.e. non-synthetic. Furthermore we formulate the (seemingly) contradictorily concept of Artificial Nature. Biomimetics sometimes emphasize the inspirational aspects so that science and technology get input from biology for new technological development for new artefacts. Artificial Nature instead emphasizes the other way around; adding sound, ecology based, technology to nature and in nature for enhancing ecosystem functions.Some characteristics of natural biofact materials and structures include pliability, softness, porosity, light weight, recyclability, and periodicity. Textiles are soft, foldable, of low weight, inherent porous, anisotropic as well as periodic, easily compatible with biodegradability and recyclability. Thus there are many similarities. These are discussed together with a number of cases where textiles are mimicking biofacts. We first look at synthetic see grass (Zostera marina) for remediation of one of the most important biotopes in the world where we show that textile processing techniques are able to make production efficient. Then we look at artificial leaves, i.e. photon collecting flexible patches and indicate the textile realization of such. One of the most valuable ecosystem services is the provision of clean water and maintaining a low degree of pollution in water is of outmost importance. Textile based water purification systems has been constructed and merged with fungus (Zygomycetes) we show the potential for enhancing wet land capability.

  • 33.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brorström, Björn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hedegård, Lars
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlson Ingdahl, Tina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oudhuis, Margaretha
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Påhlsson, Birgitta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Re: en ny samhällssektor spirar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resurser och hållbarhet är nära förknippade. Hållbarhet innebär att hushålla med resurser - materiella, miljömässiga och mänskliga. Och hushållning är per definition kärnan i ekonomi. Man börjar alltmer se framväxten av en hel arsenal av verktyg och förhållnings- och angreppssätt för att bygga hållbarhet. Detta förenas av ett synsätt att det som hitintills setts  om avfall och värdelöst, och rent utav besvärligt att ta hand om, nu blir en värdefull resurs. Det glömda och gömda kommer åter. Faktum är att många ord och begrepp kring detta börjar på just åter- eller re- . Internationellt talar man om Redesign, Recycling, Remake, Recycle, Recraft, Reuse, Recreate, Reclaim, Reduce, Repair, Refashion.

    Vad är då allt detta? Ja, vill man dra det långt, är det inte mindre än framväxten av ett nyvunnet sätt att tänka, ja av en ny samhällssektor, en bransch och en industri,  sammanbundet av filosofin att återanvändningen, spillminskningen, vidarebruket, efterlivet anses som viktiga faktorer för ett miljömedvetet samhälle. Re: blir paraplytermen för detta. I denna antologi av forskare från skilda discipliner vid Högskolan i Borås lyfts ett antal av dessa begrepp inom Re: fram.

  • 34.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Smart Textile and Smart Textiles2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strengthelectrically conductive fibers: Functionalization of polyamide, aramid andpolyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

  • 36.
    Persson, NK.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Jonsson, AC.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rethinking Available Production Technologies: the case of a thermally insulating footwear concept2012In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487, Vol. 1, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    overwhelming studies are on the general public and its behaviour. Here we discuss a way for the company to lower consumption by avoiding inventory investments. Added value in terms of sustainability can be gained by using standard manufacturing technologies frequently found in the textile industry to produce new products beyond present paradigms. Specifically we develop knitting techniques on a circular knitting machine to enable production of a thermally insulating textile composite for a multicomponent footwear system. Four cornerstones defined the project; sustainability, availability, comfort and flexibility. The first two relate here to the production, while the last two are coupled to the wearer’s experience of the product. Two key questions initiated this project. The first question elaborated on the possibility to produce an untraditional material for a new type of product on a circular knitting machine, which is generally used for high speed production of full-width fabrics. The second question explored the possibility to apply the three-layer principle - generally used in sportswear - on footwear. We show that we can answer both these questions positively. Using an elaborated functional design tool the footwear system was theoretically divided into functional layers; inner, middle and outer, combined with an inner and outer sole. These detachable layers together create a flexible footwear system. A ready-made product, the middle layer with thermal insulating properties, was practically developed, taking use of a heat and water soaking protocol for inducing relaxation in the material and by this air encapsulation.

  • 37.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lund, Anja
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Hagstöm, Bengt
    Registrering av fotnedsättning baserat på piezoelektriska fibrer2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Candefjord, Stefan
    Andersson, Robert
    Carlborg, Niklas
    Szakal, Adam
    Westlund, Johannes
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne
    Total body movement monitoring using a regular smartphone carried in a smart textile tight shirt2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ragnerius, Anna
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Widelund, Frida
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Candefjord, Stefan
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Swerea/IVF.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A piezoelectric smart textile sock for gait analysis - A feasibility study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lund, Anja
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Monitoring of Forefoot-Rearfoot Running Using a Piezoelectric Sock2014Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 40 of 40
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