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  • 1. Ali, Majid
    et al.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Optimization of oCVD Process for the Production of Conductive Fibers2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electro active textile fibers are key components in smart and interactive textile applications. In our previous study, we produced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coat edviscose fibers by using oxidative chemical vapordeposition (OCVD) technique. We tried FeCl3 as oxidant and found optimum reaction conditions at which better electrical as well as mechanical properties of conductive fibers could be achieved.

  • 2. Ali, Majid
    et al.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Stretch Sensing Properties of PEDOT Coated Conductive Yarns Produced by OCVD Process2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 104, no 12, p. 6-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Optical modelling of one folded tandem solar cell and four types of stacked tandem solar cells has been performed, using the finite element method and the transfer matrix method for the folded cell and the stacked cells, respectively. The results are analysed by comparing upper limits for short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies. In the case of serial connected tandems all of the five cell types may be compared, and we find that the folded cells are comparable to stacked tandem cells in terms of currents and power conversion efficiencies.

  • 4.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gabriel Martinez Gil, Jose
    Linköping University.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköpimg University.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University.
    Microfabrication of conjugated polymer actuators on textiles and study of textile structures for scaling up the actuation2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been developed over the last decade for applications as artificial muscle. These polymers can be synthesized on the conventional yarns to prepare actuators. When a single yarn is functionalized with such polymers, the isotonic generated strain is very low  (around 0.075%). In order to reach the early stages of commercialisation, especially in exo-skeleton devices, it is critical to amplify the actuation mechanism in both isometric force transfer and strain generation. In our previous study we showed that by using a 2´1 rib knitted fabric as a viscoelastic substrate, the generated strain enhances to 3%.

    However, viscoelastic properties of fabrics are determined not only by the constitutive operators of the fibers but also by the fabric pattern and its structures, which governs the fibre deformation. Here we have studied the actuation mechanism of polypyrrole on various fabric structures.

    Polyamide 6 and stretchable polyamide 6/PU fibers were used to knit the fabrics. Fabrics were pre-modified with tannic acid and bath sonicated for its stress relaxation. Then, they were dip-coated in PEDOT:PSS solution in order to achieve an electrode layer. Dynamic elastic behaviour of samples was measured before and after applying the seed layer. Further, electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole on PEDOT:PSS was taken place by a 3-electrode electrochemical cell setup. A dual-mode muscle lever was used to characterize the textile actuators. The results show that the efficiency of actuation mechanism is determined by both viscoelastic properties and stress-relaxation time of textiles.

  • 5.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-KristerUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.Bashir, TariqUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Graphene-modified E-textiles: An industry relevant approach of doping and visualizing fully textile P-N junction diodes2020Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, graphene has been used to obtain (E)-textiles. From an industry-relevant perspective, it is essential to introduce a process that could be scaled-up. We applied a cost-effective dip-coating method using bio-sourced agents for chemical adsorption of graphene oxide (GO). Polyester and viscose woven fabrics were treated with an aqueous solution of glycerol (4 g.L-1) to overcome the electrostatic repulsion among fibers and GO and then dip-coated with a dispersion of GO. The results are homogeneous GO coating with one to a few layers of GO nano-sheets. Further, The GO was chemically reduced to rGO, by using tannic acid (10 g.L-1) as a bio-sourced reducing agent. This brings electrical conductivity to rGO nano-sheets having an electrical resistance of 2±1 and 10±4 kΩ/sq for polyester and viscose fibers respectively. Afterward, these E-textiles are both p-type and n-type doped, using nitrogen plasma treatment to prepare nitrogen-doped graphene as a p-type E-textile and electrochemical deposition of titanium on graphene as n-type Doped E-textiles. This increases the charge carrier density, consequently increasing the conductivity of the graphene. Doping rGO-modified textiles open up a visualization of the p-n junction fully-textile diodes and its further applications.

  • 6.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-KristerUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.G Martinez, JoseMehraeen, ShayanEdwin, JagerEscobar, FreddyShazed, Aziz
    Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diseases of the nervous system, traumas, or natural causes can reduce human muscle capacity. Robotic exoskeletons are forthcoming to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assist walking or aid rehabilitation. Current available devices are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators, making them noisy, heavy, stiff and noncompliant. We are developing textile based assistive devices that can be worn like clothing being light, soft, compliant and comfortable. We have merged advanced textile technology with electroactive polymers. By knitting and weaving electroactive yarns, we are developing soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles") that can be used in wearable assistive devices. We will present the latest progress increase the performance and to rationalise the fabrication. In addition we will show some demonstrators of the textile exoskeletons.

  • 7.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE‐581 83 Sweden.
    Martinez, Jose G.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE‐581 83 Sweden.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, 2522 Australia.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, SE‐581 83 Sweden.
    Fast and High-Strain Electrochemically Driven Yarn Actuators in Twisted and Coiled Configurations2021In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 31, no 10, article id 2008959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercially available yarns are promising precursor for artificial muscles for smart fabric-based textile wearables. Electrochemically driven conductive polymer (CP) coated yarns have already shown their potential to be used in smart fabrics. Unfortunately, the practical application of these yarns is still hindered due to their slow ion exchange properties and low strain. Here, a method is demonstrated to morph poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly-styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) coated multifilament textile yarns in highly twisted and coiled structures, providing >1% linear actuation in <1 s at a potential of +0.6 V. A potential window of +0.6 V and -1.2 V triggers the fully reversible actuation of a coiled yarn providing >1.62% strain. Compared to the untwisted, regular yarns, the twisted and coiled yarns produce >9x and >20x higher strain, respectively. The strain and speed are significantly higher than the maximum reported results from other electrochemically operated CP yarns. The yarn’s actuation is explained by reversible oxidation/reduction reactions occurring at CPs. However, the helical opening/closing of the twisted or coiled yarns due to the torsional yarn untwisting/retwisting assists the rapid and large linear actuation. These PEDOT:PSS coated yarn actuators are of great interest to drive smart textile exoskeletons.

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  • 8.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Dept. Physics, Chemistry & Biology.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Towards responding fabrics: textile processing of thin threadlike pneumatic actuators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions textiles have not been considered as means for obtaining actuation. This is surprising as textiles have many advantageous characteristics such as the D=M property, which stands for Doing Devices while Making the Material. This means that functions are introduced simultaneously as the material, such as in a weave, is built up tread by tread. Traditionally a thread could have a certain colour so in total an aesthetical pattern is formed. Now we take a step beyond this working with threadshaving more advanced functions. Included are fiber formed structures showing actuation behavior. 

     

    This we employ here. We make fiber formed actuating structures (FAS) following the McKibben principle with braided mesh sleeves surrounding a prolonged inflatable tube. Here we worked with relatively large diameters in the relaxed state but show that there is prospect for obtaining relaxed diameters of less than 1 mm approaching the range of large scale weaving manufacturing.

     

    We study the behavior of these fibre formed actuating structures individually. Length changes obtained are -20%.We then make textile constructions by integrating several of these FASes with textile processing. By this, we build simple models of fabrics showing actuating behavior.

     

    This study shows how textile constructions can support or hinder overall movement. It is a first logical step in order to get an understanding of actuating fabrics based also on other actuating mechanisms.

  • 9.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska strumpor för rörelsemonitorering - En känslighetsanalys2015In: Abstracts - Medicinteknikdagarna 2015, Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ali, Majid
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    OCVD polymerization of PEDOT: effect of pre-treatment steps on PEDOT-coated conductive fibers and a morphological study of PEDOT distribution on textile yarns2013In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionalization of textile fibers with intrinsically conductive polymers has become a prominent research area throughout the world. A number of coating techniques have already been utilized and optimized to get the uniform layers of conductive polymers on the surface of different substrates. In our previous study, we produced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-coated conductive fibers by employing oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) technique. This paper describes the effects of pre-treatment steps, such as surface treatment of textile fibers with organic solvents, drying of oxidant-enriched fibers at variable temperatures and time, and oxidant type on the electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of PEDOT-coated conductive fibers. Two well-known oxidants, ferric(III)chloride and ferric(III)p-toluenesulfonate (FepTS), were studied, and then their results were compared. In order to verify the PEDOT-coated layer and, to some extent, its impregnation inside the viscose yarns, a morphological study was carried out by using the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging technique and computed tomography scanning across the obtained conductive fibers. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric analysis were utilized to investigate the thermal properties and the contents of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated fibers. The mechanical properties of conductive fibers were evaluated by tensile strength testing of produced fibers. Effects of all of these pre-treatment steps on electrical properties were analyzed with Kiethly picoammeter. This study cannot only be exploited to improve the properties of conductive fibers but also to optimize the oCVD process for the production of conductive textile fibers by coating with different conjugated polymers.

  • 11.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ali, Majid
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Stretch Sensing Properties of Conductive Knitted Structures of PEDOT-coated Viscose and Polyester Yarns2013In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable textile-based stretch sensors for health-care monitoring allow physiological and medical evaluation without interfering in the daily routine of the patient. In our previous work, we successfully coated viscose and polyester (PES)fibers with the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. In the present paper we report the possibility of producing a large quantity of PEDOT-coated conductive fibers with acceptable mechanical strength and frictional properties, so that knitted stretch sensors can be produced. In utilizing these knitted structures we have demonstrated the possibility of producing a textile-based monitoring device which is more readily integrated into wearable clothing than the previous metal-containing structures. The performance of viscose and PES knitted structures as stretch sensors has been investigated using a cyclic tester of our own design. For imitation of respiratory and joint movement, the variation in electrical properties of the knitted structures was examined at 5 to 50% elongation, and the performance of knitted viscose and PES structures was then compared on the basis of the cyclic testing results. In order to determine the effect of washing on PEDOT coatings and the knitted structures, two washing cycles were performed. After washing, the persistence of PEDOT coating on knitted structures was investigated using FT–IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. In the case of PES fiber, it was revealed that stretch sensing behavior persisted even after the washing cycles. These structures thus have the potential to be utilized in medical textiles for monitoring the physiological activities of patients, such as breathing rate and joint movement.

  • 12.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fast, Lars
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Electrical Resistance Measurement Methods and Electrical Characterization of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- Coated Conductive Fibers2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 2954-2961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile fibers and yarns of high conductivity, and their integration into wearable textiles for different electronic applications, have become an important research field for many research groups throughout the world. We have produced novel electrically conductive textile yarns by vapor-phase polymerization (VPP) of a conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), on the surface of commercially available textile yarns (viscose). In this article, we have presented a novel setup for electrical resistance measurements, which can be used not only for fibrous structures but also for woven structures of specific dimensions. We have reported a two-point resistance- measuring method using an already manufactured setup and also a comparison with the conventionally used method (so-called crocodile clip method). We found that the electrical properties of PEDOT-coated viscose fibers strongly depend on the concentration of oxidant (FeCl3)and the doping (oxidation) process of PEDOT. To evaluate the results, we used mass specific resistance values of PEDOT-coated viscose yarns instead of normal surface resistance values. The voltage–current (V–I) characteristics support the ohmic behavior of coated fibers to some extent. Monitoring of the charging effect of the flow of current through conductive fibers for prolonged periods of time showed that conductivity remains constant. The change in electrical resistance values with increase in the length of coated fibers was also reported. The resistance measuring setup employed could also be used for continuous measurement of resistance in the production of conductive fibers, as well as for four-point resistance measurement.

  • 13.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Söderlöv, Erik
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cellulosic Smart Textile Fibers based on Organic Electronics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigm shift of merging structural properties of materials with other functionalities prevails and cellulose based fibres are no exception. For the realisation of so called smart materials, including smart textiles, electrical conductivity is of special importance, enabling sensorics, signal transmission, energy supply, energy generation, and actuation. We here discuss taking use of the advancement within the organic electronics community of conjugated polymeric systems producing smart textile fibres for inclusion into garment as well as interior and technical textiles. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) known as PEDOT is studied as a model system. PEDOT has relevance being a working horse within the organic electronics community. Our emerging pilot line is based on creating conductivity by vapour polymerization of EDOT monomers on an oxidant coated textile fibre where these could be taken from arrange of materials. Here we focus on cellulose based fibres. It is shown that Tencell-Lyocell is a suitable substrate offering many  anchoring sites and that multiple depositions with layers deposited directly on each other decreased the resistance from 5.1 (± 1.6) kΩ/10 cm to 1.0 (± 0.1) kΩ/10 cm, for one layer and multiple layers respectively. Furthermore, adding 15 wt. % of the copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG to the oxidant solution decreased the resistance from 6.8 (± 1.2) kΩ/10 cm to 3.9 (± 0.8) kΩ/10 cm.

  • 14.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    FUNCTIONAL TEXTILES: Micro-porous Conductive Membranes for Bio-fuel Cell and Anti-static Air Filter Applications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive membranes are the highly demanding materials in the field of bio-fuel generation, bio-electrodes, sensors and anti-static air filter systems. The conductive membranes can effectively be utilized for above mentioned applications if they have better conductivity, lower weight, flexibility and cost effectiveness. Textile materials are extremely versatile in nature because their synergic combinations with other functional materials could be used for a wide range of applications, such as medical, sports, defence, energy generation and chemical industry. The non-woven micro-porous textile substrates can effectively be functionalized by coating them with conjugated polymers, such as PEDOT and polypyrrole. Coating with conjugated polymers not only gives better conductivity values but also maintain the lower molecular weight of the substrate material. In our research, we have prepared micro-porous conductive membranes by coating cellulosic non-woven fabrics with conductive polymer PEDOT. For coating purpose, we utilized most effective deposition technique, which is called chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. The deposition of PEDOT by CVD process showed advantages over other conventionally used methods, such as the micro-pores were not blocked even after PEDOT deposition. The electrical characterization on produced conductive membranes was performed by using Kiethely 6000 picoammeter. The surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy and structural properties were determined by ATR-FTIR analysis. In order to see the behaviour of these conductive membranes, electrochemical impedance scanning (EIS) was performed in different electrolyte solutions. The produced conductive membranes might have potential to be utilized as active electrode in bio-fuel cells and also can be used in anti-static air filter systems.

  • 15.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Functionalization of Textile Materials by Coating with Conjugated Polymers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, smart textiles have attracted an enormous attention of researchers and found extraordinary applications in biomedical, sports, defense, energy, and fashion industry. These textiles are able to accept the physical signals from external stimuli and then generate a reaction in the form of thermal, electrical, chemical and magnetic signals. They should be in the form of functionalized fabric or electro-active fibers. A numerous techniques for the production of electrically conductive fibers have already been developed. In this study, we have prepared relatively highly conductive fibers with better mechanical properties. For this purpose, we have functionalized the commercially available textile fibers by coating with intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). An efficient coating technique, so called oxidative chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was utilized for making uniform, thin and highly conductive polymer layers on the surface of textile fibers. For our initial experiments, we used viscose and polyester fibers as substrate materials. After performing a series of experiments, we have optimized a number of reaction parameters at which good electro-mechanical properties of conductive fibers can be achieved. At specific reaction conditions, the conductivity level which we have attained is approximately 15 S/cm. The PEDOT coated viscose and polyester fibers were compared in order to find out the best suitable substrate material. For increasing the service life of obtained conductive fibers, a thin layer of silicon resin was applied on the surface of PEDOT coated fibers.

  • 16.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Naeem, Jawad
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Synthesis of electro-active membranes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process2014In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1501-1508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past two decades, many research is being carried out on coating of textile membranes with conductive polymers. In order to functionalize the textile membranes, coating of different intrinsically conductive polymers can be applied on these membranes through appropriate coating techniques like electrochemical polymerization, wet chemical oxidation and chemical vapor deposition(CVD. Noticeably, CVD process is one of the most suitable and environment friendly technique. In this research, microporous polyester and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes were coated with conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by CVD process in the presence of ferric(III)chloride (FeCl3) used as an oxidant. Polymerization of PEDOT on the surface of membranes and pore size was examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Structural analysis investigated with ATR-FTIR, which revealed the successful deposition of PEDOT on membranes without damaging their parent structures. The amount of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated polyester and PTFE membranes was explored with the help of thermogravimeteric analysis. Electrical resistance values of PEDOT-coated membranes were measured by two probe method. The effect of different electrolyte solutions such as, distilled H2O, Na2SO4, HCl, and H2SO4 on electrical properties of produced conductive membranes was investigated after dipping for certain period of time. It was found that membranes dipped in H2SO4 show very low electrical resistance values, i.e. 0.85 kΩ for polyester membrane and 1.17 kΩ for PTFE membrane. The obtained PEDOT-coated electro-active membranes may find their possible utility in fuel cells, enzymatic fuel cells, and antistatic air filter applications.

  • 17.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Smart Textiles: A novel concept of functionalizing textile materials2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive textile materials are the key components in smart and interactive textile applications. In our research, we introduced functionalities in commercially available textile substrates (fibers and fabrics) by coating them with conjugated polymer, such as poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) [1-2]. In order to get conductivities that are of use, an efficient technique, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was used. The obtained coated fibers and fabrics exhibited good electro-mechanical properties and can be utilized for a number of electronic applications, such as stretch sensors, anti-static air filters and electrodes for bio-fuel cells.

  • 18.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, N-K.
    [external].
    Functionalization of textile yarns by coating with conjugated polymer (PEDOT) for smart textile applications2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Electroactive textile fibers produced by coating commercially available textile fibers with conductive polymer2010In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of electrically conductive fibers, exhibiting higher mechanical properties and their integration in smart and interactive textiles, has become a prominent research area throughout the world. Smart textiles have increasingly been used in medical, sports and military applications. In other words, we can say, smart textiles are going to shape our future. This paper describes our ongoing research in which, we have produced relatively highly conductive fibers by coating commercially available textile fibers (viscose, polyester) with conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). A novel coating technique, called oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD), was used for this purpose. Different testing and characterization techniques were then employed to investigate electrical, mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of PEDOT coated fibers. The surface modification of electrically conductive textile fibers with silicone resins is also discussed and an analysis is given to show how silicone coating enhances the mechanical as well as hydrophobic properties of coated textile fibers. The obtained PEDOT coated textile fibers showed good electrical as well as mechanical properties. From this research, we can easily select the most appropriate type of fiber according to the specific electronic application, exhibiting the required end-used properties. These conductive fibers could also be used as substrates for heat generation devices, such as solar cells, and organic fuel cells.

  • 20.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strength electrically conductive fibers: functionalization of polyamide, aramid and polyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 310-318, article id 10.1002/pat.4116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

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  • 21.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strengthelectrically conductive fibers: Functionalization of polyamide, aramid andpolyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

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  • 22.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Oxidative Chemical Vapour Deposition Polymerization of Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on Viscose Yarns: A Route to Conductive Textile Structures2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of conductive yarns by chemical vapour deposition technique of PEDOT viscose fibres2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Production of Highly Conductive Textile Viscose Yarns by Chemical Vapor Deposition Technique: A Route to Continuous Process2010In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2214-2221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD) process was used to coat flexible textile fiber (viscose) with highly conductive polymer, poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in resence of ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) oxidant. OCVD is a solvent free process used to get uniform, thin, and highly conductive polymer layer on different substrates. In this paper, PEDOT coated viscose fibers, prepared under specific conditions, exhibited high conductivity 14.2 S/cm. The effects of polymerization conditions, such as polymerization time, oxidant concentration, dipping time of viscose fiber in oxidant solution, and drying time of oxidant treated viscose fiber, were carefully investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR analysis revealed that polymerization of PEDOT on surface of viscose fiber has been taken place and structural analysis showed strong interactions between PEDOT and viscose fiber. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the amount of PEDOT in PEDOT coated viscose fiber and interaction of PEDOT with viscose fiber. The effect of PEDOT coating on the mechanical properties of the viscose fiber was evaluated by tensile strength testing of the coated fibers. The obtained PEDOT coated viscose fiber having high conductivity, could be used in smart clothing for medical and military applications, heat generation, and solar cell demonstrators.

  • 25.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    [external].
    Production of PEDOT Coated Conductive Fibers for Smart & Interactive Textile Applications2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Surface Modification of Conductive PEDOT Coated Textile Yarns with Silicone Resin2011In: Materials technology (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1066-7857, E-ISSN 1753-5557, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 135-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroactive textile fibres and fabrics have been used in smart and interactive clothing for medical,military and sports applications. The improved surface properties of conductive textiles are required for their successful integration in all of the above mentioned applications. This paper presents the production of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coated viscose yarns in longer length, i.e. 5 m, and the surface modification of the coated yarns by treating with silicone solution. The structural properties of silicone coated conductive yarns were then investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect of silicone coating on the mechanical, electrical and hydrophobic properties was also evaluated and then compared with the PEDOT coated viscose yarns without surface treatment. Results show that the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of conductive yarns were improved by surface modification with silicone without affecting their structural properties. The surface modified PEDOT coated yarns could be used as pressure and stretch sensors in health care applications.

  • 27.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Synthesis of High Performance, Conductive PEDOT-coated Polyester Yarns by OCVD Technique2012In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 611-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of high performance conductive textile yarn fibers for different electronic applications has become a prominent area of many research groups throughout the world. We have used oxidative chemical vapor deposition (OCVD) technique to coat flexible and high strength polyester yarns with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in presence of ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) oxidant. OCVD is an efficient solvent free technique used to get uniform, thin, and highly conductive polymer layers on different substrates. In this paper, PEDOT-coated polyester (PET) yarns were prepared under specific reaction conditions, and the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties were compared to previously studied PEDOT-coated viscose yarns. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FT-IR analysis revealed that polymerization of PEDOT on the surface of the polyester yarns has been taken place successfully and structural analysis showed that PEDOT has strong interactions with viscose yarns as compared to PET yarns. The voltage–current (V–I) characteristics showed that PET yarns are more conductive than PEDOT-coated viscose yarns. The variation in the conductivity of PEDOT-coated yarns and the heat generation properties during the flow of current through coated yarns for longer period of time, was studied by time–current (t–I) characteristics. Thermogravimeteric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate the thermal properties and the amount of PEDOT in PEDOT-coated PET yarns compared to PEDOT-coated viscose. The effect of PEDOT coating and ferric (III) chloride concentration on the mechanical properties of coated yarns was evaluated by tensile testing. The obtained PEDOT-coated conductive polyester yarns could be used in smart clothing for medical and military applications.

  • 28.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    All-organic conductive fibers for smart and interactive textile applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie M.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Åström, Linn
    University of Gothenburg.
    Roslund, Sofia
    Petersson, Hanna
    Johansson, Mats
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Quantifying shedding of synthetic fibers from textiles; a source ofmicroplastics released into the environment2017In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, article id 10.1007/s11356-017-0528-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastics in the environment are a subject of intense research as they pose a potential threat to marine organisms. Plastic fibers from textiles have been indicated as a major source of this type of contaminant, entering the oceans via wastewater and diverse non-point sources. Their presence is also documented in terrestrial samples. In this study, the amount of microfibers shedding from synthetic textiles was measured for three materials (acrylic, nylon, polyester), knit using different gauges and techniques. All textiles were found to shed, but polyester fleece fabrics shed the greatest amounts, averaging 7360 fibers/m−2/L−1 in one wash, compared with polyester fabrics which shed 87 fibers/m−2/L−1. We found that loose textile constructions shed more, as did worn fabrics, and high twist yarns are to be preferred for shed reduction. Since fiber from clothing is a potentially important source of microplastics, we suggest that smarter textile construction, prewashing and vacuum exhaustion at production sites, and use of more efficient filters in household washing machines could help mitigate this problem.

  • 30.
    Darányi, Sándor
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Olson, Nasrine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lindell, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Riga, Marina
    Kontopoulos, Efstratios
    Kompatsiaris, Ioannis
    Communicating Semantic Content to Persons with Deafblindness by Haptograms and Smart Textiles: Theoretical Approach and Methodology2020In: International Journal on Advances in Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1942-2679, E-ISSN 1942-2679, Vol. 13, no 1&2, p. 103-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By means of a proof-of-concept prototype, which is work in progress, we adopted a multidisciplinary approach to develop a smart-textile-based communication system for use by people with deafblindness. In this system, sensor technologies and computer vision are used to detect environmental cues such as presence of obstacles, faces, objects, etc. Focusing on the communication module here, a new ontology connects visual analytics with the user to label detected semantic content about objects, persons and situations for navigation and situational awareness. Such labelled content is then translated to a haptogram vocabulary with static vs. dynamic patterns, which are mapped to the body. A haptogram denotes a tactile symbol composed over a touchscreen, its dynamic nature referring to the act of writing or drawing. A vest made of smart textile, in the current variant equipped with a 4 x 4 grid of vibrotactile actuators, is used to transmit haptograms on the user’s back. Thereby system messages of different complexity -- both alerts and short sentences -- can be received by the user, who then has the option to respond by pre-coded questions and messages. By means of grids with more actuators, displays with higher resolution can be implemented and tested, paving the way for an extended haptogram vocabulary, covering more detailed ontology content.

  • 31.
    Dutta, Sujan
    et al.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems Department of Physics Chemistry and Biology (IFM) Linköping University Linköping SE‐581 83 Sweden.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems Department of Physics Chemistry and Biology (IFM) Linköping University Linköping SE‐581 83 Sweden.
    Martinez, Jose G.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems Department of Physics Chemistry and Biology (IFM) Linköping University Linköping SE‐581 83 Sweden.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems Department of Physics Chemistry and Biology (IFM) Linköping University Linköping SE‐581 83 Sweden.
    Textile Actuators Comprising Reduced Graphene Oxide as the Current Collector2023In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic textiles (E-textiles) are made using various materials including carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide. Among the materials here, e-textiles are fabricated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coating on commercial textiles. rGO-based yarns are prepared for e-textiles by a simple dip coating method with subsequent non-toxic reduction. To enhance the conductivity, the rGO yarns are coated with poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT) followed by electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy) as the electromechanically active layer, resulting in textile actuators. The rGO-based yarn actuators are characterized in terms of both isotonic displacement and isometric developed forces, as well as electron microscopy and resistance measurements. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that both viscose rotor spun (VR) and viscose multifilament (VM) yarns can be used for yarn actuators. The resulting VM-based yarn actuators exhibit high strain (0.58%) in NaDBS electrolytes. These conducting yarns can also be integrated into textiles and fabrics of various forms to create smart e-textiles and wearable devices. 

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  • 32.
    Dutta, Sujan
    et al.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Martinez, Jose G.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W.H.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    The effect of electroactive length and intrinsic conductivity on the actuation behaviour of conducting polymer-based yarn actuators for textile muscles2022In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 370, article id 132384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, electrically driven conducting polymer (CP) coated yarns have shown great promise to develop soft wearable applications because of their electrical and mechanical behaviour. However, designing a suitable yarn actuator for textile-based wearables with high strain is challenging. One reason for the low strain is the voltage drop along the yarn, which results in only a part of the yarn being active. To understand the voltage drop mechanism and overcome this issue intrinsically conductive yarns were used to create a highly conductive path along the full length of the yarn actuator. Ag plated knit-de-knit (Ag-KDK) structured polyamide yarns were used as the intrinsically conductive core material of the CP yarn actuators and compared with CP yarn actuators made of a non-conductive core knit-de-knit (KDK) yarn. The CP yarn actuators were fabricated by coating the core yarns with poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonic acid) followed by electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole. Furthermore, to elucidate the effect of the capillarity of the electrolyte through the yarn actuator, two different approaches to electrochemical actuation were applied. All actuating performance of the materials were investigated and quantified in terms of both isotonic displacement and isometric developed forces. The resultant electroactive yarn exhibits high strain (0.64 %) in NaDBS electrolytes as compared to previous CP yarn actuator. The actuation and the electroactivity of the yarn were retained up to 100 cycles. The new highly conductive yarns will shed light on the development of next-generation textile-based exoskeleton suits, assistive devices, wearables, and haptics garments.

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  • 33.
    Euler, Luisa
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A review of textile-based electrodes developed for electrostimulation2021In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical stimulation can be used for the treatment of various nerve and muscle injuries as well as acute and chronic pain conditions. An electrical pulse is applied to a muscle or nerve to activate excitable tissue using internal or external electrodes with the aim of building muscle strength, artificially creating or supporting limb movement or reducing pain. Textile electrodes offer several advantages over conventionally used disposable surface electrodes: they are flexible and re-usable and they do not require hydrogels, thereby avoiding skin irritation and allergic reactions and enhancing user comfort. This article presents a literature review that assesses the state of research on textile electrode constructions. Based on the review, production approaches and designs are compared, methods for evaluating stimulation discomfort and pain are proposed and issues related to user compliance are discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for future work focused on investigating the impacts of textile-based electrode parameters on comfort, convenience and ease of use.

  • 34. Euler, Luisa
    et al.
    Guo, Li
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Smart Textiles /Högskolan i Borås.
    Influence of the electrolyte concentration and amount on the performance of textile electrodes in electrostimulation: A systematic study2024In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 366, p. 115010-115010, article id 115010Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Euler, Luisa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Smart Textiles Technology Lab, Smart Textiles, University of Borås, SE-501 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Textile electrodes: Influence of knitting construction and pressure on the contact impedance2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1-23, article id 1578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile electrodes, also called textrodes, for biosignal monitoring as well as electrostimulation are central for the emerging research field of smart textiles. However, so far, only the general suitability of textrodes for those areas was investigated, while the influencing parameters on the contact impedance related to the electrode construction and external factors remain rather un-known. Therefore, in this work, six different knitted electrodes, applied both wet and dry, were compared regarding the influence of specific knitting construction parameters on the three-electrode contact impedance measured on a human forearm. Additionally, the influence of applying pressure was investigated in a two-electrode setup using a water-based agar dummy. Further, simulation of an equivalent circuit was used for quantitative evaluation. Indications were found that the preferred electrode construction to achieve the lowest contact impedance includes a square shaped electrode, knitted with a high yarn density and, in the case of dry electrodes, an uneven surface topography consisting of loops, while in wet condition a smooth surface is favorable. Wet electrodes are showing a greatly reduced contact impedance and are therefore to be preferred over dry ones; however, opportunities are seen for improving the electrode performance of dry electrodes by applying pressure to the system, thereby avoiding disadvantages of wet electrodes with fluid administration, drying-out of the electrolyte, and discomfort arising from a “wet feeling”. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 36.
    Euler, Luisa
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Juthberg, Robin
    Karolinska institutet.
    Flodin, Johanna
    Karolinska institutet.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ackermann, Paul W
    Karolinska institutet.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Textile Electrodes: Influence of Electrode Construction and Pressure on Stimulation Performance in Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES)2021In: Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC), 2021 43rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE, IEEE, 2021, p. 1305-1308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major reason for preventable hospital death isvenous thromboembolism (VTE). Non-pharmacologicaltreatment options include electrical stimulation or compressiontherapy to improve blood flow in the extremities. Textileelectrodes offer potential to replace bulky devices commonlyused in this field, thereby improving the user compliance. In thiswork, the performance of dry and wet knitted electrodes incombination with pressure application to the electrode wasevaluated in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Amotor point stimulation on the calf was performed on ninehealthy subjects to induce a plantarflexion and the requiredstimulation intensity as well as the perceived pain were assessed.The performance of the different electrode constructions wascompared and the influence of the pressure application wasanalysed. The results show that wet textile electrodes (0.9 %saline solution) perform significantly better than dry electrodes.However, opportunities were found for improving theperformance of dry textile electrodes by using an uneven surfacetopography in combination with an intermediate to highpressure application to the electrode (> 20 mmHg), e.g. by usinga compression stocking. Moreover, the smaller of the two testedelectrode areas (16 cm2; 32 cm2) appears to be favourable interms of stimulation comfort and efficiency.

  • 37.
    Flodin, Johanna
    et al.
    Integrative Orthopedic Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Wallenius, Philip
    Integrative Orthopedic Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ackermann, Paul
    Integrative Orthopedic Laboratory, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Quadriceps Muscle Can Increase Venous Flow2023In: Annals of Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0090-6964, E-ISSN 1573-9686, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 2873-2882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the quadriceps (Q) may increase venous blood flow to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism. This study assessed whether Q-NMES pants could increase peak venous velocity (PVV) in the femoral vein using Doppler ultrasound and minimize discomfort. On 15 healthy subjects, Q-NMES using textile electrodes integrated in pants was applied with increasing intensity (mA) until the first visible muscle contraction [measurement level (ML)-I] and with an additional increase of six NMES levels (ML II). Discomfort using a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10) and PVV were used to assess different NMES parameters: frequency (1, 36, 66 Hz), ramp-up/-down time (RUD) (0, 1 s), plateau time (1.5, 4, and 6 s), and on:off duty cycle (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4). Q-NMES pants significantly increased PVV from baseline with 93% at ML I and 173% at ML II. Frequencies 36 Hz and 66 Hz and no RUD resulted in significantly higher PVV at both MLs compared to 1 Hz and 1 s RUD, respectively. Plateau time, and duty cycle did not significantly change PVV. Discomfort was only significantly higher with increasing intensity and frequency. Q-NMES pants produces intensity-dependent 2−3-fold increases of venous blood flow with minimal discomfort. The superior NMES parameters were a frequency of 36 Hz, 0 s RUD, and intensity at ML II. Textile-based NMES wearables are promising for non-episodic venous thromboembolism prevention. 

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  • 38. Gomez, P.F.
    et al.
    Lennartsson, P.R.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, N.K.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Heavy metal biosorption by Rhizopus sp. biomass immobilized on textiles2014In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution by heavy metals is at present one of the major environmental concerns. In the present study, the potential of the filamentous zygomycete fungus Rhizopus sp. to absorb/adsorb metal ions from solution was investigated. With the aim to develop a feasible process, the fungus was immobilized on 10 different textile materials during the cultivation. All immobilized biosorbents reduced the Cu2+ concentrations initially from 20 to 3.1–5.6 mg/l within 150 min, with the exception of the biomass immobilized on wool, which reduced the Cu2+ level to 10.2 mg/l. The immobilized biomass (with the exception of wool) fitted well into a pseudo-second-order model. The uptake of copper showed a slight dependence on initial metal concentration. By reapplying immobilized Rhizopus sp. to a solution containing a low concentration of Cu2+ after going through a first step of biosorption, a decrease of the concentration to below 2 mg/l was accomplished, meeting the stipulated level for Cu2+ in human drinking water. Immobilization of fungal biomass in a cushion was also successfully applied in the biosorption process. The positive results obtained in a two-step biosorption indicate that a sequential arrangement could be the foundation for a commercial product.

  • 39.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bresky, Erik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electroconductive textiles and textile-based electromechanical sensors — integration in as an approach for smart textiles2016In: Smart Textiles and their Applications / [ed] Vladan Koncar, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2016, 1, p. 657-693Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unification of textiles and electrics opens up many interesting possibilities for sensorics, actuation, energy transport, energy storage, and information transport. Electrics need conductive structures. Industrially knittable and weavable filaments and yarns are in this chapter overviewed in a typology of seven classes. These are the basics for the integration in approach that is put forward as a concept for successful production of smart textiles.Integration means that a "device" is (1) made by a textile production process and (2) made as a textile. We focus on smart textiles for mechanical sensoring that give an electrical output as these embrace such basic quantities as position, movement, speed, acceleration, elongation, forces, pressure, and vibration. Cases of mechanical sensors are demonstrated based on piezoelectricity and capacitive techniques. It is shown that these are promising technologies for smart textiles in general and the integration approach specifically.

  • 40.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    A pilot line to functionalise textile fibres for textile actuators2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile actuators are at their infancy within the field of electromechanically active polymers. Crude fabric coatings as well as coated pieces of yarns can certainly perform actuation. However, they do not fully consider the capabilities of textile processes and structures. To allow for such possibilities, it is required to have a sufficient supply of processable functional fibres. The presented pilot line is designed to produce said functional fibres from commercial textile yarns. The three continuous processes composing the pilot line are: the layered dip coating using a PEDOT:PSS based solution, the electrodeposition of polypyrrole (PPy) onto the PEDOT coated fibres, and the ultraviolet cured dip coating of ionogels (i.e. dipping followed by UV curing). The continuous aspect of the processes is a key element for fabric manufacturing. Indeed, even the smallest usable fabric requires a substantial length of yarn. This is one of the reasons why the produced fibres were tested on an industrial knitting machine, the other reason being to test their processability. Additionally, a series of tests have been done on the fibres to obtain their conductive, tensile and, if applicable, actuative properties. Therefore, we present a pilot line producing knittable PEDOT coated fibres, textile muscle fibres and ionofibres.

  • 41.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    EMIm-OTf Ionogel Coated Fibres - Characterisation and Development, Aiming at Ionic Smart Textiles2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ions are prevalent within bioelectronics, as they are the main charge carriers in living systems. In contrast to electronic systems, ionic ones are closer to what can be found in our body; in muscles, neurons and nerves.

    Textiles are a much-used biomedical material, both in vivo and in vitro due to its membrane character, highly efficient area, softness, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Modifying the physicochemical properties of the core or the surface of textile has been reported a countless number of times, but still, its use in a bioelectrical context is limited.

    Fibres are the building blocks of textiles and what make textiles an architected class of material. Then ionically conductive fibres are of great interest.

    Here, we show the preparation of iono-conductive textile fibres through the (semi-)continuous dip-coating of ionogel on the cellulose-based viscose.

    Ionogels are composed of salts in liquid state and a 3-dimensional solid network, in our case an ionic liquid (IL), 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, commonly named EMIm OTf or EMIm Triflate, and a thiol acrylate network, allowing the mobility of the ions within or in/out of the gel. This specific combination is a first effort towards the development of ionic textile fibres and ionic smart textiles, as a variety of ILs with different cations and anions exists, potentially allowing a large number of different combinations.

    We investigate how the coating of this ionogel affects the mechanical properties as well as the conductivity in AC or DC arrangement and their relation to temperature and humidity. Also, the thermal stability and sensitivity of degradation of the fibre system is studied.

    Moreover, we introduce different textile structures, and potential applications directed to bioelectronics.

  • 42.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Melling, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vancaeyzeele, Cédric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Nguyen, Tran-Minh Giao
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Vidal, Frédéric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Plesse, Cédric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigating ionic liquid-based click-ionogels by thiol-ene photopolymerisation onto textile yarns/fibres2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic textiles’ primordial component are the connections that allow a circuit to be formed. As for today, the catalogue of conductive yarns is expanded to highly conductive metals such as copper, silver and steel, or electroconductive plastics composed of conductive polymers and electroconductive fillers such as metal particles or carbon allotropes.

    Ionic liquids are also able to carry electrical charges, and their capacity to conduct electricity has yet to be investigated as a yarn component, e.g. an ion conducting coating.

    Here, we report on attempts to coat ionic liquid-based click-ionogel on fibres, using thiol-ene reactions with the help of a photobase generator.

    Ionogel precursors, composed of plurithiol precursors, acrylate monomers and a triflate ionic-liquid, are applied on yarn and then cured by UV irradiation, initiating the Michael reaction and creating the thiol-acrylate-triflate network around the yarn.

    The aim of the present study is to prepare and characterise yarns coated with such ionogels, while developing a continuous yarn coating process.

    Several different ionogel compositions and different yarn topologies are investigated, comparing their structure, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal stability, behaviour to chemical reagents, as well as the different surface tensions and interfacial interactions.

    Textile processability is explored by the manufacture of simple fabrics.

    An application for those ionic conductive coating is the ion supply for electroactive polymers coated yarns that currently rely on electrolytes. This novel coating will render the light-weight property of textile valuable, and therefore broadening their application as wearables.

  • 43.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Melling, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vancaeyzeele, Cédric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Nguyen, Tran-Minh Giao
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Vidal, Frédéric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Plesse, Cédric
    CY Cergy Paris Université, Institut des Matériaux.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ionofibers: Ionically Conductive Textile Fibers for Conformal i-Textiles2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of ion-based devices using soft ionic conductors, ionotronics show the importance of matching electronic and biological interfaces. Since textiles are conformal, an essential property for matching interfaces, light-weight and comfortable, they present as an ideal candidate for a new generation of ionotronics, i-textiles. As fibers are the building blocks of textiles, ionically conductive fibers, named ionofibers, are needed. However, ionofibers are not yet demonstrated to fulfill the fabric manufacturing requirements such as mechanical robustness and upscaled production. Considering that ionogels are known to be conformal films with high ionic conductivity, ionofibers are produced from commercial core yarns with specifically designed ionogel precursor solution via a continuous dip-coating process. These ionofibers are to be regarded as composites, which keep the morphology and improve the mechanical properties from the core yarns while adding the (ionic) conductive function. They keep their conductivity also after their integration into conformal fabrics; thus, an upscaled production is a likely outlook. The findings offer promising perspectives for i-textiles with enhanced textile properties and in-air electrochemical applications.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mulder, Roos
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Milad, Asadi Miankafshe
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Disposable, green smart textiles based on conductive graphite fibres2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles, a part of the present boom of wearables, is at the risk of being a newenvironmental problem as many axioms of sustainability are violated here, that of driving(mass) consumption, mixing of components of different material origin and no obvious wastehandling system when used and worn out. Smartness has been synonymous with integration ofelectronic conductivity functionality, typically realised by metal wires. Carbon allomorphsshowing low electrical resistivity might be an environmental friendly alternative.

    Here we report on attempts with simple conductive graphite systems from which we makeconductive textile fibres, the production of which could be up-scaled to industrial volumes.Coating textile bulk fibers as polyester, polyamide, wool and cellulose based regenerate onesrather than (melt/wet) spinning new fibers, the mechanical properties are sustained makingthem processable within existing textile processes infrastructure.

    Several different graphite compositions and different yarn topologies are compared. Twisting isshown to greatly increase the overall yarn conductance. Fabrics are manufactured with thegraphite yarns in the double role of being structural as well as functional. Furthermore, analphabet of fundamental electrical circuitry elements are demonstrated; conductor, capacitor,inductor. The devices are consisting of non-toxic components that are disposable andcompostable; showing the benefits of carbon based soft electronics.

  • 45.
    Juthberg, R.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flodin, J.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rodriguez, S.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ackermann, P. W.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Trauma, Acute Surgery and Orthopaedics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Correction to: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in garments optimized for compliance (European Journal of Applied Physiology, (2023), 123, 8, (1739-1748), 10.1007/s00421-023-05181-9)2023Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. A small error in the energy-formula. The original correct formula should be (Formula presented.) 

  • 46.
    Juthberg, R.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flodin, J.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rodriguez, S.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ackermann, P. W.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Trauma, Acute Surgery and Orthopaedics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in garments optimized for compliance2023In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Physical inactivity is associated with muscle atrophy and venous thromboembolism, which may be prevented by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). This study aimed to investigate the effect on discomfort, current amplitude and energy consumption when varying the frequency and phase duration of low-intensity NMES (LI-NMES) via a sock with knitting-integrated transverse textile electrodes (TTE).

    Methods

    On eleven healthy participants (four females), calf-NMES via a TTE sock was applied with increasing intensity (mA) until ankle-plantar flexion at which point outcomes were compared when testing frequencies 1, 3, 10 and 36 Hz and phase durations 75, 150, 200, 300 and 400 µs. Discomfort was assessed with a numerical rating scale (NRS, 0–10) and energy consumption was calculated and expressed in milli-Joule (mJ). Significance set to p ≤ 0.05.

    Results

    1 Hz yielded a median (inter-quartile range) NRS of 2.4 (1.0–3.4), significantly lower than both 3 Hz with NRS 2.8 (1.8–4.2), and 10 Hz with NRS 3.4 (1.4–5.4) (both p ≤ .014). Each increase in tested frequency resulted in significantly higher energy consumption, e.g. 0.6 mJ (0.5–0.8) for 1 Hz vs 14.9 mJ (12.3–21.2) for 36 Hz (p = .003). Longer phase durations had no significant effect on discomfort despite generally requiring significantly lower current amplitudes. Phase durations 150, 200 and 400 µs required significantly lower energy consumption compared to 75 µs (all p ≤ .037).

    Conclusion

    LI-NMES applied via a TTE sock produces a relevant plantar flexion of the ankle with the best comfort and lowest energy consumption using 1 Hz and phase durations 150, 200 or 400 µs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Korn, Oliver
    et al.
    VU Amsterdam.
    Holt, Raymond
    University of Leeds.
    Kontopoulos, Efstratios
    CERTH-ITI.
    Kappers, Astrid M.L.
    VU Amsterdam.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Olson, Nasrine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Empowering Persons with Deafblindness: Designing an Intelligent Assistive Wearable in the SUITCEYES Project2018In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: Proceedings of the 11th PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments Conference, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 545-551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download (pdf)
    Korn,..., Olson.pdf
  • 48. Lindell, Eva
    et al.
    Theil, A.
    Affective and Cognitive Institute, Offenburg University of Applied Sciences.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Olson, Nasrine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Korn, O.
    Affective and Cognitive Institute, Offenburg University of Applied Sciences.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Physical add-ons for haptic human-surrounding interaction and sensorial augmentation2021In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Human Interaction and Emerging Technologies: Future Applications (IHIET 2020), August 27-29, 2020, Paris, France, Springer , 2021, p. 183-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction and capturing information from the surrounding is dominated by vision and hearing. Haptics on the other side, widens the bandwidth and could also replace senses (sense switching) for impaired. Haptic technologies are often limited to point-wise actuation. Here, we show that actuation in two-dimensional matrices instead creates a richer input. We describe the construction of a full-body garment for haptic communication with a distributed actuating network. The garment is divided into attachable-detachable panels or add-ons that each can carry a two dimensional matrix of actuating haptic elements. Each panel adds to an enhanced sensoric capability of the human- garment system so that together a 720° system is formed. The spatial separation of the panels on different body locations supports semantic and theme-wise separation of conversations conveyed by haptics. It also achieves directional faithfulness, which is maintaining any directional information about a distal stimulus in the haptic input.

  • 49.
    Lindell, Eva
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Theil, Arthur
    Affective and Cognitive Institute, Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, Offenburg Germany.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Olson, Nasrine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Korn, Oliver
    Affective and Cognitive Institute, Offenburg University of Applied Sciences, Offenburg Germany.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Physical Add-Ons for Haptic Human-Surrounding Interaction and Sensorial Augmentation2020In: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357, E-ISSN 2194-5365, Vol. 1253, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction and capturing information from the surrounding isdominated by vision and hearing. Haptics on the other side, widens the bandwidthand could also replace senses (sense switching) for impaired. Haptictechnologies are often limited to point-wise actuation. Here, we show thatactuation in two-dimensional matrices instead creates a richer input. Wedescribe the construction of a full-body garment for haptic communication witha distributed actuating network. The garment is divided into attachabledetachablepanels or add-ons that each can carry a two dimensional matrix ofactuating haptic elements. Each panel adds to an enhanced sensoric capability ofthe human- garment system so that together a 720° system is formed. The spatialseparation of the panels on different body locations supports semantic andtheme-wise separation of conversations conveyed by haptics. It also achievesdirectional faithfulness, which is maintaining any directional information abouta distal stimulus in the haptic input.

  • 50.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Concas, Alessandro
    Linköping University.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jager, Edwin WH
    Linköping University.
    Knitting and weaving artificial muscles2017In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

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