Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 73
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Abylaev, Mansur
    et al.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Resilience challenges for textile enterprises in a transitional economy and regional trade perspective: a study of Kyrgyz conditions2014In: International Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Resilience, ISSN 2052-868X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 54-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to contribute to the resilience development of the textile sector in a transitional economy, based on a case study of the Kyrgyz Republic, where the transition to a free market system generated broken supply chains, low diversification, a high open economy level of the textile sector and dependence on international trade regulations. The approach used is based on theories of organisational resilience, literature studies and fieldwork. Scenarios are developed and analysed by event tree and SWOT analysis, to identify resilience properties of the textile sector. Findings focus on the implications of future membership or non-membership, respectively, in the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, where both supportive and adverse effects have been identified. The results contribute to the knowledge of the transitional economy conditions and serve as a guideline for stakeholders about enhancing resilience, both at the industrial and organisational levels, of the Kyrgyz textile sector.

  • 2. Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    et al.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Classification of traceability information in textile and clothing supply chain: A Delphi-based approach2018In: EurOMA 2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores empirically the need and requirement of traceability system in Textile and Clothing (T&C) supply chain. A Delphi based survey was conducted with 28 supply chain experts (industry professionals and academicians) to collect qualitative and quantitative data in order to identify and prioritize various factors that influence traceability adoption in T&C supply chains. Based on these factors the study further explores, classifies and suggests information that can be recorded and shared for a complete traceability among T&C supply chain actors, both business-to-business and business-to-customers.  

  • 3.
    Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Exploring secured traceability systems for implementation in textile and clothing supply chain2018In: Proceeding TIWC conference 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information asymmetry and security are major challenges in multi-tier supply chains. Textile and clothing (T&C) supply chain is one such example significantly affected by these problems. Due to its complex and diverse nature, involved actors find it difficult to connect and secure each supply chain links. Exploiting this situation, a parallel counterfeit market is flourishing and gaining serious momentum. Due to this, T&C industries are suffering huge economic losses and job cuts. Additionally, owing to its opaque and untraceable supply chain, T&C industries have become a world of unethical practices. Secured traceability is an effective tool that has potentials to address these issues and make the T&C supply chain transparent and secured. It is a useful mechanism to track and trace products’ history, know about the manufacturing conditions and at the same time secure it from counterfeits and attacks targeting intellectual properties. In this context, the study conduct survey of supply chain experts to explore and rank the key technological requirements (based on the specific nature of the textile product) and traceability information that can be recorded and secured by a secured traceability system. Further, based on the findings of the survey a review of the literature was conducted to explore state of the art technologies to propose a primary secured traceability structure for the T&C supply chain.

  • 4.
    Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Towards a secured traceability system for closed-loop textile supply chains2017In: Data Driven Supply Chains / [ed] K. S. Pawar; A. Potter and A. Lisec, Nottingham: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School, 2017, p. 359-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile and clothing (T&C) industry is characterised by complex and extensive supply chain involving various stakeholders dealing with diverse raw materials. Owing to these complexities, the textile supply chain is facing numerous challenges like, counterfeit products, limited information sharing, ineffective recycling/reuse of textile products, unethical practices and interrupted information flow. As a result, a secured traceability system that can integrate the whole value chain, record, store, and track / trace all supply chain activities, make it more transparent and at the same time safeguard it from unauthorized access, has become a prime requirement for the T&C industry. In this context, the current study conducts a literature review to identify the generic requirements of traceability and in context of T&C closed-loop supply chain (CLSC). It further evaluates the role and key requisites of a cryptographic tag for textiles product, as an additional measures/parameter to secure the traceability system and prevent unauthorised access. Finally, the paper draws on key characteristics of such cryptographic tag for textile CLSC and lay down the tentative methodology that would be followed in the future research for development of a complete secure traceability system. It is anticipated that such secured traceability system can prevent counterfeits, data leakage, bring transparency and automate the reverse logistic process.

  • 5.
    Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Traceability in Textile and Clothing Supply Chains: Classifying Implementation Factors and Information Sets via Delphi Study2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 06, article id 1698Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Aneja, Arun P.
    et al.
    DuPont Company.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ambidexterity drivers in plural business models’ (pBMs’) value-structure: an explorative study from DuPont2016In: From Science to Society: Innovation and Value Creation, University of Cambridge, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how can ambidexterity be detected and classified in plural business models (pBMs) at the level of their underlying value-structure (value- creation and extraction), and what are the drivers. Such pBMs are run by multi-national firms to accommodate various technologies and innovations however is stressful due to inherent incompatibilities and conflicts between them. Existing scholarly discussion is limited in exploring this issue, from a value generation perspective, essential to identify where to and how to commit resources in these pBMs. The paper builds upon an explorative study of six successful product cases (and their associated business models) from DuPont’s Textiles Fibre Division (DTFD) to show how exploration and exploitation generates resultant trajectories along value- creation and extraction mechanisms, respectively, in a product. Consistent and inconsistent combinations of these trajectories along the value-structure results in four differential drivers of pBMs, viz. (i) technological breakthrough, (ii) market-back technology, (iii) continuous technology, and (iv) continuous market-back, thus characterizing their inherent ambidexterity. These ambidexterity tendencies are along value- creation and extraction mechanisms.

  • 7.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    College of Engineering and Technology, East Carolina University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Textile Sustainability: Living Within Our Means2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is defined by Brundtland as “….development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. An evaluation of the current ‘pulse of the planet’ which consists of nature’s core business of creating diversity, abundance and continuance yields a bleak future. It suggests limited supplies of natural resources that pose an obstacle to future worldeconomic growth. This paper makes an assessment of a sustainable future for textiles based on economic, social,and environmental dimensions. Both strategic and tactical remedies for the textile value chain are provided. Thecollective actions suggested will not ensure success but rather provide a framework for a better and safer planet.

  • 8.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    East Carolina State University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Textile Sustainability: Major Frameworks and Strategic Solutions2015In: Handbook of Sustainable Apparel Production / [ed] S. S. Muthu, CRC Press, 2015, p. 289-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is commonly defined as “….development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. An evaluation of the current ‘pulse of the planet’ which consists of nature’s core business of creating diversity, abundance and continuance yields a bleak future. It suggests limited supplies of natural resources that pose an obstacle to future world economic growth. In this context, the work makes an assessment of a sustainable future for textiles and apparel industries based on economic, social, and environmental dimensions along the major emergent patterns highlighted in 8 critical sustainability frameworks (viz. ecological footprint, natural step, natural capitalism, industrial ecology, cradle-to-cradle, bio-mimetic, ZERI, and planetary boundaries). A fundamental mind-shift in these industries by identifying various components of non-sustainability is suggested. Such deeper insights and collective changes will not provide solutions to ensure success but rather provide a holistic and integrated systems perspective to give rise to this major transformation. 

  • 9. Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    The Quest for Continual Growth in Textiles: Innovation Diversity and Organizational Resiliency2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The brutally competitive nature globally and raw material volatility of textile industry are some of the reasons why companies cannot afford to fall behind in efficiency, innovation or organizational resiliency. The present article seeks to explore the common thread and textile-related scientific views that changed our lives through the ages. Who were the textile dream weavers and the companies that transformed our industry? In addition we explore how we can use the teachings of these lessons to build novel platforms for innovations in textiles for the future. Today, textiles and fiber science in US and Europe, from its once lofty perch in the global economy, stands in stark contrast to its preeminent position of just a decade ago. Its influence on the society as a whole has eroded enormously. Many of the synthetic fiber products that once fueled the rapid growth of the industry have become mature commodity products now characterized by low growth and lower profit margins. Intense global cost pressure, higher consumer expectations, a highly diverse customer base, shorter fashion cycles and reduced R&D spending have all contributed to the current malaise. What does the future hold and how can we reverse the trend to achieve and sustain the impressive credentials of the past? To add to the current dilemma, organizational ‘health’ and growth processes are constantly threatened in this era of turbulence. James Moore, in his book ‘The Death of Competition’ (1995) describes this dynamics as a ‘co-evolving’ one with unpredictable changes in markets, technology, workforces and organizations. Thus the drive for survival and success has translated, in recent times, to quest for resiliency – to survive and thrive in turbulences. On the other hand, most managers and academicians agree that innovation ensures superior organizational performance while recent research has shown that most resilient companies can dynamically orchestrate diverse innovation strategies. This has intensified the organization’s search for differentiated products and services, processes, business models, technology, strategies etc. pushing firms to gain competitive advantage and also to develop new knowledge and innovation performances to drive sustainable growth. This has resulted in organizations to follow multiple innovation strategies and to prudently devise their innovation repertoire for delivering growth, hence, success in turbulent times emphasizing resiliency. In this paper, authors diagnose an organization’s innovation in terms of the tendency to utilize its resources and dynamic capabilities, and streamline them along an ‘innovation topology’ viewed through a two dimensional matrix of (i) locus of development - innovation either internal or external to the organization, and (ii) change in performance - innovation either in use or being created newly. The portfolio of innovation strategies include sustaining innovation (internal) or through mergers and acquisitions (M&A)/joint ventures (JV) (by extending firm boundary) but using existing resources and capabilities in both cases; or radical/break-through innovations (creating new capacities internally) or disruptive/transformational innovation (exploring and creating new capacities beyond existing boundaries). A case study approach is adopted using Du Pont Company with its unparallel 200 years of ‘history of innovation and transformation’ for validating the proposed model. This is seminal from both business and academic theory-building perspective for devising unique innovation repertoire and organizational resiliency for continual growth.

  • 10.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    Department of Engineering, East Carolina University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kupka, Karel
    TriloByte Statistical Software, Ltd..
    Militky, Iri
    The Technical University of Liberec.
    Towards a circular economy in textiles: RESYNTEX and the European Uniion2016In: Fibres and Textiles (Vlákna a textil), ISSN 1335-0617, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 15-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe is at crossroads in terms of growth and living standards. The nexus between circulareconomy, RESYNTEX and textile provides direction and opportunity for seamless prosperity. The currentstrategy consisting of a linear economy for resource utilization, a surprisingly wasteful model of valuecreation, is leading to decline in prosperity and concomitant global influence. It must develop a moreresource savvy circular economy, with the biological and mineral nutrients of modern society continuouslycirculating. Rather than face a bleak and uncertain future dependent on resources from overseas, Europeneeds to develop technologies towards self-sufficiency in energy and water and keep materials requiredfor consumption flowing [1]. This will insure reduction in virgin resources and treat waste as a valuableinput rather than a burden for welfare of society and the environment.RESYNTEX, the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation funded program, will producesecondary raw materials from blends and pure components of unwearable textile waste and is expectedto have a strong circular economy focus. The project will develop and demonstrate a strategic design forclosed loop textile recycling throughout the value chain.

  • 11. Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Militky, Jiri
    Kupka, Karel
    Kremenakova, Dana
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile Thru the Looking Glass: A Novel Perspective2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, textiles and fiber science in US, Europe and Japan from its once lofty perch in the global economy, stands in stark contrast to its preeminent position of few decades ago. Its influence on the society as a whole has eroded enormously. Many of the synthetic fiber products that once fuelled the rapid growth of the industry have become mature commodity products now characterized by low growth and lower profit margins. To add to the current dilemma, organizational ‘health’ and growth processes are constantly threatened in this era of turbulence. Thus the drive for survival and success has translated, in recent times, to quest for resiliency – to survive and thrive in turbulences. On the other hand, most managers and academicians agree that innovation ensures superior organizational performance while recent research has shown that most resilient companies can dynamically orchestrate diverse innovation strategies. Resiliency in such a context has become a prerequisite for a sustained long term business prosperity fuelled by diverse technological innovations. This has intensified the organization’s search for differentiated products and services, processes, business models, technology, strategies etc. pushing firms to gain competitive advantage and also to develop new knowledge and innovation performance to drive sustainable growth. Organizations now follow multiple innovation strategies to pragmatically devise their innovation repertoire for delivering growth, hence, success in turbulent times while emphasizing resiliency. What does the future hold and how can we reverse the trend to achieve and sustain the impressive credentials of the past? To understand the significance of what the future may hold, and to reverse the downward spiral of the industry, we must evaluate the successes and failures of the past and come to grips with rapid global changes and turbulences currently underway. The present article seeks to explore such an inexorable phenomenon of quantifying and correlating innovation and business resiliency over a time line, from the annual financial data of 35 healthy and unhealthy companies along with 5 textile companies over a span of few decades. These are then extrapolated with certain predictive capabilities to suggest future trends and strategies for the textile companies. Learning from these companies, if adopted, will yield capacity to transform the scenario. Assessments and classification of the economic health of a company is typically made based on some quantity derived from selected indices, such as Altman’s Z-score. These methods can describe an instantaneous status, or a “time snap” of an economical subject but lack information about the time-dynamics of the assessment, which is important for investors, shareholders and the management. We suggest using historical data to estimate current trends in the form of the first and second time-derivative of the appropriate quantity in the time domain. This new information is independent on the quantity itself and beside more precise description can be used as new predictor to improve effectiveness of classification of successful and unsuccessful subjects. This approach is further discussed in this paper.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mouwitz, Pia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lidström, Anna
    Another Design.
    ReDesign kläder: Förstudie2014Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Paras, Manoj K.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Re:Textile – Planning a Swedish Collection and Sorting Plant for Used Textiles2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser följande frågor:− Finns det några realistiska förutsättningar att etablera en svensk sorteringsanläggning för insamlade textilier med hänsyn tagen till redan etablerade insamlingsstrukturer?− Vilka ar de avgörande kritiska faktorerna?− Hur ser framtiden ut?− Hur kan en framkomlig väg se ut för att etablera en lämplig strategi för en cirkulär ekonomi avseende använda textilier?Grundförutsättningar för studien:Idag bedrivs den ordnade insamlingen av textilier huvudsakligen av välgörenhetsorganisat-ioner som Myrorna, Röda Korset, etc. Av en total konsumtionsvolym på ca 13 kg/capita i Sverige (omfattande kläder och hemtextil) samlas 3-4 kg in av mestadels seriösa operatörer genom direktöverlämning eller genom insamlingscontainrar. Vissa butiker/varumärken har också kommit igång med mottagning av använda textilier, t.ex. H&M, Hemtex, Kapp-Ahl m.fl. Övriga kvantiteter (8-10 kg) har vi inte exakt kännedom om, men troligen hamnar de förr eller senare i containrar för brännbart.Motivet för de seriösa insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva denna verksamhet är dels att skapa finansiella resurser för att kunna bedriva sin hjälpverksamhet, dels att skapa sysselsätt-ning för en växande kader av personer i arbetsträning och liknande. Detta innebär att verksam-heten i stor utsträckning bedrivs av volontärer samt av subventionerad personal vad avser ar-betskostnader. Samhällsnyttan som skapas genom detta är mycket stor och bör inte äventyras av förändringar i denna struktur. I regeringsuppdraget 2014 till Naturvårdsverket angående hantering av textilier framhålls detta också som en förutsättning.

    Den sorteringsverksamhet som bedrivs av dessa organisationer syftar till att sortera ut de bästa produkterna, som har förutsättningar att säljas genom egna butikskanaler. Ungefär 20 % av volymerna tar denna väg, och dessa har en helt avgörande ”värdeuppväxling”. Övriga 80 % exporteras till avsevärt lägre värde än de första 20 procenten.

    Eftersom välgörenhetsorganisationerna utför denna första fas på ett utomordentligt kostnads-effektivt sätt, samt därigenom skapar samhällsnytta som också är mycket kostnadseffektiv, kan vi inte se något som helst motiv att ändra på detta förhållande utan kanske istället förbättra möjligheterna att utveckla deras värdefulla arbete.

    För en regional/nationell sorteringscentral återstår alltså en potential bestående av ex-portkvantiteterna samt de volymer som hamnar i ”brännbart”.

    De beräkningar vi har utfört baseras på en sorteringsanläggning som bedrivs efter normala affärsbetingelser, dvs. avtalsenliga löner, marknadsmässiga hyror och avskrivningar samt rå-dande finansiella kostnader.

    Den kritiska volymen för en sådan anläggning har beräknats till en kapacitet om 40 ton/dag motsv. ca 50 anställda. Denna kapacitet motsvarar ca 40 % av totalförbrukningen (13 kg/ca-pita) i Västra Götaland eller ca 170 % om insamlingsnivån ligger på nuvarande ca 3 kg/capita.

    För att nå erforderlig volym krävs alltså:

    − Utökat geografiskt upptagningsområde

    − Maximerade marknadsandelar

    − Större insamlad volym per capita.

    Beaktande dagens kostnadsläge för en effektiv anläggning om 40 ton/dag samt de mark-nadsmässiga priser/intäkter som idag är för handen avseende ”2nd choice” kvantiteter är projektet inte ekonomiskt försvarbart. Kostnads/intäktsförhållandet ligger på ca 7,80 SEK/kg mot ca 6,50 SEK/kg.

    De faktorer som påverkar detta förhållande är följande:

    − Andelen förstasortering i fraktionerna (andelen är noll i vårt exempel)

    − Totalvolymerna

    − Kvalitetsfördelning. Bärbara plagg i förhållande till icke bärbart, dvs. kvantiteter för re-cycling etc.

    − Produktiviteten

    −Lönekostnaderna

    − Låga marknadspriser på framförallt material till recycling samt ”rags” (putstrasor)

    − Teknologi för hantering respektive potentiell sensorteknologi för automatisk sortering av-seende främst förekomst av skadliga kemikalier samt fiberinnehåll

    − Recyclingsteknik för återvinning av använda fiber till nya fiber; inte kommersiellt tillgäng-lig ännu

    − Vertikal integration (insamling-sortering; recyclingprocesser/second hand-retailing)Dessa förhållanden kan självfallet förändras och ändra bilden av konceptets realism.

    Slutsatser avseende marknadsutveckling:

    Beaktande att framtidens fiberbehov om mer än 200 miljoner ton/år (från nuvarande ca 90 miljoner ton/år) huvudsakligen genereras genom befolkningsökning och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer som utgör dagens exportmarknader, får detta till följd att dessa marknader blir självförsörjande avseende bärbara second hand-kläder. Alltså: våra exportmarknader minskar betydligt.

    De tekniker och marknader som måste utvecklas i strävan mot en lönsam cirkulär ekonomi utgörs följaktligen av

    − Sorteringsteknik som kan detektera och sortera på skadligt kemiskt innehåll respektive fiberinnehåll. Dessa två sorteringsförutsättningar är grundläggande för säkra och lönsamma produktinnovationer.

    − Nya tekniker och processer för utveckling av nya innovativa, värdeskapande produkter från både mekanisk, kemisk och termisk recycling.

    Dessa båda områden är centrala för att värdet på insamlade textilier kan öka vad avser både volym och priser.

    Förslag till fortsatt arbete; ett diskussionsscenario:Förslaget är att skapa en flexibel öppen struktur, baserad på tre grundkomponenter:

    1. Bygg upp regionala sorteringscentra som ger grundförutsättningar för insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva sin verksamhet på ett effektivt sätt.En bra samlad sorteringsvolym (summan av varje organisations insamling och sortering)ligger lämpligtvis på ca 40 ton/dag. Vissa gemensamma funktioner kan utvecklas som t.ex. balning/packning, intern transportlogistik etc. Detta skulle ge skalfördelar utan att påverka varje organisations egna affärsprocesser. Det bör kunna vara självfinansierat genom hyror respektive sålda logistiktjänster.

    2. Skapa en agentur eller liknande med uppgift att sälja exportkvantiteter på uppdrag av insamlingsorganisationerna. Motivet skall vara att bättre kunna optimera en kundsamman-sättning som ger en optimal mix av EKONOMI – EKOLOGI – ETIK. Genom att den totalt genererade volymen blir större borde en professionell organisation kunna nå bättre totalt utfall avseende de tre E:na. Erfarenheter från vår empiri ger vid handen att det finns potential för bättre utfall. Den borde också kunna vara självfinansierad genom t.ex. provisionsintäkter.OBS. Om förutsättningarna förändras enligt vår studie kan en fysisk sorteringsanläggning strukturellt etableras och ersätta agenturen.

    3. Ovanstående punkter ger förutsättningar för att bygga upp en testbädd som är inriktad på att kunna serva företag, forskningsorganisationer etc. med kapacitet att köra betatester, som är ett nödvändigt inslag i produktutvecklingsprocessen. Eftersom Sverige saknar en infrastruktur för både subindustriell produktion av fiber och recycling av textilier är detta en viktig förutsättning för utveckling av de produkter/processer som ligger till grund för värdeutvecklingen av använda textilier.

  • 14.
    Chizaryfard, Armaghan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Samie, Yassaman
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    New Textile Waste Management Through Collaborative Business Models for Sustainable Innovation2018In: Detox Fashion: Waste Water Treatment / [ed] S.S. Muthu, Singapore: Springer, 2018, p. 81-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most nations, textile waste management is recognized to be a multi-actor system; however most participating actors tend to play a significant role in handling and treating the textile waste single-handedly thus resulting in a very fragmented system fraught with many challenges. In addition, the main textile waste treatment, e.g. in Sweden is still incineration (nearly 55% of per capita disposal) resulting in low degrees of value generation. Nearly 20% of the waste is handled by ten major charities in Sweden. This highlights the necessity for the actors to perform in a network and expand their collaboration, thus move more efficiently towards development of a sustainable value innovation, and find an alternative new way to manage textile waste. Given this our study strives to investigate the challenges and opportunities of implementation of a collaborative business model for sustainable innovation. By taking the benefits of actor-, activity- and value-mapping technique, our study helps in gaining a better realization of the Swedish textile waste management system. The core values of actors have been identified along with the identification of their shared and conflicting values with the aid of a value mapping tool. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from seven organizations representing the Swedish textile waste man- agement system. Overall our study provides a rich and descriptive picture of the participating actors, their activities, collaboration and value-orientations within the Swedish textile waste management system, and highlights the key drivers of a collaborative solution, viz. legislation, trust and shared understanding and communication, that can be foreseen to increase dialogue and collaboration among actors to support the movement from egocentric to a multi-actor business model. A clear benefit of such collaborative business models is substitution of incineration by higher degrees of reuse of textiles, which has high potential to generate positive environmental impact, through reduction of toxic effects of textile incineration and also new production processes.

  • 15.
    Gwilt, Alison
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Conditional garment design for longevity2017In: PLATE: Product Lifetimes And The Environment / [ed] Conny A. Bakker, Ruth Mugge, IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 9, p. 149-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the clothing sector, approaches to design for longevity can provide the "…single largest opportunity to reduce the carbon, water and waste footprints of the clothing in the UK" (WRAP, 2013a). Although an emphasis lies on slowing consumption, the types of design-led approaches that can be used to achieve this goal are considerably varied yet sparingly used by the mainstream fashion industry. In light of the growth of a circular economy, the challenge facing the fashion industry is to adapt the existing product design and development model and explore a fashion system where other, more diverse design approaches can prosper. Thus, this paper attempts to contribute to this debate and further highlight factors that need to be considered by fashion companies when developing garments designed for longevity.

    Through a range of novel design principles/methods, underpinning modularity and incremental garment design/construction in this paper we demonstrate how designers may begin to envisage garments as items designed for longevity. The experimental work carried out here is part of a larger initiative, Re:Textile in Sweden (Retextile, 2017). In the experiments conducted we demonstrate the power of various garment design conditions intended to synthesize a change towards garment longevity. Together with highlights of the key processes and basic design principles underpinning these design-led approaches, the experimental work also specifies how and where they contribute in achieving the aims of designing in a circular economy. The findings also highlight the opportunities for improving the redesignability of the garment in its active use life as set by the original design conditions laid in light of design for longevity.

  • 16. Harper, Sara
    et al.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Towards a conceptual model of manufacturing supply chain configuration for EU textile and apparel industry2018In: EurOMA 2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the development of a conceptual model for configuration of supply chains/networks for small series textile and apparel production, in contexts such as the EU. This configurational approach is needed due to the significant mismatch between current industry structures and the demand for small series production. The model, consisting of four elements with resulting themes and groupings, was developed through a systematic approach of the literature on the related types of production. The themes highlight the complexities and interdependencies that must be considered by managers. The linkages between the elements, in line with 3DCE, need to be further addressed.

  • 17. Komassi, Ehsan
    et al.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Investigating short term strategies in product sustainability index implementation, a case study at IKEA2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are aware of long term benefits of sustainability, and that in the future the competitive landscape will change. However, financial concerns slow down the sustainability development process. This article aims to explore how companies move toward long term benefits of sustainability without compromise in their financial objectives in short term. This study focuses on investigating how companies use sustainability index tool as a component of short term strategy. Findings indicate that companies try to simplify the sustainability assessment and combine it with other decision making tools. This simplification is toward finding potential improvements in the product level. Results are summarized in a model which corresponds to the short term strategy development process toward sustainability. This model describes how company identifies critical products based on financial, strategic and sustainability aspects. The investigation has been performed at children’s IKEA in Sweden.

  • 18.
    Kupka, Karel
    et al.
    Trilobyte Statistical Software, Ltd..
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Aneja, Arun Pal
    East Carolina State University.
    Militky, Jiri
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Characterizing Business Resilience Using SVM-Based Predictive Modeling2016In: Meeting on Statistics in Business and Industry / [ed] Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Barcelona, Spain, 2016, p. 39-40Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Business resilience has gained prominence, in academia and practice, vis-à-vis the heightened challenges recently faced by organizations, e.g. financial crisis. Developing resilience by thriving or bouncing back from crises yields sound business health in the future.However extant scholarly discussion on predictive modelling of economic resilience is rather limited, while business health studies are mainly limited to bankruptcy failure predictions. These studies mostly utilize financial snapshots (based on only few years data) to construct the predictive models hence are static in nature (Balcaen and Ooghe 2006). Several assumptions underpin these static models, e.g. considering failure as a steady process devoid of organizational history (Appiah et al. 2015, du Jardin and Séverin 2011). Even though, few recent studies (cf. du Jardin and Séverin (2011), Chen et al. (2013) etc.) have designed a “trajectory of corporate collapse” to forecast the changes in firms’ financial health, using various ‘expert systems’ like self-organizing maps (SOM) based upon unsupervised neural network approach, these studies still interpret the findings largely for predicting bankruptcy (a ‘state’) rather than drawing inference on the economic growth or recovery patterns (a ‘trajectory’) of organizations – a key to generate resilience. Neither these studies utilize longitudinal financial data (spanning over many years) to capture the dynamics of corporate history required to build resilience of organizations in reality.In this context, our paper proposes developing a predictive econometric model of business resilience by using ‘expert’ SVM method. The expanded predictor based on financial ratios highlighted by Altman (1968)’s Z-score also takes into consideration the corporate dynamics (first and second derivatives). Historical financial data is gathered from 198 firms representing 26 Dow Jones industrial sectors, and starting from 1960s.Our prediction model achieved comparatively high predictive accuracy of ---- (for a forecasting horizon of ----- years) and is comparable to similar studies. However, the main contribution of the paper is in proposing four archetypical patterns in business health trajectories, derived from the historical hind-sight, defined by tendency-dynamics combinations and is essential to characterize business resilience as follows:

    Business Health (at T = t+1) = Business Health (T = 0 to t) + Resilience function

    These four typical situations range from the most pessimistic case (tendency = Down, dynamics = Down) to the most promising (Up-Up). The four archetypes can be used to explain four resilience functions, viz. (i): up-up as sustainable resilience, (ii) up-down as short-term resilience, till t = T, (iii) down-up as resilience in near-future, at t = T, and (iv) down-down as lack of resilience.

  • 19.
    Larsson, Jonas Larsson
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lindqvist, Rickard
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Atacac AB.
    Johansson, Mats
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hernandez, Niina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    From Roll to Bag: D5.2 Final Product Construction Report2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the final product construction report for the From Roll to Bag project. The purpose of this report is to present the implementation of the new pattern technology to selected products and to present the modularity for consumer selection. For fulfilling the tasks (5.1 and 5.2) two garments where chosen, one jacket and one shirt, and customization options regarding fit, model, colour and function were developed for each of them. This includes implementation of novel pattern technology to products, graphics, a product architecture with customisation options and initial production tests to verify perfect fit in production and later in use. The more challenging part was to guarantee manufacturability as the patterns require automated manufacturing equipment due to their detailed construction and the pattern matching. Such equipment includes a cutter with a scanner that identifies the outline of the printed pattern and cuts accoringly. If garments with less detailed graphics are considered for production, pre-dyed fabrics can be used and that requires less investments in manufacturing equipment. Such set up would miss one point of the project but in the tradeoff between investment cost and product price point it may be a viable solution. The garments and customization modules are also fit for production but in order to achieve a detailed production evaluation with exact production times and material consumption a long run of products is needed. Considerations about customer’s experiences in this type value chains are also discussed.

  • 20.
    Ma, Ke
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    IDENTIFYING INTER-ORGANIZATION COLLABORATION TYPES AND RESEARCH ADVANCEMENTS IN SUPPLY CHAIN CONTEXT2015In: The Proceedings of 20th International Symposium on Logistics (ISL 2015): Reflections on Supply Chain Research and Practice / [ed] KS Pawar, H Rogers and E Ferrari, Nottingham, NG8 1BB UK: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School, 2015, p. 165-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this state-of-the-art paper is to make a synthesis analysis oncollaboration in supply chain by literature review of all relevant articles, conceptualizingcollaboration in supply chain and providing implications for future research. Based ondesigned material collection standard, up to year 2014, a total of 1250 papers are usedfor descriptive analysis and a total of 509 papers are carefully reviewed for furtherclassification, conceptualization and comparison analysis. Research in this field is in anincreasing trend in general but most of collaboration in supply chain is still in a low levelin research. Another interesting finding is that logistics seems to be the most promisingsupply chain stage for research about collaboration in supply chain.

  • 21.
    Ma, Ke
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    SIMULATION MODELLING OF RESOURCE SHARING IN INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPLY CHAIN COLLABORATION WITHIN GARMENT INDUSTRY2016In: UNCERTAINTY MODELLING IN KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING AND DECISION MAKING: Proceedings of the 12th International FLINS conference / [ed] Xianyi Zeng; Jie Lu; Etienne E Kerre; Luis Martinez; Ludovic Koehl, Singapore: World Scientific, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource sharing (RS) is an important method in inter-organizational supply chain collaboration (SCC). However, it is still an under-explored area in research of SCC compared to other subjects (e.g. coordinating contract and information sharing). The aim of this paper is to examine the feasibility of applying RS model in the manufacturing stage of garment supply chain and to determine the suitable type of garment for RS in production. Eight scenarios of RS were designed. Discrete-event simulation was used for running experiment of each scenario. The comparison of different scenarios shows that garment manufacturers could get great benefits by applying RS model.

  • 22.
    Ma, Ke
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    What modelling research on supply chain collaboration informs us? Identifying key themes and future directions through a literature review2018In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research regarding supply chain collaboration has been increasing, studies reviewing supply chain collaboration remains limited. This review paper categorises supply chain collaboration and identifies different themes in this research field. Articles were collected based on a designed keywords list and specific subject restrictions in citation databases. Text-mining technology and conceptual criteria were used to categorise and screen articles into different categories. Finally, cluster analysis was used to group articles and identify emerging themes. From the year 1999 to 2017, a total of 678 articles regarding supply chain collaboration were found. These were sorted into six categories: levels of collaboration, industries, supply chain stages, company scales, forms/methods of collaboration and typology of article, and into corresponding sub-categories. 380 articles employing modelling approach where collaboration forms the core of analysis were screened for hierarchical cluster analysis, resulting in four clusters: information sharing paradigm, joint decision-making paradigm, resource sharing paradigm and coordinating contract paradigm. Eleven themes were finally identified based on the four clusters. The number of articles in the field of supply chain collaboration shows an increasing trend by year. However, most of the collaborations discussed were still at a low level. It is expected to explore a higher level of collaborations and related themes in future research.

  • 23. Mustonen, Milka
    et al.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mashkoor, Yasir
    Success indicators in various fashion business models2013In: Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, ISSN 2093-2685, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 74-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the business models of various fashion companies, based on their 2009 financial indicators, to understand how different operation models correlate with success and whether selected performance indicators monitor operational success. Based on their business models, the companies were classified as follows: brand retailers, brand marketers, luxury brands, and multi-brand retailers. Brand retailers with a high net profit margin and a rapid turnover of inventory were significantly more profitable than traditional multi-brand retailers. Luxury brand companies were another successful group. Though their stockturn was low, their net profit was high because of their unique design and high brand value. Brand marketers could adapt well to rapid changes, because their business was primarily based on intangible assets. Furthermore, multi-brand retailers showed the lowest financial ratios because of their slow stockturn and low net profit margin.

  • 24.
    Pacheco Martins, Adriana
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Advanced Computing Techniques: New tools for fast fashion sales forecasting2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was developed in order to collect resources for future research that aims to design and evaluate an appropriate forecasting system, which is able to contribute to the sustainability of the fast fashion model. It describes in a systematic way how the tasks of forecasting demand and placing orders are currently performed in the fast fashion model. It was also needed to ground this description on theoretical concepts of forecast and management. The study reviews some of the available advanced computing techniques used for forecasting clothing demand and analyzes the implications of better forecasting techniques in the FF model. We expose why there is a need for better forecasting in the fast fashion model and the promising techniques that can be tested to improve managerial operations in the fast fashion model.

  • 25.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    A Competitive Business Strategy Development for Market Expansion: A Study of a Branding Enterprise2009Book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Applying 3DCE for value creation in second-hand clothing chain: a Swedish study2015In: Reflections on Supply Chain Research and Practice / [ed] K. Pawar, H. Rogers, E. Ferrari, Nottingham, UK: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School, 2015, p. 544-553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second-hand clothing value chains in western countries are fragmented and complex affecting value generation. In this context, various attributes of product, process and supply chain design decisions are essential to enhance value creation; for example, new product take-back schemes, process reengineering, reuse and redesign, closer coordination, etc. These activities need to be synchronized to redesign products, processes and associated value chains independently and more necessarily simultaneously thus calling for three-dimensional concurrent engineering (3-DCE) as a critical lens to explore the existing value creation activities. The paper explores the antecedents of value creation in second-hand clothing value chains in Sweden along 3-DCE perspective. The research adopts a mixed method where data is collected through desk research and semi-structured interviews twelve actors in the second-hand clothing network.

     The paper identified value generating stages as collection, sorting, refurbishing, reselling of used clothes and redesigning. These stages have various enablers and challenges at the intra-organizational and value chain levels. At the intra-organizational level, key antecedents are strategic logistics infrastructure for collection, sorting, transportation as well as creative retailing. Effective merchandise planning is another critical enabler for reuse and redesign, while right market knowledge is yet another essential enabler. At the value chain level, key antecedents are process integration, well-designed collection network and collaborative collector-sorter partnerships along with product design for durability. Further, supporting sustainability communication also enables higher value generation in the organization. These antecedents were further mapped in the paper along 3-DCE drivers to identify their foci.

  • 27.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    EPR-SYSTEMS AND NEW BUSINESS MODELS FOR SUSTAINED VALUE CREATION: A STUDY OF SECOND-HAND CLOTHING NETWORKS IN SWEDEN2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to explore and map diverse business models and their core drivers in the used clothing network in Sweden followed by identification of the emerging patterns and their differential degrees of value creation. Information was gathered through desktop survey and semi-structured interviews. 14 different operating business models were identified, out of which 8 each can be categorized as service-based and resell-based, either with or without product ownership. Some business models were common to both categories. The paper contributes to the understanding of environmental and economic gains of each business model - the key to value creation of responsible business models.

  • 28.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Extended responsibility through servitization in PSS: An exploratory study of used-clothing sector2016In: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, ISSN 1361-2026, E-ISSN 1758-7433, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 453-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The global textile-fashion industry is resource inefficient thus requiring higher product- service systems (PSS) intervention. Further, insight of how PSS extends corporate responsibility is rather limited; knowledge of which may contribute towards increased PSS viability. The purpose of this paper is to explore how companies operating with used-clothing PSS extend their responsibilities through servitization.

    Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study of seven companies operating with various used-clothing PSS is conducted through semi-structured interviews and supplementary document studies.

    Findings – Six dominant ways through which servitization drives responsibility in used-clothing PSSare identified. These are through: value-adding services, product leverage, collaborative partnership, information transparency, awareness and platform-enabled networking. Two trade-offs exist in terms of their focus on physical process or digitalization, and developed by honing core competency or collaborative partnership. Further three differentiating attributes underlie these mechanisms for: raising awareness and/or improving transparency, collaboration in value creation and/or in promoting consumption, and product ownership and/or leverage.

    Research limitations/implications – A wide range of used-clothing PSS exists each in its own way extending responsibility. In-depth studies are required to investigate the relationship between servitization and extended responsibility for diverse PSS-types and on type of responsibilities they address.

    Practical implications – By identifying the key mechanisms or ways and their underlying characteristics companies can identify new servitization forms and ways to extend their responsibility, identify best practices and establish viability beyond the traditional measures, e.g. financial.

    Originality/value – So far no studies have investigated the role of servitization in PSS and how it extends corporate responsibility, especially in industries like textile-fashion, where both resource efficiency and responsibility is low.

  • 29.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Identifying organizational competence in global textile complex2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper develops a matrix for organizational competence mapping according to some inherent common pattern identified to lead success, based on innovation and specialization – along three-dimensional domain of product, process and supply chain. Organizational distinctive competences are, hence, related to how they generate organizational critical success factors (CSFs). Survey conducted on Swedish Textile, Clothing and Fashion enterprises reveals that product quality is considered to be the most important for organizations followed by higher service level, supply chain coordination and flexibility. Cost and price reduction is apparently of lesser significance.

  • 30.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Identifying Organizational Distinctive Competence by Business Mapping in a Global Textile Complex2011In: Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three-dimensional perspective along product, process, and supply chain, of any organization is essential for providing a holistic perspective for mapping business competency. Organizational business success, in terms of economic performance, for any company in the Global Textile Complex, is a resultant of its distinctive competencies – innovation and/or specialization along the fundamental blocks of 3-DCE (product, process and supply chain). The paper develops a matrix for business competency mapping to streamline the organizations according to their pattern of distinctive competence deconstructed along the 3-DCE domain. 18 of the 25 surveyed companies recording a profit build-up (2005-09) had their economic success deconstructed along different combinations of product, process and supply chain attributes. It is also argued that innovation and/or specialization are the routines or pathways to be successful and statistical models are developed to validate the hypothesis. Any firm not adjudged to be innovator and/or specialist in some respect cannot be successful long term. This is critical in identifying myriads of distinctive organizational competencies and success factors for all business architectures and deduce success pattern in it. A failure to do so can essentially lead firms running out of long term success as the seven of the responding firms reflected. The research seems to be viable to identify and relate firm strategies to their critical success factors and devise solutions for the future.

  • 31.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Oranizational resilience through situational adaptation: analysis of multiple cases2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational Resilience (ORes) is a concept that provides a wide platform to investigate how businesses can survive, adapt and grow in the face of the turbulent changes. In this paper we argue how resilience can be seen as a common pattern for success of textile, clothing and fashion (TCF) firms. Six empirical business cases are analysed to investigate how firms respond to turbulences by orchestrating the dynamic building blocks viz., organizational architecture, skills, and culture along various pathways (‘exploring new opportunities’ or ‘exploiting existing capabilities’) to create resilience as ultimate competitive advantage. We see what is common in generating such adaptation strategies or fits in the organization, is what we term as situational adaptation.

  • 32.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Organizational resilience of Swedish textile enterprises through crisis strategic planning: a research review2013In: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Logistics: Resilitent supply chains in an uncertain environment, International Symposium on Logistics (ISL) - 2013 , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Resilience, in an organizational sense means the ability to survive and thrive in crises and turbulences (Vargo and Seville 2011). It is associated with established activities like crisis management (CM) and business continuity planning (BCP), but it allows for new perspectives and insights into the conditions for doing business. From the Swedish textile and clothing (T&C) industry perspective, the average number of firms that went bankrupt during the recent crisis (2007-09) escalated twofold compared to the average over 2000-10 due to tremendous pressure on the credit system. The small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) were the most affected of all, facing major threats to their financial performance and ultimately to their survival during the crisis (Vossen 1998). In such a context, study of organizational resilience (ORes) to survive and thrive becomes increasingly significant. The paper highlights the major findings of the doctoral thesis of the author. It concentrates on understanding the resilience development process through crisis strategic planning (CSP) in Swedish textile-related SMEs amidst economic crises. It also investigates and answers how resilience development is a precursor for business success, how to develop and monitor resilience, and identifies the antecedents and key strategic initiatives and their differential degrees of influence. Design or Methodology A mixed methodology was adopted based on quantitative statistical analyses, at first, followed by a detailed qualitative work based on surveys, interviews, case studies and secondary data for triangulation. Data analysis was conducted through certain thematic coding principles. A four-step hermeneutic spiral was followed by systematically combining the pre-understanding, empirics and extant literature to develop a theoretical framework through constant modification. Overall a resilience development processual framework was adopted along the CR-GT view of causation (Lee 2012). Findings and implications The findings are manifold. Economically resilient firms mostly showed planned resilience in financial crises based on long-term strategies through BCP and in terms of growth strategies through market penetration, diversification and transformational initiatives. These firms also showed better short-term CM through higher operational flexibility while the less resilient ones lacked in strategic readiness due to resource scarcity. Resourcefulness viz. cash flow and investment finance, relational networks and material assets along with ‘dynamic competitiveness’ through strategic and operational flexibilities were key enablers of resilience and healthy Z-score performance. Along the CSP model, an understanding of the crisis environment, for evaluating and allocating resources and assets for proper strategic initiatives is essential for resilient financial performance. This is beneficial for firms to understand the key areas in which to invest and develop a multi-strategic CSP model, categorizing firms along different resilience types. Value/ Originality The CSP model developed for resilience processual development proposes a strategic roadmap for organizations on how to understand the operating environment, devise capabilities and formulate, implement and evaluate strategies to combat crises and is useful for SME owners and managers. Similar researches are quite limited in this field. Category: Research Review

  • 33.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Organizational resilience through crisis strategic planning2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience, in an organizational sense meaning the ability to withstand crises and disturbances, has become a keyword during the last ten years. It is associated with established activities like risk and crisis management and business continuity planning or with strategic management, but it allows for new perspectives and insights into the conditions for doing business. Applied to the whole supply chain it also provides tools for managing and aligning the logistics flows in an appropriate way. But why is resilience essential for success or survival? In context to the Swedish textile and clothing (T&C) industry, the average number of firms that went bankrupt during the recent crisis (2007-09) escalated twofold compared to the average over 2000-10 due to tremendous pressure on the Swedish credit system. The structural industrial statistics also plummeted in these crisis years aggravating other inherent or internal problems as a ’ripple effect’. The small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) were the most affected of all, facing major threats to their financial performance and ultimately to their survival, at times of economic crises. In such a context, study of organizational resilience (ORes), to survive and thrive becomes increasingly significant. To address this issue the thesis concentrates on understanding the resilience development process through crisis strategic planning in context to Swedish textile-related SMEs amidst economic crises. It investigates and answers how resilience development can be considered as a precursor for business success, how to develop and monitor resilience, and identifies its antecedents and key strategic initiatives and their differential degrees of influence. No prior studies describing organizational resilience and crisis strategic planning in an integrated processual approach using both short-term and long-term strategies through planning and adaptation were found in the literature. The thesis adopts a critical realist-grounded theory (CR-GT) approach along the metaphysical level as the structure for the resilience development process follows a causal relationship between the object (the organization), its structure (competences and strategies), the causal power (crisis strategic planning) for attaining an event/outcome (resilience) in a particular context (economic crisis). For addressing this issue of devising an outcome-based processual approach, a multivariate financial indicator called the Altman’s Z-score (used basically for calculating bankruptcy potential in firms) was used for quantifying resilience. For investigating the causal mechanism epistemological relativism along the grounded theory approach was chosen for theory generation. A mixed methodology was adopted based on quantitative statistical analyses, at first, followed by a detailed qualitative work based on surveys, interviews, case studies and secondary data for data triangulation. Analysis of data was conducted through certain thematic coding principles. A four-step hermeneutic spiral was followed by systematically combining the pre-understanding, empirics and extant literature to develop a theoretical framework through constant modification. Overall, the resilience development was highlighted along a processual framework adopted along the CR-GT view of causation. The findings are manifold. Firstly there is a need to develop economic resilience in SMEs to shift from just component-view to a more holistic systemic view of organizations, upheld by an integrated crisis strategic planning (CSP) approach, for facing dynamic environments. Secondly, the CSP process prescribed in the thesis is quite integrated and holistic, taking a view from all angles, viz. organizational structure (capabilities and strategies), processual approach etc. Such a resilience development process through CSP is based on a six-step process: (i) identification of environmental context, (ii) impact analysis, (iii) leadership analysis, (iv) capability analysis, (v) formulation/selection and implementation of strategies, and (vi) evaluation and review of strategic options, utilizing a suite of strategic tools and techniques and is particularly simple for application in an SME setting. Third, operationalization of such a causal mechanism based upon implementation of strategic tools is based upon using a multivariate financial indicator like Altman’s Z-score to outline the relation between ORes and business ‘health’, thus quantifying it. Finally, in order to develop a resilient organization it is important to engage and utilize effectively the key resources and assets (financial, material, social, networks) by developing dynamic capabilities (strategic and operational flexibilities, redundancy, robustness) and organizational learning (culture, employee wellbeing, attentive leadership and decision-making). These competences must be employed for the appropriate strategy development (selection, implementation, and evaluation) framed on both growth and continuity strategies, both planned and adaptive in nature. The research develops a holistic analytical framework of organizational structure for resilience development based on these two criteria. It also tests this framework for Swedish textile-related SMEs amidst economic crises. The findings in this contextual delimitation suggest that the resilient SMEs possess better financial resources, relational networks, operational & strategic flexibilities. The economically resilient firms mostly showed planned resilience in economic crises based on long-term strategies through business continuity planning (BCP) and in terms of growth strategies through market penetration, diversification and transformational initiatives. These firms also showed better short-term crisis management (CM) through higher operational flexibility while the less resilient ones lacked in strategic readiness due to resource scarcity. This is beneficial for firms to understand the key areas in which to invest and develop a multistrategic CSP model, categorizing firms along different resilience types – planned or adaptive.

  • 34.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sustainable Business Development Through Designing Approaches For Fashion Value Chains2014In: Roadmap to Sustainable Textiles and Clothing / [ed] S.S. Muthu, Springer Science+Business Media: Singapore , 2014, p. 227-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global fashion value chains are expanding rapidly, driven by forces of globalization. Large-scale outsourcing has led to long lead times and forecastdriven apparel value chains, resulting in increased forecasting errors and overproduction- related difficulties. Typically, in the developed countries in Europe, United States, and Japan, we see the emergence of strong fashion brands as core manufacturing has faded from the scene, leading to several other challenges related to sharing responsibility in the value chain, unsustainable consumption, etc. This has a lasting impact on the key financial performance of the fashion brands along with the detrimental environmental and social impacts, thus challenging the right balance of the strategic vectors for sustainable business development (SBD) in fashion value chains. Various stakeholders have realized that the future of fashion value chains increasingly depend not only on economic sustainability but also on safeguarding the environment, safety, and welfare of those associated with it. In this context, the work addresses these strategic issues motivating the sustainable design of closed-loop fashion value chain to propose a holistic model towards developing a design for sustainable business development (DfSBD).

  • 35.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sustainable Design and Business Models in Textile and Fashion Industry2017In: Sustainability in the Textile Industry / [ed] S.S. Muthu, Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd , 2017, p. 109-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile, Clothing and Fashion (TCF) are one of the most unsustainable industries in the world. This challenges triple-bottom line sustainability thus calling for increased intervention by designing sustainable development. Several industrial sustainability models have addressed this issue but they assume incremental improvements and growth while addressing global challenges. Thus a Sustainable Business Model perspective is required to think and go beyond these increments and reconceive radically how businesses should operate to drive system-level sustainability. In line with 8 major sustainable business model archetypes existing, this chapter first contextualizes them in TCF industries, and goes further to identify 5 key design elements (and underlying strategies) underpinning them. The knowledge of these key design elements (product, process, value network, relation, and consumption pattern), upholding a system thinking approach, will further assist both research and practice to strategically develop and improve the sustainable innovations and business models.

  • 36.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sustainable Value Generation Through Post-retail Initiatives: An Exploratory Study of Slow and Fast Fashion Businesses2016In: Green Fashion: Environmental Footprints and Eco-design of Products and Processes / [ed] S.S. Muthu and M.A. Gardetti, Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, p. 127-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dialogue between slow and fast fashion has gained great prominence in recent years particularly in terms of sustainability. In the forward value chain, fast fashion companies are most often considered to be unsustainable whereas the slow fashion brands are comparatively more planet-friendly. However, the discussionon the trade-off between sustainability and “speed of fashion” (classified into slow and fast fashions) in the post-retail segment is still limited. A deeper understanding, however, would not only contribute towards conceptualizing the post-retail initiatives, but would also shed light on how these are differentially undertaken by various types of fashion businesses in terms of generating sustainable value. This study proposes sustainable value generation in terms of closing the material and responsibility loops. It further reveals that the trade-off in post-retail is not as rigid as itis in the forward value chain. However, fast fashion offers the lowest potential todisplace the purchase of new clothes to close the material loop whereas the redesign brands offer the highest; moreover fast fashion is less liable to take extended responsibilities compared to the slow fashion brands. It can be concluded that fast fashion is somewhat “stuck in the middle” in comparison to the slow and redesign brands in terms of generating value through closing the loop activities.

  • 37.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Value creation through reverse logistics in used clothing networks2017In: The International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4903, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 864-906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the major reverse logistics design aspects in used clothing value chains, and those enabling and challenging manifestation of value creation.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This research is based on an exploratory study of 12 established organizations in Swedish used clothing networks. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, secondary sources, and subsequent field visits.

    Findings

    Empirical insights on how various design aspects influence value creation in used clothing value chains are provided. Crucial among these are strategic and consistent collection, presence of multi-channel sales, and communication of post-retail concepts for manifesting value by bolstering consumer satisfaction, environmental motivation, and corporate image. Inter-organizational collaboration in reverse logistics processes and workplace training, further renders higher economic, environmental and information values.

    Research limitations/implications

    The paper proposes a holistic framework of design aspects in reverse value chains, and extends existing knowledge on how these aspects manifest value creation. By doing so, a nuanced view of the design aspects is offered by highlighting how they can differentially, either enable, or challenge value creation. In this connection, seven supporting propositions are developed for in-depth future research.

    Practical implications

    The paper includes implications for the devising strategic solutions for higher value creation, by understanding of the key enablers and challenges, for many actors in the used clothing networks.

    Originality/value

    The role of various design aspects in reverse value chains for manifesting multifaceted stakeholder value creation is explicitly defined in the paper.

  • 38.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Andersson, Roy
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Organisational resilience through crisis strategic planning: a study of Swedish textile SMEs in financial crises of 2007–20112012In: International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management, ISSN 1753-7169, E-ISSN 1753-7177, Vol. 4, no 3/4, p. 314-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global financial crises of 2007–2011 have created tremendous impact on Swedish organisations, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In such a context, study of organisational resilience, to survive and thrive, becomes increasingly significant. Key to economic resilience is upheld by crisis management (CM), business continuity planning (BCP) and growth perspectives. Thus crisis strategic planning (CSP) becomes fundamental in underpinning resilience. The study categorises resilient and less resilient SMEs in terms of their financial performance, and identifies what strategies differentiate them. Resilient firms showed better short-term CM through higher operational flexibility, while the less resilient firms lacked strategic readiness. Resilient firms showed more long-term strategies through BCP and growth strategies through market penetration, diversification and transformational initiatives. Multi-strategic initiatives help to develop CSP model, categorising firms along different resilience types, characterised by low and high degrees of planning and adaptation, respectively. Resilient Swedish SMEs mostly showed planned resilience in financial crises.

  • 39.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Aneja, Arun
    East Carolina State University.
    Ambidexterity drivers of value-creation and appropriation in business models: an explorative study from DuPont2017In: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, ISSN 1560-6074, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 2-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate how different trajectories can be detected and classified in business models (BMs) at the level of their underlying product development value-structure (value-creation and appropriation), and what are the drivers. Such BMs are run by multinational firms to accommodate various technologies and innovations; however, this is stressful because of inherent incompatibilities and conflicts.

    Design/methodology/approach – An explorative study of six product cases from Du Pont’s Textiles Fiber Division (DTFD), namely, nylon yarns, knits and wovens, DTFD blockbusters, Coolmax®, MicroMattique™, filling materials and Supriva™, is conducted.

    Findings – In value-creation, technology push or market pull yields resultant technology-forward or market-back trajectories. For value appropriation, new growth opportunities or continuous market expectations lead to breakthrough or continuous innovations. Consistent and inconsistent combinations of these trajectories yield four differential drivers: technological breakthrough, market-back technology, continuous technology and continuous market-back. This is supported by relevant supply chain strategies, either focused through joint ventures and licensees for commodities or vertically integrated for specialty products.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper adds to the analysis of ambidexterity in the value structure of BMs along constituent value-creation and appropriation, thus providing a logical lens to understand various complementarities that exist in terms of opposing technology trajectories and product innovation repertoire.

    Practical implications – This study contributes to the knowledge of product innovation management in the textile industry, where both large-scale innovation and operational excellence are challenged over the past few decades.

    Originality/value – The lessons learnt address the fundamental issue of higher value generation through configuration of multiple contrasting value-structure elements.

  • 40.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Aneja, Arun Pal
    Antlova, Klara
    Militky, Jiří
    Open Innovation Business Models in Ambidextrous Clusters: A Multiple Case Analysis2014In: / [ed] Britta Gammelgaard, Department of Operations Management, Copenhagen Business School , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeAmbidextrous firms manage exploration and exploitation intra-organizationally while their strategic interaction with various entities (like universities, venture capitalists etc.) help them develop new technologies, innovative products and processes to build ambidextrous clusters. This creates a platform for open innovation, spinoffs and start-ups regionally for effective handling of financial constraints through synergies and complementarities. So far open innovation has mostly been documented from the context of the focal firm. The paper explores open innovation paradigm from the context of innovative cluster initiatives investigating on how the R&D processes and external value chains are organized, the concerned organizational modes and governance mechanism, and their revenue generation alternatives – thus rendering a business model perspective. The inter-organizational governance also gives an ambidexterity view in terms of management of innovation dynamics and value chain design.Design/methodology/approachTwo SME-based textile cluster initiatives are investigated. Suitable business cases are chosen to conduct qualitative analyses. Data is evaluated from both primary and secondary sources. FindingsFindings show the possibilities of new business model generation in an open innovation paradigm, beyond that of the focal firms. Both the cluster initiatives, Smart Textiles and Clutex, are similar in their funding arrangements and extent of industrial linkages. Differences exist in the governance structures of the innovation value chains. The initiatives in Sweden are mostly driven by single entities while in Czech Republic they are co-managed by a consortium partnership sharing common interest. From the business model perspective, Smart Textiles has multiple roles either as a ‘value creator’, or as service provider, or as an ‘incubator’. Clutex is more of a chartered consortium.Research implications/limitationsThe research shows the possibilities of new business model generation (apart from that of the focal firm’s) in governing open innovation in collaborative clusters embodying Ferrary’s concept of “ambidextrous clusters”.Practical implications and ValueExploring ambidextrous architectures of innovation value chain and their governance in various clusters in describing collaborative business models can add novelty for many matured and transforming industries as source of competitive advantage and performance improvement through business model innovation.

  • 41.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Aneja, Arun
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Militky, Jiri
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Havalka, Antonin
    Kus, Zdenek
    The quest for continual growth in textiles: innovation diversity and organizational resiliency2013In: Proceedings of the 13th AUTEX conference, 22-24 May 2013, Dresden, Germany, AUTEX World Textile Conference 2013 , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The looming spectre of decline of the man-made fibre industry in US, Europe and Japan has been exacerbated by several problems like intense global cost pressure, fibre and raw material shortages, oil price volatility challenges etc. All of these have contributed to sluggish growth and higher bankruptcies. Resiliency in such a context has become a prerequisite for leading long term business prosperity fuelled by diverse technological innovations. In this paper, the authors have investigated an inexorable phenomenon of quantifying and correlating innovation and business resiliency from annual financial data for DuPont, as a case, over a span of five decades. The findings are manifold. The financial impact of blockbuster products based on disruptive technologies takes over a decade to yield results while contributions from sustaining innovations are swift. Both types of innovations are necessary. Incremental innovations delay product maturity with concomitant investments in costly and risky blockbuster product developments. From DuPont’s perspective, the company showed explosive growth from 1970-90, primarily fuelled by the rapid introduction of products with long product lifecycle developed during 1950-1965. However, DuPont performance started to indicate declining resiliency even while increasing investments in innovation, from 1960-2010. This is possibly due to change in product portfolio from commodity to specialty orientation.

  • 42.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gander, Jonathan
    Department of Creative and Cultural Industries, Kingston University.
    Modelling environmental value: An examination of sustainable business models within the fashion industry2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 184, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business models of enterprises in the global fashion industry produce highly negative outcomes for the environment. High water usage, pollution from chemical treatments used in dyeing and preparation and the disposal of large amounts of unsold stock through incineration or landfill deposits combine to make clothing one of the highest impact industries on the planet. This paper uses the sustainable logics of narrowing, slowing and closing the loop of resources used during the production, design, manufacture and distribution of fashion garments to analyse emerging business models that seek to reduce the environmental impact of the fashion system. Taking the business model conceptualization of an enterprise as a system designed to create value for the customer and capture value for the firm, we add a consideration of environmental value and derive propositions that test the possibility that emerging sustainable business models in fashion will replace the dominant, unsustainable model. The paper argues that lack of scalability, incompatibility with fashion customers value propositions plus obstacles to supply chain changes militate against the prospect of the currently designed sustainable business models becoming the standard model of the fashion industry.

  • 43.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gander, Jonathan
    Kingston University.
    Ainamo, Antti
    Aalto University.
    Modelling environmental value: an analysis of sustainable business models within the fashion industry2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hemilä, Jukka
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University.
    Creating value through reverse logistics in a multi-echelon used clothing chain2016In: Sustainable Transport and Supply Chain Innovation / [ed] K S Pawar and KM Tsai, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2016, p. 419-429Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper:

    Reverse logistics (RL) in retail value chains is an increasingly emerging phenomenon yet under-explored in research (Bernon et al., 2011). The literature becomes shallower while discussing the “process” of value creation in such context. Given the inherent complexity and differentiated value creation in many RL networks (Schenkel et al., 2015), e.g. in used clothing, such values are constituted by different actors by prioritizing and committing their strategic resources for developing distinct rent-earning competencies.

    In this context, the purpose of this paper is to explore how differential value is created by firms embedded in a multi-echelon reverse value chain for used clothing, by successfully exploiting multi-level (intra- and inter- firm) resources, via various underlying rent-earning mechanisms.

     

    Design/methodology/approach:

    An explorative case study approach is adopted in reverse clothing value chain context to investigate the take-back scheme that includes multiple actor types and also spans globally. An abductive research process is adopted along two stages; Stage 1 (proposes a new theoretical framework on “how” value is created in reverse value chains based on resource-based (RB) and relational rent-earning views to exploit various RL attributes or capabilities) and Stage 2 (seeks real-life case observations to explore the empirical reality), and finally systematically combining these knowledge.

    Data is collected through semi-structured interviews, observation and documented notes and reports, conducted with various actors, viz. retailers, social enterprises (charities and non-profit retailers), commercial brokers/sorters, and specialized sorting firms from India.

     

    Findings:

    Differentiated values are created by the actors involved with multi-echelon take-back network. The RB and relational theories underpin the rent-earning mechanisms further highlighting several key ways to sustain this value.

    The VRIO model in the RB theory (Barney and Clark, 2007) shows how value is created within firm boundaries. The relational view highlights four rent-earning mechanisms: relational asset specificity and information sharing for the success of cost-neutral take-back agreement, along with resource and capability complementarities and trust in the relationship. Together they provide understanding of the entire “process” of rent generation.

     

    Value:

    This research contribute to exploring the “process” of rent-earning generated by critical intra- and inter- organizational enablers of value creation in complex RL networks.

     

    Practical implications:

    The paper improves the understanding of the key mechanism for value creation for actors working within the used clothing chain.

     

    References:

    Barney, J., & Clark, D. (2007). Resource-Based Theory: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bernon, M., Rossi, S., & Cullen, J. (2011). Retail reverse logistics: a call and grounding framework for research. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 41(5), 484-510.

    Schenkel, M., Caniëls, M., Krikke, H., & van der Laanc, E. (2015). Understanding value creation in closed loop supply chains – Past findings and future directions. Journal of Manufacturing Systems. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2015.04.009

  • 45.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kupka, Karel
    TriloByte Statistical Software Ltd., Czech Republic.
    Aneja, Arun
    College of Engineering & Technology, East Carolina State University, USA.
    Statistical models for rating financial performance and health of companies2015In: / [ed] College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Authors analyze financial data from a set of almost 200 major US companies from both manufacturing and service. The selection of the firms considered the spectrum of sectors of Dow Jones Industrial composite including manufacturing companies in aerospace & defence, automotive, beverages, footware & apparel, health technology, oil & gas and service-oriented companies like consumer services, discount stores, telecom services, insurance. Short overview of recent development in business health modelling is given. Based on the data and known expert ratings, the recently published Stagewise regression algorithm was employed to identify the most relevant predictors out of all possible financial ratios as based on the data. Support Vector Machine was used subsequently to construct a quantitative probabilistic prediction model for business investment risk evaluation. With this approach, it is possible to build less rigid, more specific models suitable for smaller sectors an shorter periods, thus allowing investors and management to better react to dynamic changes in business environment. Quantitative prediction based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) models provides more information and better decission support than traditional binary prediction (good/bad). The paper provides directly applicable parametric decission models predicting both numerical rating and good/bad classification probability  for manufacturing and service sectors. Short-term and more specific models can be used to characterize not only the business subject themselves, but also to characterize, parametrize and compare business environments.

  • 46.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kupka, Karel
    Trilobyte Statistical Software Ltd., Czech Republic.
    Aneja, Arun
    College of Technology and Computer Science, East Carolina University, United States.
    Militky, Jiri
    Department of Material Engineering, University of Liberec, Czech Republic.
    From classical business failure prediction models to business financial models for resilience: using advanced statistical methodologies2015In: : ICORS, 2015, p. 39-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last 35 years business failure prediction using various methods like univariate analysis, multi-variate analysis, credit risk models etc. has become a major research domain within corporate finance (Balcaen and Ooghe 2006). These mathematical models are increasingly accepted by financial institutions, governments and the European Union in the Basel Accords (Basel II/III). However, most classic statistical failure prediction models are developed without comprehensive understanding of the nature of company failure with often arbitrarily variables chosen in an ad-hoc manner (Beaver 1967b, Cybinski 2001). In this context, the paper uses advanced statistical methodology to propose a robust business financial modeling technique. Data on 18 key financial parameters were collected for 198 US-based public companies along with their expert credit rating for 2012-13. Firstly, a correlation study was performed between Altman scores and widely accepted expert rating based on stock exchange activities. Secondly, “stage-wise” regression was conducted to select the statistically most significant candidate ratios (from 153 to 9) (Hastie et al. 2007a). Thirdly, linear regression model was employed to model the credit rating and also to reduce the candidate variables (from 9 predictor ratios to five those were statistically significant). Fourth, the significant variables were used to construct the decision plane for the linear discriminant model using support vector machine classifier (SVM-C) estimation procedure (Scholkopf et al. 1995, Vapnik 1998). Binary response variable was obtained by dividing the ratings into two groups: high rating (or “good companies”) and low rating (or “not so good companies”) by choosing an arbitrary threshold rating value. Finally a logistic regression model helped to define the probability of having high rating (i.e. greater than 5) for a given company. Findings were manifold. The correlation between the Z-score and rating was poor (0.0223 and 0.0133 respectively for manufacturing and service companies). The linear regression models, on the other hand, showed high correlation coefficient (0.64 and 0.71 respectively) between predicted and actual expert ratings. With a few exceptions, in the heavy industry sectors, data was homogeneous (found using predicted residual method). The equation of the new discriminating hyper plane created by the SVM classification model (termed as Investor Inclination Index - I3 model) was proposed which means that expert ratings can be more significantly correlated to a set of candidate financial ratios predicting it. These are: (i) Cost of Goods Sold/Total Operating Expenses, (ii) Earnings Before Interest and Taxes/Total Liabilities, (iii) Earnings Before Interest/Total Revenue, (iv) Retained Earnings/Total Revenue, and (v) Working Capital/Research and Development Expense. The paper contributes by updating the original Altman discriminant model by using a data-driven predictor selection strategy to create a general methodology for building financial models providing economic meaningfulness to the credit rating used for assessing company’s performance and health. A wider use of validated financial models will encourage corporate businesses and even SMEs to evaluate themselves internally thus allowing them to identify possible threats and improve credit rating. Future research aims to provide explicit economic meaningfulness to the individual predictor ratios so that companies can create a strategic resource model (SRM) by interpreting the I3 model to determine how to create a decision support aid for the company’s business management. Also authors aim to extend the contribution by developing a tendency-dynamic status to the financial predictor for incorporating a time-series behavior for pattern recognition. This will provide economic meaningfulness to the financial models; predict financial risk and means to be resilient.

  • 47.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kupka, Karel
    TriloByte Statistical Software Ltd..
    Aneja, Arun P.
    College of Engineering & Technology.
    Militky, Jiri
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Business health characterization: A hybrid regression and support vector machine analysis2016In: Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 49, p. 48-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business health prediction is critical and challenging in today's volatile environment, thus demand going beyond classical business failure studies underpinned by rigidities, like paired sampling, a-priori predictors, rigid binary categorization, amongst others.

    In response, our paper proposes an investor-facing dynamic model for characterizing business health by using a mixed set of techniques, combining both classical and “expert system” methods. Data for constructing the model was obtained from 198 multinational manufacturing and service firms spread over 26 industrial sectors, through Wharton database.

    The novel 4-stage methodology developed combines a powerful stagewise regression for dynamic predictor selection, a linear regression for modelling expert ratings of firms’ stock value, an SVM model developed from unmatched sample of firms, and finally an SVM-probability model for continuous classification of business health. This hybrid methodology reports comparably higher classification and prediction accuracies (over 0.96 and ∼90%, respectively) and predictor extraction rate (∼96%). It can also objectively identify and constitute new unsought variables to explain and predict behaviour of business subjects.

    Among other results, such a volatile model build upon a stable methodology can influence business practitioners in a number of ways to monitor and improve financial health. Future research can concentrate on adding a time-variable to the financial model along with more sector-specificity.

  • 48.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Harper, Sara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vellesalu, Ann
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Competitive manufacturing for reshoring textile and clothing supply chains to high-cost environment – A delphi approach2017In: Data Driven Supply Chains / [ed] K. S. Pawar; A. Potter and A. Lisec, Nottingham: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School, 2017, p. 70-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing knowledge of reshoring, enabled largely by competitive manufacturing (CM) strategies in high-cost locations, is limited particularly in context to labour-intensive industries, like textile and clothing (T&C). The purpose of the paper is to identify and prioritize various CM-related supply chain factors that can enable reshoring of T&C to high-cost area. Following a systematic literature review, a multiple round Delphi study is conducted with T&C manufacturers in Sweden to seek practitioners’ perspective. While there is high consensus on the success factors, flexibility to meet short lead times, high product/service quality, and product/service customization; low degree of agreement is reached for the perceived challenges. Some out of literature debates emerged in terms of challenges related to CM in high-cost area, regarding increased fixed costs of production, rise in inventory level due to high product variety requirement, and low skill level against access to skills. Along with the decisive knowledge on the CM-related success factors for reshored supply chains, the Delphi study offers an interesting practitioners’ perspective from a labour-intensive sector like T&C.

  • 49.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Tampere University of Technology.
    Honkala, Markku
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Local fashion value chains: Success factors and competitive advantages2016In: Textiles: Inseperable from the human environment, 2016, p. 631-638Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization had forced fashion companies to move their manufacturing to low cost bases. However, in the recent times several challenges like poor transparency, ethical issues, high transportation costs, long lead times, etc. have motivated major reshoring initiatives. Steadily the fashion companies in the west are relocating back their production and are motivated by trends of greater product customization, supply chain transparency and digital technologies. In addition, several initiatives have been launched to support this development, for example the US initiatives: [TC]2 “Reshoring Fashion Initiative” and “Apparel Made for You”. However detailed scholarly discussion on what enables success of such local fashion value chain models are limited. This paper explores the drivers, critical success factors and competitive advantages in designing such local fashion value chains by drawing inferences from a European initiative called “fromRolltoBag”. An action research is employed to collect empirical data through observations and interviews with the project stakeholders. Results show that the competitive success lies in designing a consumer-driven, digitally-enabled fashion value chain, enabled by the strategy of differentiation through: (i) advanced digitalization of design and manufacturing operations, (ii) flexible, integrated and agile operations, and (iii) enhanced customer experience/interaction with the extended product-service system.

  • 50.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Naim, Mohamed
    Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University.
    Purvis, Laura
    Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University.
    Soroka, Anthony
    Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University.
    Resilience development process during financial crises: A dynamic capability approach2016In: / [ed] Robert W. Grubbström, Innsbruck, Austria, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature on organizational and supply chain resilience has increased vis-à-vis the heightened challenges recently faced by enterprises, e.g. financial crisis. Various facets of resilience have been highlighted, including the resources and dynamic competences required, strategies pursued or action repertoires in response to disruptions. However, insights into how firms reconfigure resources and develop competitiveness in pursuit of resilience are limited. This knowledge contributes towards understanding how resilience could be increased through combining various dynamic capabilities (e.g. flexibility, robustness, agility, leanness) along established resilience phases (readiness, sensing, response, recovery).

    This paper explores how an existing RALF (Robustness, Agility, Leanness, Flexibility) resilience framework, based on a dynamic capability approach, can be used by firms to deal with disruptions. A multiple case approach is employed in order to examine this phenomenon from both a temporal perspective (over two crises in Firm A) and spatial perspective (over one crisis in Firm B, taking a supply chain approach), while establishing the relationship with economic resilience through the Altman’s Z-score.

    The paper advocates the creation of a new resilience ‘recipe’, seen as a dynamic function of various capabilities, along the four resilience phases. While Case A had low resilience in the 1990-93 financial downturn, we show that its RALF capabilities were much higher following the 2008 crisis. Also in 2008, we show that Case B created a high degree of readiness, and ultimately resilience, through RALF despite the lack of resilience of its primary supplier.

12 1 - 50 of 73
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf