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  • 1.
    Andersson, R.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, H.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Revised guidelines on intermodal transfer techniques needs and technologies2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliverable 2.2 of the Intermode-TRANS project presents a first version of guidelines on intermodal transfer techniques needs and technologies. The guidelines are based on an initial investigation of joint European projects and other sources, as well as on discussions with researchers and stakeholders, the results of which were presented in Deliverable 2.1 - State of art on intermodal transfer techniques. A series of workshops with stakeholders and experts in intermodal transport and transshipment facilities and techniques brought a number of additional identified problems and research needs,. Principally, the workshops confirmed the findings of D2.1, which therefore form the core also of these guidelines. The guidelines include a summary of more than 24 joint European research projects, addressing intermodality, where several results have not yet become exploited. Identified areas of development and recommendations for further work address a.o. technology for transshipment, including container standards and handling, harmonization of rail infrastructure and rail and road vehicles, marketing and knowledge management in the field, information systems for logistics support, training and awareness-raising, the cost vs. benefit structure, and a number of actions of a political and organizational nature.

  • 2.
    Byström, Katriina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ericson, Mathias
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Risker och säkerhet i professionell vardag: tekniska, organisatoriska och etiska perspektiv2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid Högskolan i Borås bedrivs ett utredningsarbete med syfte att klargöra förutsättningarna för att inrätta ett centrum för studier av risk, profession och säkerhet. Parallellt med resonemang rörande lämpliga styr- och organisationsformer behandlas hur utbildningen inom området bör utformas. I skrivande stund är inriktningen att utveckla och erbjuda ett magisterprogram inom området management där en inriktning är mot risk och säkerhet. En satsning på utbildning fordrar forskningsanknytning och förekomsten av forskning inom området risk och säkerhet utgör därför en viktig utgångspunkt för det fortsatta arbetet. Vid högskolan finns idag forskning som belyser risk och säkerhetsfrågor inom skilda verksamhetsområden och med olika teoretiska utgångspunkter. Området spänner från hur risker hanteras i det vardagliga arbetet för olika professioner till hur risker kan elimineras och osäkerhet reduceras i samband med extra ordinära händelser. Högskolan i Borås ska vara ett komplett professionslärosäte och bedriva nydanande och samhällsrelevant utbildning och forskning. Ett flervetenskapligt ideal präglar utbildning och forskning, där problemet som ska belysas är i centrum och inte den akademiska disciplinen. Att bedriva utbildning och forskning inom risk och säkerhet är i enlighet med lärosätets ideal och inriktning. Genom att anlägga ett risk- och säkerhetsperspektiv på olika typer av samhälleliga fenomen i utbildning och forskning uppmärksammas dels nya frågor, dels beforskas områden och fenomen utifrån ett i förhållande till traditionell disciplinär forskning alternativt perspektiv, och därigenom kan ny kunskap erhållas. Ett led i utvecklingen av forskningsverksamheten vid högskolan är sammanställningen och publiceringen av föreliggande antologi. Två av de ledande forskarna inom området, Bertil Rolandsson och Håkan Torstensson, har tagit initiativ till antologin och fungerat som redaktörer. Fem bidrag publiceras i rapporten som tillsammans visar vad forskning kring risk och säkerhet kan vara och vilken inriktning forskningen har vid Högskolan i Borås. Tre bidrag har fokus på transportbranschen, ett på polisiär verksamhet och ett på vårdverksamhet. Det finns således en spridning över praktiska fält och även spridning vad gäller teoretiska utgångspunkter. Rapporten är nummer tretton i högskolans rapportserie Vetenskap för profession, vars syfte är att redovisa resultat från pågående och avslutade forskningsprojekt. Rapporten är också ett underlag för fortsatta resonemang inom högskolan om satsningen på utbildning och forskning inom området risk och säkerhet och kring frågan om vilken inriktning forskningen ska ha.

  • 3.
    Dillén, J.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Brott mot yrkestrafik på väg2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Parkeringsutrymmet längs vägnätet i Europa är osäkert att använda. Brottsligheten mot förare, lastbilar och last utgör ett växande problem. Stillastående fullastade lastbilar är intressanta rånobjekt. Frågan är hur stort problemet i Europa och i Sverige är. Gemensamma europeiska krav som parkeringsplatser måste uppfylla skulle öka möjligheterna att lösa problemen, även om ansvarsfrågorna är oklara. Ofta anser inte centrala och/eller regionala myndigheter på europeisk nivå att de är ansvariga för hur parkeringsplatser anläggs, underhålls och skyddas. Vägverket i Sverige har känt en oro över hur omfattande brottsligheten är och hur den utvecklas på Sveriges rastplatser. Mot denna bakgrund har denna kartläggning initierats.

  • 4.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Antagonistic Gateways in the Transport Network in a Supply Chain Perspective2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Trade Centre terror attack in 2001 changed the world and with it the conditions for logistics world-wide. The aftermath to the attack brought needed attention to the vulnerability of modern supply chains. This vulnerability can in many cases be described as “unwanted effects” in the supply chain, caused by either internal or external forces that create disturbances larger than the supply chain is designed to handle. The disturbance can be unintentional or deliberate and also either legal or illegal. This thesis addresses the problem of deliberately caused (antagonistic) and illegal action against legal logistics. There are basically two types of illegal and antagonistic threats to logistics, theft/sabotage and smuggling. The theft/sabotage problem is directly aimed toward the logistics activities, while smuggling abuses the logistics system for illegal purposes. The reasons behind these problems can vary from case to case as well as the different countermeasures to prevent these problems to occur. This thesis addresses only this problem in the transport network and sees the network as a part of a supply chain. In each part of the transport network there is a certain risk associated with the goods. All these risks together form the total risk for the transport or the transport network. The research in this thesis follows the tradition in logistics to use a system approach to treat the research questions. The system approach also implies a top-down perspective on the system, or in this case the two systems, but the research questions address only the cross-over points between the two systems. The main method for this thesis is deductive. Both primary and secondary data are used to support the deductive and theoretical conclusions. This thesis is also based on the result of five different studies within this topic. The perpetrators’ decision process is the key issue to understanding the usage of antagonistic gateways in the transport network. The preferred risk management approach is therefore contextual instead of statistic, when preventing the usage of antagonistic gateways. In other words, the countermeasures need to be based on an understanding of this decision process, the antagonistic dynamics of potential perpetrators. This understanding is to a large part also an understanding of the context in which the perpetrators act. The difference in perpetrator context is easily described with the difference between regular cargo thieves and ideology-driven perpetrators or terrorists. The thieves are after the monetary value that the cargo represents, therefore they prefer to steal high-value, untraceable and highly demanded products. The ideological perpetrator or terrorist wishes to make a statement with the attack, therefore he will sabotage products, which will give the statement attention and (if possible) understanding for it. If a potential terrorist desires to finance an upcoming terrorist attack by means of cargo theft, the perpetrator will act as a regular cargo thief. This difference in perpetrator context is vital for applying the right type of countermeasures in the transport network. Security against these types of antagonistic threats in the transport network aims to alter the contextual perception of the network and thereby reduce the problem of antagonistic gateways.

  • 5.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Antagonistic threats against supply chain activities2012In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 123-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analysis and present that antagonistic threats against supply chain activities are wicked problems. The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is deductive desk research. This research is mainly theoretical, and the findings are contributions to the development of theoretical models and understanding in order to further move the scientific understanding about antagonistic threats against supply chain activities. The main reason behind this is the relationship between threats and countermeasures that are complex and contextual depended. There are several types of crime that can be linked to the logistics function and processes. This paper does not address the problems from a legal viewpoint. This paper presented descriptions of four different antagonistic threats, namely theft, terrorism, smuggling and piracy. The nature of these four different antagonistic threats is then analyzed with regards to the wicked problem description, which leads to the conclusion that antagonistic threats are better described as wicked problems.

  • 6.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Antagonistic threats against transports in EU in a supply2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper To analysis the risk for antagonistic threats against transports in EU in order to find patterns, trends and theoretical framework in order to better handle these risks from a supply chain perspective. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is deductive. The analysis is based on official statistics over antagonistic threats against transports in EU within a frame of reference consisting of theories from supply chain risk management and criminology. Findings There is no silver bullet for solving antagonistic threats as it has always been a part of the business. Within this understanding there are many changes in hot spots, modus operandi, theft endangered objects and handling methods during time, but the basic theoretical frame of reference is still more or less the same. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The research is based on theoretical deduction together with official statistics regarding antagonistic threats. The geographically limitation to the EU is done of practical reasons whiles the frame of reference can be used globally for analysis antagonistic threats against transports. Practical implications (if applicable) This research is limited by the lack of reliable information sources about criminal activities against logistics business. Secondary sources, like official crime statistics, are at best untrustworthy but more likely filled with large parts of hidden statistics. By using several different and independent official statistical sources and analysis the results within a common frame of reference can the validity of the research be secure. What is original/value of paper This paper is a step towards bringing theories from criminology into the scientific field of logistics and supply chain risk management.

  • 7.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cargo theft at non-secure parking locations2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 432, no 1, p. 204-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of reported cargo thefts at

    non-secure parking facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to stolen

    value, frequency, incident category, and modi operandi.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on a system-theoretical approach that

    emphasizes on a holistic rather than an atomistic view. The research method used in this paper is

    deductive; the analysis is based on data obtained from the incident information service (IIS), a database

    of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA

    region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk

    management (SCRM) and criminology theories.

    Findings – We found that 97 per cent of all attacks during a stop occur at non-secure parking

    locations. Cargo thefts at these locations are more of a volume crime than high-value thefts. Seasonal

    variations were seen in these thefts, and the most common type was an intrusion on weekdays

    during winter.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by the content of and the classifications

    within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

    Practical implications – This paper is directly relevant to the current EU discussions regarding the

    creation of a large number of secure parking facilities in the region.

    Originality/value – This is one of the first papers in the field of SCRM that utilizes actual crime

    statistics reported by the industry to analyse the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the

    non-secure parking aspect in the transport chain.

  • 8.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Complexity, antagonism and supply chains: A conceptual framework2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for antagonistic threats in logistics. This relates aspects of criminology (such as opportunity and crime displacement) to supply chain performance in order to capture the dynamic complexity for antagonistic threats. The research method used in this paper is desk-top reasoning. This paper uses deductive reasoning to describe how different well-known theories from criminology can support the scientific field of logistics and supply chain management with regards to the problem with antagonistic threats. Insights from complexity theory guide the search for guiding principles that describe the behaviour of the system. With the antagonistic threat framework will the lack of empirical data not be devastating due to that it is theoretical possible to foresee complex systemic changes due to the interactions between involved theoretical viewpoints. The conceptual framework can be used as a supporting factor or an analytic tool together with different types of empirical data regarding antagonistic threats against supply chains. This paper maintains that the understanding of the relationship between potential perpetrators and theft preventing measures is a key issue to reduce antagonistic threat problems within the transport network.

  • 9.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Crime in road freight transport2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Förebyggande av risker och brott2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Grunderna i Supply Chain Management: riskhantering2008In: Intelligent logistik, ISSN 1653-9451, no 9, p. 33-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Grunderna i Supply Chain Risk Management2007In: Intelligent logistik, ISSN 1653-9451, no 4, p. 34-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kostnaden för transportstölder i Sverige2012In: Inköp + logistik, ISSN 1400-9676, no 1, p. 24-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Managing the risk for antagonistic threats against the transport network2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Trade Centre terror attack in 2001 changed the world and with it the conditions for logistics worldwide. The aftermath of the attack brought needed attention to the vulnerability of modern supply chains. This thesis addresses the antagonistic threats that exploit the vulnerability in a supply chain. Antagonistic threats are a limited array of risks and uncertainties and can be addressed with risk management tools and strategies. There are three key demarcations between antagonistic threats and other risks and uncertainties: deliberate (caused), illegal (defined by law), and hostile (negative impact, in this thesis, for transport network activities). This thesis makes a theoretical contribution to the usage of theories from criminology in supply chain risk management to handle antagonistic threats against the transport network. The recognition that antagonistic threats toward the transport network are a problem leads to verification of the research questions from the background and the theoretical framework. This is done to place or relate the research questions closer to the context. Furthermore, it leads to the conclusion that the answers may or may not contain competing and/or incompatible parts which differ depending on the perspective or viewpoint at the moment. One of the most important things to understand is that antagonistic threats toward freight always have been a feature in both business and politics. The different functions and goals for all stakeholders mean that all stakeholders and actors may use similar methods to manage antagonistic threats but the effects and consequences will change according to the circumstances. The system approach in this thesis is a soft-system thinking where reality is described in subjective terms and the whole system has the distinctive trait of vague or undefined boundaries between system components and the surrounding environment. Therefore, this thesis uses a complex system approach in which paradoxes and bounded rationality describes the system’s behaviour. This thesis defines the legal descriptions and criminal threats against and within supply chain management activities that entail both the systems context and boundaries. Managing of the antagonistic threats through the risk management perspective is separated into two sides, pre-event and post-event measures, which means the system needs to be robust and resilient, using logistics terms. It should be robust to automatically handle small risks (normally with high likelihood and low impact). The system also needs resilience in order to adapt, improvise, and overcome any disturbance greater than the system’s robustness can handle. Both robustness and its resilience can constitute of the full range of prevention, mitigation, and transferring tools and methods. Regardless of which perspective or viewpoint is chosen for analysing the problem, the same basic set of tools and methods are valid, but in practical use they need to be adapted to the actors’ needs and wants for managing their exposure to antagonistic threats.

  • 15.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Modi operandi for cargo theft in EMEA—A seasonality analysis2015In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, Vol. 8, no 3-4, p. 99-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies patterns and trends in cargo theft by analysing seasonal

    variations (by time of year and time of week) in the relationship between value

    (reported stolen value) and various reported modi operandi. This research is exploratory

    in nature; it is based on theories derived from criminology and logistics as well as

    secondary data related to cargo theft. For practical purposes, the research is geographically

    limited to EMEA; however, the frame of reference is applicable to the analysis of

    antagonistic threats to transport worldwide. Though patterns differ across categories,

    for some modi operandi, seasonal patterns are found across both months of the year and

    days of the week. Despite variations in hot spots, incident categories, stolen and

    endangered objects, and handling methods, the basic theoretical framework is generally

    applicable. This research is limited by the content and classificatory scheme of the TAPA

    EMEA IIS database. However, this is the best available database and it contains anonymous

    reports that are mainly from TAPA member companies that are in the industry itself.

  • 16.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    On analysing the official statistics for antagonistic threats against transports in EU: a supply chain risk perspective2010In: Journal of Transportation SecurityArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analysis the risk for antagonistic threats against transports in EU in order to find patterns and trends. The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is deductive. The analysis is based on official statistics over antagonistic threats against transports in EU within a frame of reference consisting of theories from supply chain risk management and criminology. There is no silver bullet for solving antagonistic threats as it has always been a part of the business. Within this understanding there are many changes in hot spots, modus operandi, theft endangered objects and handling methods during time, but the basic theoretical frame of reference is still more or less the same. The geographically limitation to the EU is done of practical reasons whiles the frame of reference can be used globally for analysis antagonistic threats against transports. This research is limited by the lack of reliable information sources about criminal activities against logistics business. Secondary sources, like official crime statistics, are at best untrustworthy but more likely filled with large parts of hidden statistics. By using several different and independent official statistical sources and analysis the results within a common frame of reference can the validity of the research be secure. The theoretical framework is based on the theory of routine activity and its implications for logistics. This theory explains why the transport network produces the same theft opportunity over and over again.

  • 17.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Stöld eller terrorism2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Security: AEO, tullens säkerhetscertifiering2011In: Inköp & Logistik, ISSN 1400-9676, no 2, p. 32-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Security: en introduktion2010In: Inköp + Logistik, ISSN 1400-9676, no 4, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det flesta termer inom logistik kan kopplas till en enskild publikation eller person. Det är däremot nästan unikt att en enskild händelse kan anses som startpunkten eller orsaken till ett helt nytt ämnesområde inom logistik. Terrorattackerna mot World Trade Centre och Pentagon i USA 2001 är händelser som inte bara förändrade världen och hur vi uppfattar den. Det är också startpunkten eller orsaksursprunget till allt vad som idag kallas för Supply Chain Security.

  • 20.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Security: ISPS, hamnsäkerhet2010In: Inköp & Logistik, ISSN 1400-9676, no 5, p. 28-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply chain security: TAPA, säkerhetscertifiering2010In: Inköp & Logistik, ISSN 1400-9676, no 6, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Security: Threats and Solutions2012In: Risk Management: Current Issues and Challenges / [ed] Nerija Banaitiene, InTech, 2012, p. 157-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the cargo transport process has improved mainly in the areas of logistics efficiency and documentation handling. The World Trade Centre terror attack in 2001 changed the world and with it the conditions for logistics world-wide. The logistics consequences were according to[1]: It is instructive to note that these disruptions were not caused by the attack itself, but rather by the government’s response to the attack: closing borders, shutting down air traffic and evacuating buildings throughout the country. The aftermath to the attack brought needed attention to the vulnerability of modern supply chains. Supply chain vulnerability reflects sensitivity of the supply chain to disruption [2]. This vulnerability can in many cases be described as “unwanted effects” in the supply chain caused either by internal or external forces that create disturbances larger than the supply chain is designed to handle. The objective of Supply chain security is to prevent antagonistic threats from affecting the supply chain performance. Antagonistic threats and other risks and uncertainties are demarcated by three key words: deliberate (caused), illegal (defined by law), and hostile (negative impact for transport network activities) [3]. This chapter presents first the major antagonistic threats to the supply chain and secondly how these threats should be prevented. This leads to the current development of different supply chain security programs.

  • 23.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Security: vägen vidare2011In: Inköp & Logistik, ISSN 1400-9676, no 3, p. 29-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Säkrare godsnätverk: mekanik och IT i säkrare transporter, idag och i framtiden2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The Displacement effect in cargo theft2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The displacement effect in cargo theft2009In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 47-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to analyze and explain why cargo theft continues to occur in the transport network despite all implemented countermeasures. Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on a logical deductive hypothesis using theories from several scientific fields. This hypothesis is then tested empirically. Credibility is substantiated with the use of several independent official statistical sources and verified with both open-ended qualitative interviews and a quantitative, comparative, geographically controlled survey. Findings – Theft risk arises from different theft opportunities that will always be present in the transport network. The theory of crime displacement provides one likely explanation as to why the absolute reduction, instead of a theft pattern alteration, is very difficult to achieve. The result in this paper substantiates research results in criminology that indicate that causality in crime displacement is hard to establish. Research limitations/implications – This research is limited by the lack of reliable information sources about criminal activities against logistics business. Secondary sources, like official crime statistics, are at best untrustworthy but more likely filled with large parts of hidden statistics. Practical implications – The common-sense feeling about the crime displacement theory that exists in the logistics business needs to be modified. This paper maintains that the understanding of the relationship between potential perpetrators and theft preventing measures is a key issue to reduce theft problems within the transport network. Originality/value – This paper is a step towards bringing theories from criminology into the scientific field of logistics and supply chain risk management.

  • 27.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The risk for detection affects the logistics system setup for cargo smugglers2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper This paper examines the differences in logistics system design depending on the legality of the supply chains. The legality of the goods/actors is a vital factor when taking the goods from point-of-origin to the end user. This paper uses different logistics theories to provide a likely theoretical explanation of how and in what way the legality of the supply chain affects logistics system setups. Design/methodology/approach This paper takes a macro-perspective on the differences between legal and illegal logistics activities depending on the legality of supply chains. The validation of this paper is based on three different structures: theoretical frame of reference, analysis of official reports and two different cases studies. This paper uses methodology triangulation and dual perspective to describe the interaction between illegal supply chains and the legal world’s preventing efforts. The key analytical feature for this paper is the risk for detection element. Findings Several supply chains use the transport network services and therefore it is not always possible to separate legal from illegal supply chains. The illegal supply chains have a unique constraint in comparison to the legal setup: the risk for detection. The detection risk factor is one of the greatest logistics constraints on the illegal flow of goods and it is in this constraint that the professionalism of the actors is found. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The research is based on secondary sources like official statistics and interviews with security and customs personnel. Practical implications (if applicable) The triad logistics setup provides a good theoretical foundation to understand how the legal transport network is abused by criminal businesses. This paper illustrates that a filtration of information regarding the shipped products is the primary tool to use to successfully abuse the legal transport network. What is original/value of paper This paper uses well known theories from logistics research to both describe and explain the illegal supply chains.

  • 28.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Transportbranscherna hukar om stölder2007In: Transportarbetaren, ISSN 0492-004X, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brüls, Helmut
    FreightWatch International, Head of EMEA Intelligence.
    Wyer, Daniel
    Freightwatch International, EMEA Intelligence Analyst.
    Theft of pharmaceuticals during transport in Europe2015In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the scale of cargo theft in

    the European pharmaceutical supply chain in 2014. The study is based on a systemtheoretical

    approach which emphasises a holistic rather than atomistic view. The

    research in this paper is deductive and descriptive in its nature and aims to present a

    current description of theft of pharmaceuticals in a European perspective. This paper’s

    hypotheses on cargo theft have been developed from theories of criminology, for

    applicable use, to strengthen the scientific field of logistics. A survey was conducted

    in autumn 2014 whereby the respondents were asked to provide their opinions in

    relation to eleven questions. The survey was sent out to all major players in the

    European pharmaceutical sector – manufacturers and logistics providers specializing

    in pharmaceuticals. The survey captured more or less 80 % of the European pharmaceutical

    manufacturers' market share.We found that the current threats against European

    pharmaceutical transport are small in relative occurrence terms (relatively few attacks on

    a yearly basis compared to other product categories) but on an impact basis thefts of

    pharmaceuticals place as one of the top targets (value wise) for criminals. This research

    supports other sources that the current geographical hot spot for these thefts in Europe is

    in Italy. The top risks are rated as either robbery or theft from vehicle at unsecure parking

    areas. These two different modi operandi can be divided into one frequency related

    threat (theft from unsecure parking) and one impact related risk (robbery).

  • 30.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lantz, Björn
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Cargo theft at non-secure parking locations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper This paper describes the patterns of and trends in reported cargo thefts at non-secure parking facilities in Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to stolen value, frequency, incident category, and modi operandi. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic rather than an atomistic view. The research method used in this paper is deductive; the analysis is based on the data obtained from the Incident Information Service (IIS), a transport-related crime database of the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA. The results are analyzed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and criminology theories. Findings We found that 97 percent of all attacks during a stop occur at non-secure parking locations. Cargo theft at non-secure parking locations is more of a volume crime rather than a high-impact cargo theft. Seasonal variations were found in cargo thefts at non-secure parking locations. The most common type of cargo theft at non-secure parking areas is intrusion theft occurring on weekdays during the winter. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This study performs a theoretical deduction using official statistics on antagonistic threats. Its geographical limitation to the EMEA is owing to the limitations of the database used, although its frame of reference can be employed to analyze antagonistic threats against transport chains globally. This study is limited by the content of and classifications within the TAPA EMEA IIS database; nevertheless, this database is the best, with most reports originating from the industry (TAPA members anonymously report their losses). Practical implications (if applicable) The research presented in this paper is directly relevant to the current discussion in the EU regarding the creation of a large number of secure parking facilities in the region. This paper’s findings will describe the current cargo theft threats at non-secure parking facilities. What is original/value of paper This is one of the first papers in the field of supply chain risk management to employ actual crime statistics reported by the industry to analyze the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the non-secure parking element of the transport chain.

  • 31.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Cargo theft risk and security: product and location2017In: NOFOMA 2017 THE 29TH NOFOMA CONFERENCE: TAKING ON GRAND CHALLENGES / [ed] Daniel Hellström, Joakim Kembro, Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study is to explore cargo theft risk and security for different product types at different locations along a transport chain. Design/methodology/approach - This study is based on a system-theoretical approach. The research method is deductive as the analysis is based on secondary data and results from a questionnaire. The results are analyzed based on supply chain risk management (SCRM) and criminology theories. Findings - Due to substantial interaction effects, the type of product and transport chain location must be considered to determine the correct level of security. Specifically, the product type is more significant since the general cargo theft risk is higher. Furthermore, the transport industry has three perspectives of security responses to cargo theft: demanded, needed, and actual security, which differ depending on the product type and transport chain location. Research limitations/implications - This study is limited by the content and classifications of the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) of the Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Incident Information Service (IIS) database as well as by the attendees of the 2015 TAPA EMEA Q4 conference. Practical implications - This paper has both research and practical implications as it studies security within freight transport from three perspectives as linked to general cargo theft risk and goods owners’ requirements. Originality/value - This paper addresses the contemporary SCRM problem of cargo theft using actual crime statistics and the industry understanding of generic required security levels.

  • 32.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lantz, Björn
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Seasonality of Cargo Theft at Transport Chain Locations2013In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 43, no 9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - To describe the seasonal patterns of reported cargo theft value and frequency in EMEA (Europe, Middle East, and Africa) countries with respect to different transport chain locations. Design/methodology/approach - This study is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic rather than an atomistic view. The research method used in this paper is deductive; the analysis is based on the data taken from IIS (Incident Information Service), a transport-related crime database of TAPA (Transported Asset Protection Association) EMEA; and the result is analyzed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and criminology theories. Findings - There are seasonal variations in cargo thefts at different transport chain locations during particular months of the year as well as days of the week; however, each transport chain location has a different pattern. Indeed, hot spots, modus operandi, theft-endangered objects, and handling methods change frequently during the period under study. However, the basic theoretical frame of reference continues to be the same. Research limitations/implications - This study is based on theoretical deduction using official statistics regarding antagonistic threats. Its geographical limitation to the EMEA is owing to the limitations of the utilized database, although the frame of reference can be applied to analyze antagonistic threats against transport chains globally. Practical implications - This study is limited by the content and classification within the TAPA EMEA IIS database; nevertheless, this database is the best available one, with reports originating mainly from the industry itself, as different TAPA members anonymously report their losses. Originality/value - This paper is one of the first on supply chain risk management that uses actual crime statistics reported by the industry itself to analyze the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the value of the vehicle/goods stolen from transport chain locations.

  • 33.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The use of violence in cargo theft – a supply chain disruption case2018In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of reported cargo thefts involving violence in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region with regard to the value of stolen goods, incident frequency, transport chain location, and incident category. The research method is deductive and is based on analyses of secondary data obtained from the Incident Information Service by the Transported Asset Protection Association. The results are discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and supply chain disruption literature. We found that perpetrators who use violence seem to cause greater losses per theft than those who use other types of modus operandi. Further, the most common type of violent cargo theft occurs on Mondays in January when cargo vehicles are robbed on the road and consumer electronics are stolen. In terms of supply chain disruption, violent cargo thefts can be seen as externally-caused disruptions, which can indirectly cause major problems for the supply chain.

  • 34.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    THEFT OF GOODS IN PORTS A review of TAPA EMEA IIS statistics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines patterns of reported cargo thefts at maritime transport facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to frequency, incident category, modus operandi, and targeted product category. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Incident Information Service (IIS), a database of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and criminology theories. We find that maritime transport facilities constitute a rare target location for cargo thieves, as only 102 of more than 24,500 incidents (0.4%) in the IIS database occur there. Nevertheless, some conclusions can be made. First, there seems to be seasonality in day of the week, but probably not in month of the year. Second, violent and fraudulent modi operandi of theft at maritime transport facilities are about as common as in the whole data set. Thus, it could be conjectured that the impact from violent and fraudulent incidents is several times higher than the most common types of incident category or modus operandi, although this is unsupported in this study. The product categories signal that there is big variation in value in stolen goods. Third, it is possible that potential perpetrators consider security levels at maritime transport facilities to be higher, leading to fewer theft attempts. This study is limited by the content of and classifications within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

  • 35.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lantz, Björn
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Value and incident categories for cargo theft in Europe: Analysing TAPA EMEA statistics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper To analysis the relationship between value (reported stolen value) and different incident categories in order to find patterns and trends in cargo theft within Europe. Design/methodology/approach The research is explorative as this type of research is missing in logistics but also deductive as it utilizes theories from criminology. The analysis is based on TAPA EMEA’s IIS transport related crime database. The result is analyzed and discussed within a frame of reference consisting of theories from logistics and criminology. Findings There are seasonal variations of incident categories. This variation is found both between months of the year and the day of the week for many of the incident categories, but the patterns are different for different incident categories. Within this understanding there are many changes in hot spots, modus operandi, theft endangered objects and handling methods during time, but the basic theoretical frame of reference is still more or less the same. Research limitations/implications The research is based on theories deduced from criminology and logistics together with secondary data regarding cargo theft. The geographically limitation to the Europe is done of practical reasons whiles the frame of reference can be used globally for analysis antagonistic threats against transports. Practical implications This research is limited by the content and classification within the TAPA EMEA IIS database. Nevertheless, this database is the best available database and the reports comes mainly from the industry itself, represented by the different TAPA members how report their losses anonymous, nevertheless the quality of the data limits the possibility to make normative statements about cargo theft prevention. What is original/value of paper This paper is the first within supply chain risk management that utilizes actual crime statistics reported by the industry itself, in order to analyze the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the value of the stolen vehicle/goods in relation with incident categories.

  • 36.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lumsden, K.
    Differences in stakeholder opinion regarding antagonistic gateway within the transport network2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Nilsson, F.
    Using business complexity to handle supply chain risk: Dealing with borders of cargo liability2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Reallocation of risks within supply chains: The practice of enhanced liability clauses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ottosson, T.
    Peterson, J.
    Svensson, E.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Adding custumer demand information: a method for increasing the "sell-though factor" in fast fashion2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    Security aspects on corporate culture in a logistics terminal setting2013In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the security aspects on corporate culture among terminal workers in a transport network. This is done against a background of increasing numbers of international supply chain security programmes that all more or less advocate security awareness among the employees as a cornerstone in security. A semi-structured interview guide was designed, in order to facilitate both a theoretical focus and flexible conversations. Fifteen interviews were done altogether at three different goods/freight terminals, and each interview took approximately 30–45 min. The nature of this study is explorative and therefore it focuses on the similarities rather than the differences within the interviews. This research utilizes theories and viewpoints from both social sciences and logistics in order to fill the gap between the ideas from supply chain security programs and the real situation in the transport network. The research are limited by the difficultness in establish clear and evident causal relationships between all the different factors that together compose the corporate security culture. The management wants the terminal workers to perform their planed and scheduled operational tasks according to the written procedures. The security awareness idea advocates that, if needed, shall the employee perform security tasks instead of the planed operations. This means that the employees may be forced to choose between fulfilling their normal tasks or performing security duties. This duality in management signals influences the security aspect of corporate culture.

  • 41.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Security culture and transport network terminal activities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Sternberg, Henrik
    Enhanced liability clauses in logistics contracts: functions, features and future2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a detailed analysis and assessment of the use of enhanced liability (EL) clauses in logistics contracts. The expression “enhanced liability” refers to clauses in a contract that obligate one of the partners to accept extended liability for future claims payments beyond normal standards of transport law, conventions or national standard terms. This paper provides explanations and an understanding of how logistics business actors are using enhanced liability clauses in supplier contacts to reallocate their own supply chain risks. The research approach is based on two pillars: firstly, a proposition on EL cause and effects is theoretically deducted from supply chain risk, freight transport and law literature; secondly, the results of 12 semi-structured interviews with managers were elaborated on. The interviews were structured in four major areas: history of EL, contractual negotiation process, effects of activated EL clauses, and future of EL clauses. Enhanced liability clauses are a risk redistribution tool within the supply chain that contributes to higher total cost for the entire supply chain. This paper introduces and discusses the enhanced liability clause in contracts as a risk allocation method and explains its limitations, providing both novel managerial insight and theory.

  • 43.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Risk trade-off linked to temporary storage function in road transports2011In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s demand on high supply chain performance requires higher awareness about supply chain risks and uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of temporary storage in the transport network in a supply chain perspective. The primary research question concerns the purpose or role of temporary storage and whether management of temporary storage can contribute to reducing risks and uncertainty in the supply chain. The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is abductive. Existing theories are used to formulate a framework which leads to a conceptual model description of the temporary storage function. This model is then supported and verified by two case studies. The temporary storage function will act as a supply chain disturbance neutralizer, thereby reducing risks and uncertainty within the supply chain. The use of temporary storage also means exposing the transport more for antagonistic threats, i.e. primarily a larger theft risk. To avoid both supply chain disturbance and increased theft risk there are three types of solutions; improved and more exact scheduling of delivery time, availability of secure parking spaces whenever a resource needs to make a temporary stop, and utilizing tracking and tracing systems. This paper illuminates the purpose and the drawbacks of temporary stops in the flow of goods within the transport network. The conditions for temporary storage in transit, related to controlling different types of risk and uncertainty in the supply chain, have been scarcely analyzed in previous research.

  • 44.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Risk trade-off linked to temporary storage in the transport network2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s demand on high supply chain performance requires higher awareness about supply chain risks and uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of temporary storage in the transport network in a supply chain perspective. The primary research question concerns the purpose or role of temporary storage and whether management of temporary storage can contribute to reducing risks and uncertainty in the supply chain.Within the described framework of supply chain systems in a transport network, and the management and control of risk and uncertainty, theoretical modelling has been used as a basis for logical deduction of the conclusions. The findings are then supported and verified by two case studies. Temporary storage in transit is located between nodes in the transport network. The temporary storage function will act as a supply chain disturbance neutralizer, thereby reducing risks and uncertainty within the supply chain. The use of temporary storage also means exposing the transport more for antagonistic threats, i.e. primarily a larger theft risk. To avoid both supply chain disturbance and increased theft risk there are three types of solutions; improved and more exact scheduling of delivery time, availability of secure parking spaces whenever a resource needs to make a temporary stop, and utilizing tracking and tracing systems. These reductive measures can be applied jointly, and as a combined toolbox they can contribute to reducing the risk and uncertainty in the supply chain.A comprehensive inventorying of appropriate methods to optimize temporary storage in transit has not been carried out. The deduced research results are based on theory and limited case study support and will primarily serve as a general guideline.From a security point of view, temporary storage offers a crime opportunity, which needs to be reduced in order to achieve lower total supply chain risk and uncertainty. This paper describes the role of temporary storage in a supply chain risk context and provides guidelines related to the trade-off between security concerns and supply chain efficiency.This paper illuminates the purpose and the drawbacks of temporary stops in the flow of goods within the transport network. The conditions for temporary storage in transit, related to controlling different types of risk and uncertainty in the supply chain, have been scarcely analyzed in previous research.

  • 45.
    Kumar, Vijay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Macro-Scale Indicators Based Analysis of Textile Product Recalls in the EU2016In: NOFOMA 2016 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH ANNUAL NORDIC LOGISTICS RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE, TURKU, FINLAND, 8-10 JUNE 2016,, 2016, p. 321-340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose

    The purpose of this article is to study the relationship between macro-scale indicators (social, economic and governance) with textile product recalls in the EU. Here the main focus is given to a systemic approach to understand the problem from a holistic perspective, focusing on the interactions among components rather than focusing only on causes.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The EU’s recalled textile product data and macroscale indicators used in the study were obtained from multiple sources, namely RAPEX, Transparency International, Eurostat, and The World Bank. The data have been used for the years 2008-2013. Multiple linear regression analysis and p-value statistics were used to scale the impact and statistical significance respectively, of the indicators on the textile product recalls.

    Findings

    Findings from the study suggest that the textile recall is influenced by governance and social aspects of the EU member states while the economic aspect has negligible statistical significance. Results further suggest that better governance and higher social inequality lead to lesser textile product recalls.

    Original/value

    This study is first to quantitatively identify of the role of social, governance and economic aspects of the EU member states on their textile-product recalls. The previous qualitative research works have been focused on a particular brand or recall which limit the generalization of their conclusions. Whereas, this paper uses a systemic approach to understand the problem from a holistic perspective, focusing on the interactions among components rather than focusing only on causes.

  • 46.
    Kumar, Vijay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hallqvist, Carina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    DEVELOPMENT OF TRACEABILITY FRAMEWORK FOR TEXTILE SUPPLY CHAIN2016In: NOFOMA 2016 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 28TH ANNUAL NORDIC LOGISTICS RESEARCH NETWORK CONFERENCE 8-10 JUNE 2016, TURKU, FINLAND, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose

    The focus of this work-in-progress is to develop a general traceability framework for the textile supply chain. Traceability is of a significant importance for the textile industry, firstly due to multiple actors’ involvement in the production and distribution, and secondly the heterogeneous nature of actors, dealing with diverse materials, including fibre spinning mills, yarn spinning mills, weaving industry and garment manufacturers. Moreover, The textile industry has seen a global shift towards recently industrialized countries; consequently, the offshore buyers have become more dependent on complex supply chains and created more information asymmetry as offshore buyers cannot directly observe the production activities of a distant manufacturer. Resulting consequences of information asymmetry can be seen in terms of counterfeit products, malpractices in production and other social and environmental issues. Moreover, textile market is a volatile market because of rapidly changing trends and consumers’ preferences, therefore inter-actor visibility of production activities is required for synchronous production to meet the market demands. Considering the above-mentioned characteristics and challenges in textile industry, this work targets to develop a traceability framework for improving supply chain visibility and integrate various actors in the textile production supply chain.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The traceability framework development has been divided into four steps, namely, identification of user requirement of different stakeholders in the textile supply chain, identification of different information points, traceability data modelling, and information exchange model to develop traceability among various stakeholders in the textile production supply chain. In-depth analysis was conducted for the need of traceability from various stakeholders’ perspectives in textile sectors, which include various actors in textile production and distribution, consumers and surveillance/certification authorities. An UML case diagram approach has been followed to define the traceability requirements and UML class diagram approach has been adopted for modelling traceability data.

    Findings

    The present traceability framework is proposed to handle traceability information and information exchange between various stakeholders in the textile production supply chain, which can not only disseminate the traceability information in the supply chain, but also helpful 704 in case of recall crisis (such as product design fault, harmful chemicals or other related issues) where surveillance authorities can track (forward traceability) and trace (for identifying the source error which resulted recall) the products in the textile supply chain for recalling. Moreover, the traceability information can be used by consumers in order to about the product and raw materials’ history.

    Practical implications

    Traceability works on the credibility of the organizations, which handle the traceability data. Therefore, in the real implementation, either organizations need to be transparent in terms of traceability data or third party certification/audit is required for ensuring that the traceability information provided by an organization is correct/authentic. Secondly the semantics for information exchange are required to be unified across various actors involved in traceability information storage and exchange.

    Original/value

    The traceability framework covers perspectives from traceability not only from various actors involved in textile supply chain, but also includes consumers therefore, traceability information is collected by this framework can be utilized from industrial as well as consumer and surveillance perspectives.

  • 47.
    Kumar, Vijay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Soochow University; GEMTEX; Université Lille.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Hanken School of Economics.
    Wang, Lichuan
    Soochow University.
    Supply Chain Strategies for Quality Inspection under a Customer Return Policy: A Game Theoretical Approach2016In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 18, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the quality inspection strategies in a supplier–buyer supply chain under a customer return policy. This paper primarily focuses on product quality and quality inspection techniques to maximize the actors’ and supply chain’s profits using game theory approach. The supplier–buyer setup is described in terms of textile manufacturer–retailer supply chain where quality inspection is an important aspect and the product return from the customer is generally accepted. Textile manufacturer produces the product, whereas, retailer acts as a reseller who buys the products from the textile manufacturer and sells them to the customers. In this context, the former invests in the product quality whereas the latter invests in the random quality inspection and traceability. The relationships between the textile manufacturer and the retailer are recognized as horizontal and vertical alliances and modeled using non-cooperative and cooperative games. The non-cooperative games are based on the Stackelberg and Nash equilibrium models. Further, bargaining and game change scenarios have been discussed to maximize the profit under different games. To understand the appropriateness of a strategic alliance, a computational study demonstrates textile manufacturer–retailer relation under different game scenarios.

  • 48.
    Kumar, Vijay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Soochow University China.
    Hallqvist, Carina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Developing a Framework for Traceability Implementation in the Textile Supply Chain2017In: Systems, ISSN 2079-8954, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traceability has recently gained considerable attention in the textile industry. Traceability stands for information sharing about a product including the product history, specification, or location. With the involvement of globally dispersed actors in the textile supply chain, ensuring appropriate product quality with timely supplies is crucial for surviving in this industry with ever increasing competition. Hence it is of paramount importance for a supply chain actor to track every product and trace its history in the supply chain. In this context, this paper presents a framework to implement traceability in the textile supply chain. A system approach has been followed, where firstly the usage requirement of traceability is defined, and then a framework for implementing intra-actor or internal traceability and inter-actor or external traceability is discussed. This article further presents a sequential diagram to demonstrate the interaction and information exchange between the actors in the supply chain, when the traceability information is requested. An example is also illustrated for data storage using a relational database management system and information exchange using XML for the textile weaver. Finally, the article discusses challenges and future studies required to implement traceability in the textile supply chain.

  • 49.
    Kumar, Vijay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Soochow University; GEMTEX; Université Lille.
    Koehl, Ludovic
    GEMTEX; Université Lille.
    Zeng, Xianyi Zeng
    GEMTEX; Université Lille.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Hanken School of Economics.
    Coded yarn based tag for tracking textile supply chain2017In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 42, p. 124-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traceability has gained considerable attention to facilitate monitored production, product recall, safety and reverse supply chain activities, in recent years. Traceability in manufacturing and distribution involves the use of tracking tags which are attached to the products; consequently, the products are tracked by recording the identity of attached tracking tags in the supply chain. In this context, this paper introduces a new yarn coding-based tracking tag which is fully integrated into textile for tracking the textile supply chain. The new tracking tag involves the use of special yarns which act as information carrier and basic unit of the tracking tag. An implementation scenario is discussed to use the designed tracking tag to monitor the production and authentication purposes. Real prototypes of the fully integrated coded yarn based textile tags are demonstrated in woven and knitted structures and analysed under the effect of washing treatments to simulate realistic conditions. Further, an image pattern recognition based algorithm has been introduced and analysed to extract the information encoded in the tag using coded yarns.

  • 50.
    Paras, Manoj
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Testing a conceptual model of circular clothing value chain with product reuse in Swedish contest2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Close loop value chain is a concept which maximizes utility of a product; before and after end-of-product life cycle. Its main components are reuse, repair, up-cycling and down-cycling. This paper is an attempt to investigate theory and practice related to the concept of ‘reuse’ to test a conceptual framework for fashion value chain model.

    The theory includes literature review of value chain from fashion industry as well as other industries. Thorough search of articles have been done on Web of Science database with the help of relevant keywords. On the basis of this a conceptual framework has been developed for making all stages of reverse supply chain (collection, sorting and processing) more sustainable and efficient. The key drivers (i.e. System, Price, Design, Information, Legislation and consumer attitude.) have been figured out those affect the circular fashion value chain. Later the impact of these key drivers on effectiveness and performance of each stages of the chain has been analyzed. The results clearly indicate that consumer’s attitude towards product return, highly influence the collection stage. Further the results revealed that, the existing government legislation has a significant impact on the function of overall closed loop value chain.

    In the second section of the paper an attempt has been made to explore the current sustainable practice. For this unstructured interviews were conducted at the founder and senior managerial level in sustainable firms from second hand clothing industry. The results have been utilized to validate the conceptual model from current practice. System and Information found to be key drivers to have direct impact on the business of close loop clothing while government legislation influences it indirectly. Various social welfare schemes run for disabled and unskilled person considered to very useful for the financial suitability. Interviewing consumer and shop manager can be considered as future scope for empirical investigation of price, design and consumer attitude effects. The study has been concluded by suggesting implications and ways to improve the proposed model along with providing scope for future research.

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