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  • 1.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Topic modelling approaches to aggregated citation data2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research in progress paper we report on preliminary results from the proposed novel uses of topic modelling approaches to bibliographic references as sources for “bags-of-words” instead of actual text content in scientometric settings. The actual cited references, viewed as concept symbols for paradigmatic approaches to earlier research, could thereby be used to cluster research. We will demonstrate an explorative approach to using cited reference topics for the discovery of hidden semantic reference structures in a set of scientific articles. If found fruitful and robust, this approach could complement existing text based and citation based techniques to clustering of research that might bridge the two approaches. By approaching references as “words” and reference lists as “sentences” (or documents) of such “words”, we demonstrate that the topical structure of document collections can also be analyzed using an alternative and complementary source of content, which additionally provides an interesting perspective on bibliographic references as units of a meta language describing document content.

  • 2. Fridlund, Mats
    et al.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Engineering the War on Terrorism: The 9/11-effect on engineering research, 1989-20132014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some research has argued that recent history can be partly characterized by an ongoing switch within technology from the innovations of a military-industrial-academic complex centered on the Cold War threat of nuclear annihilation to a homeland security-industrial-academic complex shaped by perceived needs to develop new technologies to combat a new existential threat from terrorist attacks (Mike Davis 2001). In line with this the proposed study is a beginning towards a history of technology of the 21st century ‘War on Terrorism’ through a study of how terrorism has shaped technology in the form of engineering research. In this the paper builds upon and extends research within history of technology that since the 1990s has devoted an increasing interest to the effect of the Cold War on engineering research and technological development. Some stellar examples are Donald MacKenzie’s Inventing Accuracy (1990), Stuart Leslie’s The Cold War and American Science (1993), Gabrielle Hecht’s The Radiance of France (1998) and Janet Abbate’s Inventing the Internet (1999). As a start towards such a contemporary history of technology of terrorism we will provide quantitative estimates and qualitative examples of how research in the engineering sciences during 1989-2013 have shifted towards increasingly addressing issues related to terrorism. In this we continue and extend previous research (Fridlund & Nelhans 2011; Moreno 2012) that demonstrated the existence of a ‘9/11-effect’ on research through more in-depth detailed and qualitative historical research going beyond our previous primarily quantitative study. Our study use two distinct sets of material. The first pertains to engineering research in the form of a bibliometric study of published scientific articles identified in Thomson Reuters Science Citation Index and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index between the years 1989 and 2013 of about almost 2.000 items within the research area of ‘Engineering’ having the term *terroris* within its title, abstract or author generated keywords. These publications will be bibliometrically mapped according to topical properties, (bibliographic coupling at the journal level) where papers citing similar sources will be clustered more closely together in the visualization, thus suggesting papers having more in common than other papers citing different literatures, that are not found close to the cluster. The resulting visualizations will be investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively, where key publications identified in a specific cluster in the visualization will be selected for close readings to elucidate the qualitative historical effects of the 9/11-effect on engineering research.

  • 3.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Eklund, Pieta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Åström, Fredrik
    Lund University Library.
    The heterogeneous landscape of bibliometric indicators: Evaluating models for allocating resources at Swedish universities2016In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of bibliometric indicators on individual and national levels has gathered considerable interest in recent years, but the application of bibliometric models for allocating resources at the institutional level has so far gathered less attention. This article studies the implementation of bibliometric measures for allocating resources at Swedish universities. Several models and indicators based on publications, citations, and research grants are identified. The design of performance-based resource allocation across major universities is then analysed using a framework from the field of evaluation studies. The practical implementation, the incentives as well as the ‘ethics’ of models and indicators, are scrutinized in order to provide a theoretically informed assessment of evaluation systems. It is evident that the requirements, goals, possible consequences, and the costs of evaluation are scarcely discussed before these systems are implemented. We find that allocation models are implemented in response to a general trend of assessment across all types of activities and organizations, but the actual design of evaluation systems is dependent on size, orientation, and the overall organization of the institution in question.

  • 4.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    et al.
    Informatics Research Center, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hammarfelt, Björn
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science. University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Steinhauer, Joe. H
    Informatics Research Center, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    Informatics Research Center, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Olson, Nasrine
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science. University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science. University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science. University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Modeling uncertainty in bibliometrics and information retrieval: an information fusion approach2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 2255-2274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe ongoing research where the aim is to apply recent results from the research field of information fusion to bibliometric analysis and information retrieval. We highlight the importance of ‘uncertainty’ within information fusion and argue that this concept is crucial also for bibliometrics and information retrieval. More specifically, we elaborate on three research strategies related to uncertainty: uncertainty management methods, explanation of uncertainty and visualization of uncertainty. We exemplify our strategies to the classical problem of author name disambiguation where we show how uncertainty can be modeled explained and visualized using information fusion. We show how an information seeker can benefit from tracing increases/decreases of uncertainty in the reasoning process. We also present how such changes can be explained for the information seeker through visualization techniques, which are employed to highlight the complexity involved in the process of modeling and managing uncertainty in bibliometric analysis. Finally we argue that a further integration of information fusion approaches in the research area of bibliometrics and information retrieval may results in new and fruitful venues of research.

  • 5.
    Kullenberg, Christopher
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Measuring Welfare beyond GDP : 'Objective' and 'Subjective' Indicators in Sweden, 1968–20152017In: Valuation Studies, ISSN 2001-5992, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses a series of negotiations on how to measure welfare and quality of life in Sweden beyond economic indicators. It departs from a 2015 Government Official Report that advanced a strong recommendation to measure only ‘objective indicators’ of quality of life, rather than relying on what is referred to as ‘subjective indicators’ such as life satisfaction and happiness. The assertion of strictly ‘objective’ indicators falls back on a sociological perspective developed in the 1970s, which conceived of welfare as being measurable as ‘levels of living’, a framework that came to be called ‘the Scandinavian model of welfare research’. However, in the mid-2000s, objective indicators were challenged scientifically by the emerging field of happiness studies, which also found political advocates in Sweden who argued that subjective indicators should become an integral part of measuring welfare. This tension between ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ measurements resulted in a controversy between several actors about what should count as a valuable measurement of welfare. As a consequence, we argue that the creation of such value meters is closely intertwined with how welfare is defined, and by what measures welfare should be carried through.

  • 6.
    Kullenberg, Christopher
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Philosophy Linguist & Theory Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Univ Gothenburg, Dept Philosophy Linguist & Theory Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Boras, SSLIS, Boras, Sweden..
    The happiness turn?: Mapping the emergence of "happiness studies" using cited references2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 615-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes "happiness studies" as an emerging field of inquiry throughout various scientific disciplines and research areas. Utilizing four operationalized search terms in the Web of Science; "happiness", "subjective well-being", "life satisfaction" and "positive affect", a dataset was created for empirical citation analysis. Combined with qualitative interpretations of the publications, our results show how happiness studies has developed over time, in what journals the citing papers have been published, and which authors and researchers are the most productive within this set. We also trace various trends in happiness studies, such as the social indicators movement, the introduction of positive psychology and various medical and clinical applications of happiness studies. We conclude that "happiness studies" has emerged in many different disciplinary contexts and progressively been integrated and standardized. Moreover, beginning at the turn of the millennium, happiness studies has even begun to shape an autonomous field of inquiry, in which happiness becomes a key research problem for itself. Thus, rather than speaking of a distinct "happiness turn", our study shows that there have been many heterogeneous turns to happiness, departing in a number of different disciplines.

  • 7.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Lassi, Monica
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    “You guys who download stuff illegally, don’t you ever feel guilty?”: Initial analysis of changes in practices and values among Swedish illegal file sharers 2007-20122013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reports on the practices of illegal file sharing in Sweden during the period 2007-2012. More than 1.000 posts in response to the question “You guys who download stuff illegally, don’t you ever feel guilty?” where analyzed with regard to the respondents’ expressed senses of guilt, whether file sharing was right or wrong, if they buy media, together with dimensions of stakeholders and media genres. Preliminary results suggest that no changes in feelings of guilt were detected during the time period. However, more posts report to now buy media, while at there at the same time seem to be an increase in posts expressing file sharing, despite its current illegal status, is a right thing to do. A qualitative analysis is needed to further understand the complexity of current changes in file sharers justifications for what content to acquire through illegal file sharing, what they choose to pay for – and why.

  • 8.
    Michnik, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Jämsvi, Susanne (Editor)
    University of Borås, Centrum för lärande och undervisning.
    Den röda tråden: e-tjänst för undervisningsinformation och studerandeuppföljning2014Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    ”Akademisk frihet kräver någon form av ansvar”2018In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Citeringens praktiker: det vetenskapliga publicerandet som teori, metod och forskningspolitik2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates the scientific citation and its various functions in the scientific community and develops it as a tool for research in theory of science, scientometrics and science studies. Through empirical and theoretical studies that utilize both quali-tative and quantitative methods the citation’s history, method, as well as its use in research policy is examined. Through a historical study the thesis shows three stages of development as re-quired for the construction of the citation as an indicator of intrinsic aspects of sci-ence. These consisted of a) citations as technology, within the citation index, b) the citation as a research method as theorised within Mertonian sociology of science, and c) the citation as a research subject. Following this the “citation debate” in Science and Technology Studies (STS) is described and analysed, which questions the use of gen-eralized quantitative methods. Inspired by an STS approach a performative model of “the mangle of the citation practice” is developed. This aims to understand the cita-tion existing in a context where researchers, articles and the citation index are mutu-ally creating and recreating each other. The thesis uses the HistCite scientometrics tool to develop a novel methodology that highlights local dynamics of citation prac-tices between scientific authors and texts using a visual approach of identifying pat-terns of citations in graphic representations of articles and their citation patterns. For this a “citation typology” is created to identify specific patterns and phenomenon in HistCite graphic representations. The last empirical study is of the introduction of quantitatively based performance-based models for funding of research in Norwegian and Swedish research policy 2003-2010 which problematizes the part played by the citation in a research policy setting as “unobtrusive” indicators of scientific practice. The thesis demonstrates the significance of the citation in research through its de-sign as a reflection of the scientific reference, and result of it being constructed – and used – as an indicator of scientific quality. Furthermore, it shows an emerging awareness in the scientific community that quantifiable indicators of scientific achievement – of which the citation is perhaps the main element – has gained a prominent role in both internal and external domains of scientific practice

  • 11.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Explorative scientometrics beyond impact indicators – qualitative citation analysis.2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Hur skall Basmedlen fördelas?2016In: Curie - en tidning från vetenskapsrådetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Inscribed and circumscribed by citations: Indicators, impact and quality in the humanities and social sciences2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation's focus is the Swedish science policy debates on bibliometrics used for the national funding allocation system for higher education and how it is torn between two qualitatively different systems of research impact measures. At present, the national Swedish bibliometric model recognizes and measure research quality as equivalent of publication and of ”being cited”– how well researchers make themselves cite-able in citation based metrics. However, a public inquiry last year proposed a new model similar to the “Norwegian model” of impact based metrics where high quality is seen as equivalent to the prestige of the publication channels, i.e. the status of the scientific journals and publishers. This model is proposed to be implemented from 2014, barely five years after the introduction of the current model. What are the consequences of such a constant reorganization of funding practices and how does it influence the publishing and research practices of scientists? To discuss this, Swedish humanities research will be used as a case, as it during the last years appears - erroneously it will be argued - to have made a great increase in publication rates in Web of Science. In addition I will discuss the lack of transparency and comparability between the various quantitative models of performance indicators such as the bibliometrics models used at faculty and national levels. All in all, the aim is to provide grounds for discussing how citations as well as other bibliometric variables not just reflect but actually effect the quality of research – how bibliometrics is performative.

  • 14.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lösningsförslagen har redan genomförts2017In: Dagens Nyheter, article id 13 SeptemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    REPLIK DN Debatt 10/9. Mats Alvesson och Roland Paulsen skriver om sitt eget vetenskapsområdes svaga relevans för samhället. Det är lätt att instämma att vi befinner oss i en publiceringsexplosion av exponentiella mått, något som har diskuterats i åtminstone ett halvsekel inom naturvetenskaperna. Men det är svårt att se hur denna ökning är ett problem i sig, skriver Gustaf Nelhans, fil dr i vetenskapsteori.

  • 15.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Om mätbarhet och vad som är värt att mäta2015In: / [ed] Ylva Hasselberg, Peter Josephsson & Johan Svedjedal, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om mätbarhet och vad som är värt att mäta

    Gustaf Nelhans, Högskolan i Borås, 2015-01-13

    När scientometriker tillfrågas om relationen mellan citeringar och vetenskaplig kvalitet resonerar de ofta kring hur citeringar kan betraktas som indikatorer på användning av forskning och att detta i sin tur implicerar dess användbarhet och inverkan på annan forskning. Detta betraktas i sin tur som ett argument för att begagna sådana indikatorer som kvalitetsindikatorer.  

    I detta paper problematiserar jag den implicita lagbundenheten i en sådan ”linjär modell” att representera kvalitet med kvantitativa mått utifrån ett antal ståndpunkter:

    1. Från den vetenskapliga praktikens perspektiv: Användningen av citeringen och likartade prestationsindikatorer på forskningen kan betraktas som performativ. Detta genom att den enhet som mäts (på individuellt plan eller på aggregerad nivå) kan komma att anpassa sitt beteende och sin verksamhet för att prestera på de skalor som de mäts på, exempelvis i utbyte mot erkännande eller monetär belöning.
    2. Den mer traditionellt vetenskapsteoretiska problemställningen handlar om vilket slags kunskapsintresse som gynnas av en syn på kvalitet som graderad och mätbar. För när mätande genom prestationsindikatorer likställs med värdering av kvalitet i forskningen uppstår lätt en förväxling av de båda aspekterna med varandra.

    På ett övergripande plan kan man utifrån teorier i vetenskaps- och teknikstudier argumentera för att den ovan nämnda utvecklingen av scientometriska indikatorer och värdering av vetenskapens kvaliteter är samproducerad. Med detta avses att utvecklingen av prestationsbaserade indikatorer och vad som betraktas som hög kvalitet kan komma att befinnas på en ökande grad av korrelation med varandra. Detta är en konsekvens av det performativa idiomet. En avgörande fråga blir då hur man i detta sammanhang kan förstå förhållandet mellan vad som är mätbart och vad som är värt att mäta (för att travestera Håkan Törnebohm)?

  • 16.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Open Access i Sverige – från publikationer och data till den vetenskapliga processen och öppen innovation2016In: Foskningspolitikk, ISSN 0333-0273, no 4, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Professional impact2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Professional impact of clinical research2016In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators València (Spain) September 14-16, 2016 / [ed] Ismael Rafols, Jordi Molas-Gallart, Elena Castro-Martínez, Richard Woolley, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, professional impact is defined as the academic literature that is cited in the literature that is used by professions in order to pursue skilled activities that are specific to their expertise. Specifically, we are focusing on the clinical guidelines that are used in the many health and medical professions that are issued by government bodies at national and international levels to ensure a certain quality level and to make results comparable at the national level.To date, more than 50.000 references have been identified in about 500 Swedish clinical guidelines issued by the above mentioned governmental bodies in Sweden. Of these, 73 % of the references have been matched to a PubMed id.The goal of this project is to develop a conceptual and theoretical contribution to the development of indicators for measuring the impact of research outside of the specifically academic literature.

  • 19.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Qualitative Scientometrics?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When scientometricians are asked about the relationship between citations and quality, they often argue along the lines that citations could be seen as indicators of use and that that this implies usefulness and impact on other research, which in turn is an argument for using them as indicators of quality. This paper questions the implicit linearity of such a ‘one-dimensional model’ of representing quality by quantity from a number of standpoints. First, the use of citations as well as any indicator that is used is performative in the sense that those getting measured by them, i.e. researchers or university administrators, will adapt their behavior to perform well on the scales that are used, either for recognition or for monetary reward. Second, equating citation counts with quality might imply a notion that they scale together such that low citation rates equals low quality and that a high rate implies high quality. Third, and most important, drawing from theories in STS it could be argued that scientometric indicators and measures of scientific achievement are co-produced, in the sense that development of performance based or results based indicators and what is to be regarded as high quality will be found to increasingly coincide with each other as a consequence of the performative idiom mentioned above. It is suggested that more work on the qualitative aspects of scientometric data and is called for.

  • 20.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Replik: Larhammar svartmålar öppen vetenskap2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad som behövs är ett starkare etos i forskarsamhället där vi i stället för att räkna pinnar erkänner att sakkunniggranskning handlar om att bedöma kvalitet. Det skriver Gustaf Nelhans, lektor i Biblioteks och informationsvetenskap, i en replik till Dan Larhammar.

  • 21.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Twitter conversation patterns related to research papers2016In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 21, no 2, article id SM2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. This paper deals with what academic texts and datasets are referred to and discussed on Twitter. We used document object identifiers as references to these items. Method. We streamed tweets from the Twitter application programming interface including the strings "dx" and "doi" while simultaneously streaming tweets posted by and to the authors of the tweets captured. By doing so we were able to capture tweets referring to a digital object as well as the replies to these tweets. Analysis. The captured tweets were analysed in different ways, both quantitatively and qualitatively. 1) Bibliometric analyses were made on the digital object identifiers, 2) the thirty of thesee most mentioned and retweeted were analysed and 3) the conversations with at least ten tweets were analysed using content analysis. Results. Research from the natural sciences was most prominent, as was research published in open access journals. Different types of conversations relating to the digital objects were found, both when looking at them qualitative and their visual structure in terms of nodes and arcs. The conversations involved academics but were not always academic in nature. Conclusions. Digital object identifiers were mainly referred to for self-promotion, as conversation starters or as arguments in discussions.

  • 22.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Vetenskaplig kvalitet ska bedömas, inte mätas2016In: Curie - en tidning från VetenskapsrådetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Bodin, Theo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Questionable Publishing in Swedish Academia2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Eklund, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Citation impact in clinical guidelines2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search to secure funding, researchers must now respond to requests by governments and non-government organisations about how to measure the societal and professional impact of their research. While case studies and reports of interventions may provide grounds for qualitative evaluation, bibliometric methodology is emerging as an important quantitative supplement to these evaluations. 

      In clinical practice, treatment recommendations and clinical guidelines provide traces of clinical and professional practice that can be used to identify and measure research impact. To understand how these traces emerge the research reported here explores documents issued by the three main Swedish agencies who produce recommendations for clinical practice. In particular it examines the cited references within the documents to explore size distribution, reference age, and geographical aspects, in addition to the similarities of the cited reference structure between the producers of the documents.

      The overall goal of this ongoing project is to gain insights into citation practice and distribution of publications in professional practice to provide grounds for developing indicators of clinical impact. Future applications with regard to the broader area of professional impact based on references found in the literature of a wide range of professions, e.g. the health sector, social welfare, engineering and the environmental realm are considered.

  • 25.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Eklund, Pieta
    University of Borås, Professional Services.
    Resursfördelningsmodeller på bibliometrisk grund vid ett urval svenska lärosäten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har sin bakgrund i ett långtgående intresse för kvalitetsvärdering och bibliometriska indikatorers roll i forskningens praktiker samt mer generellt hur forskningens styrformer och genomförande samproduceras i den senmoderna perioden som karakteriserar vår tid. Dessutom hämtar det näring i intresset för bibliotekets och i synnerhet bibliotekariens roll i denna process. Inriktningen på denna studie initierades på uppdrag från rektor vid Högskolan i Borås som ett led i en omvärldsanalys och som underlag för internt utredningsarbete, men kom under arbetets gång att utvecklas till ett fördjupat arbete att mer generellt beskriva hur bibliometriska fördelningsmodeller används vid svenska lärosäten. Arbetet har också bidragit till vidare forskning i vilken fördelningsmodeller vid samtliga svenska lärosäten som innehar forskarutbildningsrättigheter studeras.

  • 26.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Kullenberg, Christopher
    University of Gothenburg.
    Happiness as a Valuation of Nations: From Margin to Indicator2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper traces how subjective measures of welfare were transformed from a marginal issue in the social sciences to a valuation of welfare of nations. The co-production of social science and politics is analysed in a case study of negotiations of subjective and objective indicators in Sweden.

    Since the 1970s social scientists have strived towards finding a replacement for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as an indicator of welfare in nations. Over the years, various political actors have attempted to make such measurements comply with their ideas of what constitutes a good society. This paper traces the co-production of social scientific knowledge and the political process of attempting to establish a new standardized way of measuring welfare in Sweden.

    As GDP and other purely economic indicators have dominated how value is ascribed to nations, the various attempts of challenging this form of measurement have taken place at the margins of the social sciences. However, during the past two decades, the negotiations of finding alternative measures of welfare have dramatically moved forward their positions, entering mainstream science and politics.

    Drawing from a variety of source documents (political proposals, influential reports, mass media accounts and scientific literature), this article connects and analyses multiple modes of veridiction that are the subjects of controversies and negotiations in the construction of a proposed valuemeter of welfare in Sweden. As a result, we show how two major social scientific conceptions of welfare measurements, based either on subjective or objective indicators, relate (without being reduced) to political proposals.

  • 27.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Klang, Mathias
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Lassi, Monica
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Spontaneous reactions to an anti-piracy initiative: A Youtube clip micro analysis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case study we analyzed the traces of spontaneous reactions of Youtube users when confronted with the short clip ’You wouldn’t Steal a Car’, that was used by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) to influence people not to download copyrighted material from the Internet. This film has become an important cultural icon, which to a certain degree has shaped a whole generation of film viewers. The aim of this study was to provide an example of how anti piracy initiatives are received and understood by the receivers of the message. This was performed by collecting and analyzing the users spontaneous reactions as entered as comments on the Youtube page for the clip by qualitatively categorizing the contents using a bottom up approach. The results suggest that people practicing Internet-based culture consumption (IBCC) do this in more nuanced ways than is assumed in the film, where they are polarized as either “common thieves” or “good citizens”.

  • 28.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. University of Southern Denmark.
    Vlachos, Evgenios
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Vignes, Maéva
    University of Southern Denmark.
    RI2A – Towards a Responsible Institute Impact Assessment2019In: 48th LIBER Annual Conference Research Libraries for Society, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland 26-28 June 2019, Dublin, 2019, p. 138-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been a shift in attitudes against improper use of metrics to evaluate research. In our effort to develop alternative approaches to identify relevant measurements for the impact of research at the institute level – beyond simple frequency counts and rankings based on single indicators – we decided to match the publications of a targeted institute to the Web of Science (WoS) database and with the use of machine learning techniques and visualization tools to explore and showcase our results respectively.

    We present the Responsible Institute Impact Assessment (RI2A) for evaluating the research impact of a targeted institute with a case study. We used the 448 publications retrieved from the University of Southern Denmark’s (SDU) research registration database for the Department of Marketing and Management between 2012-2017. Of these, 170 publications satisfied the criteria of both being peer-reviewed and having a DOI to be matched in the WoS database. We then used the bibliographic coupling algorithm to cluster the articles that cited the work produced at the targeted institute. This algorithm groups data together based on the number of shared references between the identified units for analysis (article, source journal and institution level). Lastly, a co-word analysis was used to identify pair-wise relationships between keywords found in the citing articles.

    A total of 1195 citing articles without self-citations where identified. The results of RI2A assist the targeted institute by allowing them to discover

    • the researchers who cite their publications and the relationships among them,
    • the journals that cite their publications and the relationships among them,
    • the universities, institutes and organizations that use their publications and the relationships among them, and
    • the main groups of keywords used in the citing articles.

    Visualizing these results into graphs and making sense of them requires more work than simple publication/citation counts. Although not described in detail here, a collaboration between the SDU library and the university’s research support and policy services has started, where it has been proposed that evaluation should be based on joint work between evaluators and evaluatees focusing on strengths and weaknesses as well as timewise comparison of previous assessments. A straightforward mode would be to compare the results of the mapping exercise with an already known description of the evaluated department’s profile. For instance, by overlaying the targeted department’s research groups on the titles of the citing journals we discovered that the “Strategic Organisation Design” group is referenced a lot in “Organisation Studies”, “Journal of Management Studies”, “Strategic Management Journal” and “Human Relations” journals and that these journals form a distinct cluster based on shared citing practices.

    Our approach responds to the conditions of keeping the process relatively simple and short for use in the library setting, yet meaningful for a combined quantitative/qualitative evaluation for both management and faculty whose research is affected by the evaluation procedure. Apart from showcasing the academic impact of an institute, RI2A also provides an opportunity to explore remote connections that otherwise might go unnoticed.

  • 29.
    Nolin, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Axelsson, Ann-Sofie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Doracic, Alen
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lennartsson, Claes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lloyd, Annemaree
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Response to Cult of the “I”2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 668-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to respond to an earlier article in the Journal of Documentation: The Cult of the “I”. Design/methodology/approach – The method is a form of critical response. Findings – Numerous problems regarding the The Cult of the “I” article are discussed. Originality/value – This paper puts forward views about the iSchools Movement

  • 30.
    Olson, Nasrine
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Semantic web, ubiquitous computing, or internet of things?: A macro-analysis of scholarly publications2015In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 71, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate concepts that are used in depicting futurevisions of society, as afforded by technology, to map the extent of their use, examine the level of theirdominance in different research areas and geographic boundaries, identify potential overlaps, analysetheir longitudinal growth, and examine whether any of the identified concepts has assumed anoverarching position.Design/methodology/approach – In total, 14 concepts, each of which is used to depict visions offuture information infrastructures, were identified. More than 20,000 scholarly documents relatedto 11 of these concepts (those with 20 or more documents) are analysed by various qualitative/quantitative methods.Findings – The concepts most referred to are Semantic Web and ubiquitous computing(all years), and “internet of things” (Year 2013). Publications on some newer concepts (e.g. “digital living”,“real world internet”) are minimal. There are variations in the extent of use and preferred concepts basedon geographic and disciplinary boundaries. The overlap in the use of these terms is minimal and none ofthese terms has assumed an overarching umbrella position.Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to scholarly publications; itwould be relevant to also study the pattern of usage in governmental communications and policydocuments.Social implications – By mapping multiplicity of concepts and the dispersion of discussions, theauthors highlight the need for, and facilitate, a broader discussion of related social and societalimplications.Originality/value – This paper is the first to present a collective of these related concepts and mapthe pattern of their occurrence and growth.Keywords Internet, Information science, World Wide Web, Information society,Digital communications, Information strategyPaper type General review

  • 31.
    Olson, Nasrine
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Falkman, Göran
    Nolin, Jan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Little Scientist, Big Data: Information fusion towards meeting the information needs of scholars2014In: Libraries in the Digital Age (LIDA) Proceedings: Assessing Libraries and Library Users and Use / [ed] David Bawden, Blaise Cronin, University of Zadar, Department of Information Sciences , 2014, p. 14-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing numbers of scholarly publications, and multiplicity of publication-types and outlets, overviews of research fields have become a challenge. We bring together bibliometric methods, information retrieval, information fusion, and data visualization within a new project, INCITE - Information Fusion as an E-service in Scholarly Information Use, with the aim to develop improved methods and tools addressing emerging user-needs. In this paper we report on ongoing research within that project. (a) We elaborate on a qualitative user-study in which the emerging needs of researchers in the age of big data are explored. The study is based on interviews and dialogue with seven scholars at different academic levels. Data analysis was informed by adaptive theory, in accordance to which iterative pre-coding, provisional codes, and memo-writing were used to reach a more abstract level of analysis. A number of challenges related to the multiplicity of information sources and extent of data were identified including difficulties in keeping track of all the relevant sources; the inability to utilize extensive sets of data being taken for granted; and using data reduction strategies that at times go against the scholar’s own ideals of scholarly rigor. In analysing these difficulties, we have identified potential solutions that could facilitate the process of forming overviews of different research areas. (b) An example of such a solution is presented, which is builds on the Dempster-Shafer Theory and is designed to allow for interactive individual ranking of information sources in the process of a coordinated search across different information sources.

  • 32.
    Schirone, Marco
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Hammarfelt, BjörnUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.Nelhans, GustafUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    23rd Nordic Workshop on Bibliometrics and Research Policy 2018 Book of abstracts2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiated by Professors Olle Persson and Peter Ingwersen, bibliometric researchers in the Nordic countries have arranged annual Nordic workshops on bibliometrics since 1996. The general scope of the Nordic Workshop on Bibliometrics and Research Policy is to present recent bibliometric research in the Nordic countries, to create better linkages between the bibliometric research groups and their PhD students, and to link bibliometric research with research policy.The workshop language is English and the workshop is open to participants from any nation. The 23rd Nordic Workshop on Bibliometrics and Research Policy (NWB’2018) was organized by the Swedish School of Library and Information Science (SSLIS) at University of Borås, Sweden. It was held at University of Borås, on November 7-9th, 2018 with 100 participants.In total, we received 35 submissions. After reviewing the submissions, the program committee decided which papers were to be presented orally and which as poster presentations. 21 papers were accepted as oral presentations. These, as well as the titles of the two invited keynote talks and the abstracts of 9 posters, are presented as abstracts in these proceedings. The posters and oral presentation slides are also available for viewing and peer-feedback at figshare (with citable DOIs):https://doi.orgWe would like to thank all authors for their submissions, the session chairs and the keynote speakers, Fredrik Åström and Merle Jacob, for their contributions to the workshop and the student volunteers, for their diligent efforts during the workshop. Further, we would like to thank the sponsors for their generous financial support, without which the Nordic workshops could not be organised in their current form.The NWB’2017 website is at https://hb.se/nwb2018Follow on twitter as @nwb_2018 and #nwb2018

  • 33.
    Sīle, Linda
    et al.
    Centre for R&D Monitoring (ECOOM), Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp.
    Pölönen, Janne
    Federation of Finnish Learned Societies.
    Sivertsen, Gunnar
    Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation,Research and Education.
    Guns, Raf
    Centre for R&D Monitoring (ECOOM), Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp.
    Engels, Tim C. E.
    Centre for R&D Monitoring (ECOOM), Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp.
    Arefiev, Pavel
    Scientific Electronic Library—eLIBRARY.RU.
    Duskova, Marta
    Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information.
    Faurbæk, Lotte
    Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education.
    Holl, Andra´ s
    Department of Science Policy andScientometrics, Library and Information Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA).
    Kulczycki, Emanuel
    Scholarly Communication Research Group, Faculty of Social Sciences, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan.
    Macan, Bojan
    Centre for Scientific Information, Rudjer Boskovic Institute.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Petr, Michal
    Research Office, Masaryk University.
    Pisk, Marjeta
    Research Centre of the SlovenianAcademy of Sciences and Arts.
    Soós, Sándor
    Department of Science Policy and Scientometrics, Library and Information Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA).
    Stojanovski, Jadranka
    Department of Information Sciences, University of Zadar.
    Stone, Ari
    The Planning and Budgeting Committee, The Council for Higher Education, Jerusalem.
    Susol, Jaroslav
    Faculty of Arts, Comenius University in Bratislava.
    Teitelbaum, Ruth
    The Henrietta Szold Institute.
    Comprehensiveness of national bibliographic databases for social sciences and humanities: Findings from a European survey2018In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 1, no 13, article id rvy016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of national bibliographic databases that include data on research output within social sciences and humanities (SSH) in Europe. We focus on the comprehensiveness of the database content. Compared to the data from commercial databases such as Web of Science and Scopus, data from national bibliographic databases (e.g. Flemish Academic Bibliographic Database for the SSH (VABB-SHW) in Belgium, Current Research Information System in Norway (CRISTIN)) are more comprehensive and may, therefore, be better fit for bibliometric analyses. Acknowledging this, several countries within Europe maintain national bibliographic databases; detailed and comparative information about their content, however, has been limited. In autumn 2016, we launched a survey to acquire an overview of national bibliographic databases for SSH in Europe and Israel. Surveying 41 countries (responses received from 39 countries), we identified 21 national bibliographic databases for SSH. Further, we acquired a more detailed description of 13 databases, with a focus on their comprehensiveness. Findings indicate that even though the content of national bibliographic databases is diverse, it is possible to delineate a subset that is similar across databases. At the same time, it is apparent that differences in national bibliographic databases are often bound to differences in country-specific arrangements. Considering this, we highlight implications to bibliometric analyses based on data from national bibliographic databases and outline several aspects that may be taken into account in the development of existing national bibliographic databases for SSH or the design of new ones.

  • 34.
    Wittek, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Darányi, Sándor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ruling out static latent homophily in citation networks2016In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 110, no 2, p. 765-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citation and coauthor networks offer an insight into the dynamics of scientific progress. We can also view them as representations of a causal structure, a logical process captured in a graph. From a causal perspective, we can ask questions such as whether authors form groups primarily due to their prior shared interest, or if their favourite topics are ‘contagious’ and spread through co-authorship. Such networks have been widely studied by the artificial intelligence community, and recently a connection has been made to nonlocal correlations produced by entangled particles in quantum physics—the impact of latent hidden variables can be analyzed by the same algebraic geometric methodology that relies on a sequence of semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations. Following this trail, we treat our sample coauthor network as a causal graph and, using SDP relaxations, rule out latent homophily as a manifestation of prior shared interest only, leading to the observed patternedness. By introducing algebraic geometry to citation studies, we add a new tool to existing methods for the analysis of content-related social influences.

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