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  • 1.
    Beach, D
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Angervall, P
    Dovemark, M
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Gustafsson, J
    Schwartz, A
    Öhrn, E
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The impact of political changes in the Swedish education system2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Beach, D
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, M
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Schwartz, A
    Öhrn, E
    Complexities and Contradictions of Educational Inclusion: A Meta-Ethnographic Analysis2013In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 254-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent socio-economic changes, developments in school policy, and increased migration have added new dimensions to debates about educational inequalities. They concern one of the major challenges facing Sweden today, which is to offer all its students an equal education. What we know so far is that growing up in a disadvantaged neighbourhood with high rates of poverty, joblessness, and single parenthood are often used to explain lower levels of schooling, but that their mechanisms and interactions are not well understood. This is the focus of the present article. In it we use meta-ethnography to explore expressions about the education experiences of youths from suburban areas with high levels of unemployment and migration and educational performances lower than the national average to try to cast further light on these problems. We suggest that the common arguments used to account for the problem of school performance are strongly correlated with proficiency in the language of instruction and socio-economic conditions, but that these factors cannot account for the full extent of the problem. What it means to live within specific multicultural urban contexts is important as is the segregation and media representation of these areas and those who live in them.

  • 3.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    A Place for the Discipline of Education? Re-defining the Space2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    An Allegory on the Importance of Social Class in Education, Organisations and Society2009Other (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Articulating theory, practice and objectivity in the ethnography of education as a community of practice2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What ethnography is, what good ethnography is, and what is good and or bad about ethnography, has been debated and written extensively on both theoretically, philosophically and empirically. Attempts to define ethnography and describe it in ideal terms has been argued to be both good for ethnography, as it helps establish good standards, and bad, as it sets up barriers to experimentation and acts as a conservative force against new developments. The present paper is essentially an empirical and reflective one that has been developed from data produced by reflecting on actions and writings about ethnography and asking others do the same and to comment on these reflections. It is based on the analysis of notes and memos made in the field, as I have read and read about, supervised and carried out ethnographic research and carried out structured and unstructured conversations and deliberate and recorded interviews across a long term participation in ethnography in education research. The research has mainly been conducted in Scandinavia in particular but has also included activities with central and southern European and UK-based researchers.

  • 6.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Artistic representation and research writing2006In: Researching education policy: Ethnographic experiences, London: Tufnell Press , 2006, p. 95-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Book Review, Jensen, K., & Walker, S. (2007) Education, Democracy and Discourse, London: Continuum2010In: International Sociology Review of Books, Vol. 25, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Changing higher education by reform2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Changing higher education: converging policy-packages and experiences of changing academic work in Sweden2013In: Journal of education policy, ISSN 0268-0939, E-ISSN 1464-5106, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 517-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past two decades of international higher education reform are often described by researchers as having produced new managerial and neoliberal policy turns that have brought about a fundamental global shift in the way institutions of higher education are defined, run and justify their institutional existence and practices. Universities in Sweden were felt able to offer some possible resistance and based on ethnographic research at three Swedish universities this idea is explored in the present article. The article suggests however that resistance has been circumscribed through a coordinated collection of policies and that as elsewhere, the proliferation of competition based on quasi-markets and the standardisation of quality assurance through new accountability systems predominates, with significant effects on universities, their interactions and agents, and the relative social positions, influence, status and relationships of these agents.

  • 10.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Changing service relations between citizens and the State.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Chapter 3: On the value of Marxism in the understanding and anlysis of social class in educational ethnography and the misunderstanding of class as an epistemological category by critics of Marxist and other critical traditions2010In: New Frontiers in Ethnography: (Studies in Qualitative Methodology, Volume 11) / [ed] Sam Hillyard, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010, Vol. 11, p. 47-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Contexts for restructuring welfare state education and health care:2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Contrived and Compromised: Creative Agency and Social Reproduction2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Creative Policies and Cults of Selfishness: An Ethnographic Analysis2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Creativity and Performativity Policies, Programmes and Practices in Europe: Tensions between new idealism and practical in classrooms: Outcomes from the Hybrid Classrooms project2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Den nyliberala utbildningsförändring, dess drag och konsekvenser2012In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, Vol. 8, p. 60-68Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning angående den omstrukturering som har ägt rum inom utbildningssektorn i Europa, framförallt under de två senaste decennierna, visar att det har skett en massiv omvandling av lärarnas, andra pedagogers och andra tjänsteutövares, socialt användbart arbete, till en objektiverad form av arbetskraft för mervärdesproduktion inom privatägda företag, med ibland allvarliga konsekvenser för dessa människors arbetsförhållanden, samt för utbildningens kvalité och elevernas hälsa och lärande. Relationer som tidigare varit förhållandevis opåverkade av kommersiella intressen har blivit involverade i ett system som bygger på ett direkt köpande och säljande av den fysiska och intellektuella arbetskraften i privata intressen. Denna kapitalisering av vad som tidigare har varit ett statligt och kommunalt arbete inom dessa länders offentliga sektorer känns igen även i Sverige, i relation till utbildningssystemet generellt, samt till skolan i allmanhet och gymnasieskolans marknadsanpassning i synerhet. Utbildningssystemens kapitalisering visar sig dessutom expandera i omfång i Sverige och andra länder med potentiellt negativa konsekvenser för arbetstagare och konsumenter på såväl ett lokalt som globalt plan. Föreliggande artikel diskuterar denna utveckling. Den har producerats utifrån en analys av nationell och internationell forskning om omstrukturering inom den offentliga sektorn med fokus på utbildning och omsorg.

  • 17.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Development of Scandinavian educational ethnography2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Education science in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Education science in Sweden: Promoting research for teacher education or weakening its scientific foundations?2011In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 207-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certain common elements can be identified regarding teacher education development in advanced knowledge-based economies. One of these is an attempt, up until relatively recently, to develop a solid foundation of scientific professional knowledge for what Basil Bernstein called the teacher education Trivium: roughly speaking pedagogical sciences: approximately the psychology, sociology and philosophy of education. Another more recent development is to reverse this trend through a re-emphasis of academic subjects. This presentation is based on an analysis of this policy trajectory.

  • 20.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ethnography and representation: About representations for criticism and change through ethnography2008In: How to do Educational Ethnography / [ed] Geoffrey Walford, London: Tufnell Press , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    From Fieldwork to Theory and Representation in Ethnography2005In: Methodological Issues and Practices in Ethnography / [ed] Geoff Troman, Bob Jeffrey, Geoffrey Walford, Amsterdam : Elsevier JAI , 2005, p. 1-17Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Humanism and creativity in restructured adult education in Sweden2006In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education restructuring is often based on the claim that markets have been shown to efficiently distribute goods to individuals who need and desire them, and that services should therefore be altered so that the market can also become the ultimate arbiter of what is included in them as well. However, restructuring has also been said to have negative effects on education values such as humanism and creativity. The present article has been developed from an ethnographic case study in relation to these values. It is supported by recent ethnographic research in adult Swedish language courses for immigrants (SFI) within a particular municipal region in Sweden.

  • 23.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Identifying and comparing Scandinavian ethnography2010In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the volume of research production in education ethnography in Scandinavia due partly to a regionally financed network. The present article makes some comparisons between Scandinavian and other education research contexts in relation to aspects of general ethnographic design to try to analyse this production. It suggests some typical points of identity for Scandinavian educational ethnography, such as a distinct role for theories in fieldwork. But it also suggests that these characteristics are even apparent outside Scandinavia. Some blind-spots in ethnography are also suggested around quantitative aspects, but again, these are not unique. Scandinavian ethnographic research in education is broadly influenced by a range of different traditions in different parts of the region that have travelled with key people and from place to place, but it is also noted that there is seepage between ethnography and other traditions.

  • 24.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Neoliberal Restructuring in Education and Health Professions in Europe: Questions of Global Class and Gender2010In: Current Sociology, ISSN 0011-3921, E-ISSN 1461-7064, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 551-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a meta-analysis of previous research on restructuring in relation to education and health professions in Europe and more globally. It highlights common developments and signals the significant and important role of specific cycles of public to private transformation in production relations in these professions over the course of the last century and a successive movement of labour from the domestic sphere of the home to private industry as commoditized labour power, as among the most significant common global features. State involvement has been an important intermediary in these processes, by which relationships that were formerly largely untainted by commerce have become relationships involving the direct buying and selling of labour power. The process of the creation of economically productive labour power also seems to be expanding in scope in the professions, with negative consequences for service workers, low-GDP countries and lower-class fractions of recipient-consumers worldwide.

  • 25.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Omstrukturering av utbildning och vård i Norden från ett socialt användbart till ett kommersialiserat och ekonomiskt produktivt arbete: I vems intressen?2009In: Nordisk Pedagogik, ISSN 0901-8050, E-ISSN 1504-2995, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 294-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Omstrukturering inom utbildningsektorn i Europa2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt: Utbildningens omstrukturering i Europa handlar om en förändring i produktionsrelationerna från offentligt ägande till privat. Detta har skett framförallt över de två-tre senaste decennier och har inneburit en förflyttning av offentligt arbete till en privatägd servisindustri som produktiv arbetskraft. Staten har varit en viktig mellanhand i dessa processer, där arbetsformer som tidigare varit mer eller mindre obefläckade av handel har blivit införda i en marknad av köp och försäljning. Detta har skett väldigt nyligen i vissa länder (ex Grekland och Spanien) och ibland i en väldigt koncentrerad rad form (ex Sverige och Storbritannien), i samtliga fall med negativa konsekvenser för lärare och underklassens konsumenter.

  • 27.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    On Structure and Agency in Ethnographies of Education2011In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The articles in this collection conceptualise and describe notions of human agency within educational exchanges and relationships. They are based on ethnography, which is now a common approach to educational research that has also been featured in previous special issues of the present journal. According to these special issues, ethnography is important to educational research as it takes us inside everyday educational contexts and brings us close to everyday practices and the people involved in these, in a manner that helps correct the oversimplifications of more distal approaches and that provides insider perspectives on everyday action and institutional arrangements (Beach et al, 2004). In the terms of Beach (2010a), Trondman (2008) and Willis & Trondman (2000), ethnography is in this sense about developing close-up detailed descriptions of education identities and activities through situated investigations that produce knowledge about basic educational conditions and practices and the perspectives of the participants involved in them, in order to identify and develop previously unexplored dimensions of education without over steering from purely personal ideas or pet theories. It provides valuable and detailed inside knowledge of what are often otherwise seen as closed social processes by opening up the black box of institutional educational activities and practices. Participant observation field notes and interview transcripts are usually the main data sources for analysis in educational ethnography, which is also often closely linked to particular theories (Trondman, 2008) and related methodologies (Beach et al, 2004; Jeffrey & Troman, 2004). Common amongst these theories at present are forms of discourse analysis, analytical induction, constant comparative method and processes of immanent criticism deriving from the Frankfurt school of critical theory and employed in the Birmingham (Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies) school of critical cultural ethnography (e.g. Willis, 1977). There are thus key theoretical, practical and methodological differences within ethnography (Beach, 2010a). It is not a seamless, neutral observational practice (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1983...

  • 28.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    On the value of Marxism in the understanding and analysis of social class in educational ethnography and the misunderstanding of class as an epistemological category by critics of Marxist and other critical traditions2010In: Studies in Qualitative Methodology / [ed] Christopher Pole, Emerald Group Publishing Limited , 2010, p. 47-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One thing that is very important with respect to Marxism in social research such as ethnography is the understanding adopted there of what kind of theory Marxist theory is and isn't and what consequences this has for its key concepts, their status, and what they represent philosophically as well as practically (i.e., in praxis). One important concept is the concept of social class. The Marxist concept of social class is very different to the class conceptions held in other research traditions. This isn't always fully appreciated by all critics of Marxist analysis in the social sciences.

  • 29.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Personalisation of Education: Policy Critique and Cultural Contexts2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personalisation came to the forefront of the English reform agenda as the ‘big idea’ (Milliband) in2004. In this country, it has been specifically devised as a means to restructure public services like health and education. Even before that date but more intensively after the English agenda, reform initiatives and some piece-meal strategies are to be found, for instance, in such diverse contexts as Italy, Sweden or Japan. Two main perspectives are simultaneously at work in recent scholarship. In the first, personalisation is assessed as global education policy, in line with the current restructuring reforms of State administration worldwide. From this perspective, personalisation is largely a matter of education policy, clearly lacking proper pedagogical theory (Hartley, 2007; Peters, 2009). In the second perspective, personalisation is assumed to be not only a matter of recent education politics concerned with school customers and their choices, but foremost a reassembly of old and new pedagogical approaches under a new reform.

  • 30.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Policies of Creativity and Practices of Opposition: The construction of student preferences for creativity in different forms of school-work within school classrooms2006In: Creative learning practices: European experiences / [ed] Bob Jeffrey, London:Tufnell Press , 2006, p. 146-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Representations for Criticism and Change through Ethnography2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Restructuring in Education and Health Care Professions: General Developments in Teaching and Nursing and Teacher and Nurse Education in Seven European Countries2008In: Investigating the Teacher’s Life and Work / [ed] Ivor Goodson, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Restructuring in Education and Health Care Professions: Some General Developements in Teaching and Nurse Education in Seven European Countries2008In: Investigating the Teacher´s Life and Work / [ed] Ivor Goodson, Sense Publishers , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Restructuring in Education and Health-Care Professions: Some General Developments in Seven European Countries2011In: Professional Knowledge and Educational Restructuring in Europe / [ed] I. F. Goodson, S Lindblad, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers , 2011, p. 25-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Reviews: Children, Media and Education: Knud Jensen and Stephen Walker, Education, Democracy and Discourse, Continuum Studies in Education.2010In: International Sociology, ISSN 0268-5809, E-ISSN 1461-7242, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 244-247Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Education, Democracy and Discourse comprises 10 chapters, which describe a destructive and alienating process of marketization and commoditization of educational spaces and practices that undermines the professional status and culture of teachers as public sector workers and is contributing to the destruction of possibilities for educational equality and democracy. These are important issues of interest to education workers and researchers as well as research and undergraduate students in education sciences and the sociology, politics and economics of education respectively. Although the book does not present anything significantly new to these fields, it is a well-packaged and interesting read that explodes a number of myths about education as a stable democratic entity and a common social good. Education is seen as an outcome of a resolution of different economic, social, productive, ideological and other cultural forces, constantly in flux, and an instrument of class rule mediated by discourses that are imbued with a bourgeois caste spirit; these normalize education as a basis for the supply of able workers for the capitalist economy in the interest of profit.

  • 36.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Social hierarchies, school and impoverished suburbs in Swedish Metropolitan districts2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of schools in Sweden has recently taken a significant turn toward neo-liberalism whereby educational consumerism and individualism have replaced citizenship and collective democracy as a basic ethos and driving force. A number of elements are involved. In this article we point to a risk of self segregation by means of which economically disadvantaged groups become concentrated in the same schools, within mainly the public sector. This is a particular and complex problem in multi-racial/multi-ethnic migrant intense areas according to previous research that causes these schools to experience serious difficulties when it comes to operating as schools capable of mobilization for full citizenship. We need such schools but there is no evidence that schools are developing in these directions in the neo-liberal era.

  • 37.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Socialisation and Commercialisation in the Restructuring of Education and Health Professions in Europe: Questions of Global Class and Gender2010In: Current Sociology, ISSN 0011-3921, E-ISSN 1461-7064, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 551-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a meta-analysis of previous research on restructuring in relation to education and health professions in Europe and more globally. It highlights common developments and signals the significant and important role of specific cycles of public to private transformation in production relations in these professions over the course of the last century and a successive movement of labour from the domestic sphere of the home to private industry as commoditised labour power, as amongst the most significant common global features. State involvement has been an important intermediary in these processes, by which relationships that were formerly largely untainted by commerce have become relationships involving the direct buying and selling of labour power. The process of the creation of economically productive labour power also seems to be expanding in scope in the professions, with negative consequences for service workers, low-GDP countries and lower-class fractions of recipient-consumers world-wide.

  • 38.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The changing relations between education professionals, the state and citizen consumers in Europe: rethinking restructuring as capitalisation2008In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on research about welfare state restructuring in education and its implications for the teaching profession. Several things are described and discussed. However, amongst the most important are pan-European developments in the social relations of production in education over the past 50 years with respect to the socialisation, habituation and commercialisation of education labour, and a suggested lowering of general standards of public education and increasing class differences in the amount and quality of education consumed by citizens. The idea expressed about this is that neo-liberal restructuring is leading to the creation of apparatuses through which education is objectified for economic accumulation through an outsourcing of functions that were formerly carried out within first domestic and voluntary, and then state arrangements to capitalist enterprises. This is part of a successive privatisation of education services for processes of capitalisation. It consists of an updating of the moral and legal determination of education services by the prevailing standards of market capitalism and an abdication of responsibility for the plight of negatively affected individuals, who, nevertheless, in some intriguing way still often support the system of transformation in question.

  • 39.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The deceptive imagination and ethnographic writing2006In: Researching education policy: Ethnographic experiences, London: Tufnell Press , 2006, p. 74-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The politics of representation2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The Problem of how Learning should be Socially Organised2005In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 473-489Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The public costs of the re-structuring of adult education: A case in point from Sweden2004In: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 2051-0969, E-ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper takes up a concrete example of education restructuring, that of adult education in Gothenburg, Sweden in recent years. This example has been studied through ethnographic data about changes to the supply of basic adult education – an education that is given to adults who have a school education below that provided by the compulsory school – and upper secondary adult education – an education at an approximately ‘A’ level and/or NVQ level. SFI education, Swedish for immigrants, has been focussed in particular. Sfi is important in relation to the restructuring in Gothenburg as this was initiated there first, based on decisions in the Gothenburg Municipal Council in 1999, near to the completion of the National Adult Education Initiative. The restructuring processes followed guidelines from the 1992 Purchasing Act and had consequences for all education suppliers, but in particular one of them, an adult education company called Studium Ltd, which was created in 2001 when the municipal adult education service (Komvux) was converted into a municipal company. Studium was the largest deliverer of adult education in 2001 but lost its contracts during tendering and is now on the brink of bankruptcy. From having had over 3000 sfi students in 2001, for which they were fully reimbursed, Studium now has less than 250 such students on role and a reduced budget for each student. As disclosed in a recent City Audit, the local tax-based economy footed the bill of the conversion processes and salary costs of under employed Studium employees. Public funds paying for the conversion of public services to private seems to be a consistent element of education restructuring according to international research.

  • 43.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The Social Construction of Student Learning Preferences in School Classrooms2008In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 3, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The socialisation and commercialisation of health professions in Europe2009In: European Nurses' Life and Work under Restructuring / [ed] Jarmo Houtsonen, Gun-Britt Wärvik, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers , 2009, p. 15-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The Socialisation and Commercialisation of Professional Work in Education and Health Professions.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    Changing professional discourses in teacher education policy: A comparative study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most modern definitions of professions connect professional knowledge to higher scientific studies and a higher education degree. One example is Talcott Parsons’ definition of professions requiring formal technical training for the mastery of a generalized cultural tradition in a manner giving prominence to an intellectual component as applied to a particular field. Another is the definition of Eliot Freidson, which describes professions as links between high levels of formal education and rewards in the social division of labour. Basil Bernstein (2000) discusses this in relation to teacher education as professional knowledge based on and achieved following years of higher education training. This issue is discussed and illustrated in the present paper in relation to teacher education policy developments in two European countries; Sweden and England. Some common elements are described as is a tendency to turn away from scientific professional knowledge in the two countries in recent decades towards a more generic professional knowledge.

  • 47.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    Changing professional discourses in teacher education policy back towards a training paradigm: a comparative study2013In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 379-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern definitions of professions connect professional knowledge to scientific studies and higher education. In the present article we examine the changing nature of this relationship in initial teacher education in two European countries: Sweden and England. The article is based on policy analyses from recent decades of teacher education reforms. The findings suggest a policy convergence through a shared policy return that has moved teacher education back toward a teacher training paradigm.

  • 48.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    High Quality Teacher Education in Advanced Knowledge-Based Economies.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    New Threats in Advanced Knowledge-Based Economies to the Old Problem of Developing and Sustaining Quality Teacher Education2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certain common elements can be identified regarding teacher education programmes and their development in advanced knowledge-based economies, by which we mean nation states that are thoroughly reliant on knowledge production and communication for economic stability and growth and the smooth running of their institutions. They have their basis in three strongly expressed policy ideas. The first is the recognition that scientific knowledge (i.e. facts and principles that are acquired through the long process of systematic theoretical and empirical inquiry and stringent disciplinary investigation and analysis) is increasingly essential for economic growth and social, technological and cultural development (e.g. SOU 2008:105). The second is a recognition of the relationship between formal education (schooling) and economic production and the third is a recognition of the role of teacher education in respect to this relationship and the value of placing this education inside the modern university.

  • 50.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    New Threats in Advanced Knowledge-based Economies to the Old Problem of Developing and Sustaining Quality Teacher Education2011In: Developing quality cultures in teacher education: Expanding Horizons in Relation to Quality Assurance / [ed] Eve Eisenschmidt, Erika Löfström, Tallin University Press , 2011, p. 15-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our analysis starts from the 1974 Teacher Education Inquiry (SOU 1978:86). From this inquiry (and to some degree perhaps even earlier than this: Beach 1995, Eriksson 2009) and up to and including the 1997 Teacher Education Commission (LUK 97: SOU 1999:63) teacher education policy writers in Sweden seemed to be trying to establish foundations for a regional knowledge base in teacher education as a central part of the education of all teachers and for all pre-service teacher education (Carlgren 1992, Eriksson 2009, Beach 2000). Recent policy seems to have abandoned these aims (Sjöberg 2011, Beach 2011). This is most clearly exemplified in relation to a recent Green Paper (SOU 2008:109) and the subsequent government White Paper (Top of the Class: Government proposition 2009/10:89) that was based on the recommendations of the commission (Ahlström 2008) and its statement that knowledge about the professional, societal and institutional context of teaching – what was termed general pedagogical knowledge in previous Green and White papers (see e.g. SOU 1952:33, 1965:29, 1978:86, 1999:63) – has little real significance for the quality of teacher-work and that providing student-teachers with an understanding of the social, sociological, political, ideological, cultural and economic landscape in which they and their pupils live, work and learn has little effect on effective pupil learning. Instead, as also Sjöberg (2011) shows us, subject knowledge and vocational pedagogical skills are emphasised as of singular importance (e.g. Proposition 2009/10:89, p 9, p19, p24, p 26, p 41) as is organising teacher education in accordance with current school and pre-school organization(e.g. op cit, p 12, p 18, p 25). The professional knowledge that is given most value is once again described as founded on the subject knowledge domains of university singularities (e.g. physics, history and geography) together with some technical knowledge related to how to communicate subject knowledge effectively to pupils (Sjöberg 2011). This is against the grain of earlier policy developments and it may, in line with for instance Beck and Young (2005), help make future teachers and their practices more easily economically managed and controlled and more susceptible to political manipulation and economic exploitation (also Codd 2005). This shift has strong consequences for professional knowledge. As is suggested by for instance Apple (2001) and Ball et al (1994, 1996) in relation to developments in the USA and UK respectively, it suggests how neo-conservative standards about subject knowledge value and discipline together with new-managerial aims and technologies for increasing ‘efficiency, speed, and cost control’ now prevail (Apple 2001, 192) and have ‘replaced more substantive concerns about social and educational justice’ (ibid). These are important points that signal that there has been a clear turn of interests in education (Antikainen 2010) that as Apple says (2001,189) is crucial to recognize in any attempt to think through the running of the education systems in the future. More not less power is being consolidated within the national administrative structure of education and more time and energy are being spent on controlling performances and public image. Scientific content for teachers in teacher education relating to education and teaching as political and sociological objects of knowledge is being removed and replaced by subject and performance content at the same time as other changes in the political economy of the education landscape may render the sociological, political and ideological knowledge that has been lost more valuable and necessary than ever before.

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