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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Paras, Manoj K.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Re:Textile – Planning a Swedish Collection and Sorting Plant for Used Textiles2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser följande frågor:− Finns det några realistiska förutsättningar att etablera en svensk sorteringsanläggning för insamlade textilier med hänsyn tagen till redan etablerade insamlingsstrukturer?− Vilka ar de avgörande kritiska faktorerna?− Hur ser framtiden ut?− Hur kan en framkomlig väg se ut för att etablera en lämplig strategi för en cirkulär ekonomi avseende använda textilier?Grundförutsättningar för studien:Idag bedrivs den ordnade insamlingen av textilier huvudsakligen av välgörenhetsorganisat-ioner som Myrorna, Röda Korset, etc. Av en total konsumtionsvolym på ca 13 kg/capita i Sverige (omfattande kläder och hemtextil) samlas 3-4 kg in av mestadels seriösa operatörer genom direktöverlämning eller genom insamlingscontainrar. Vissa butiker/varumärken har också kommit igång med mottagning av använda textilier, t.ex. H&M, Hemtex, Kapp-Ahl m.fl. Övriga kvantiteter (8-10 kg) har vi inte exakt kännedom om, men troligen hamnar de förr eller senare i containrar för brännbart.Motivet för de seriösa insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva denna verksamhet är dels att skapa finansiella resurser för att kunna bedriva sin hjälpverksamhet, dels att skapa sysselsätt-ning för en växande kader av personer i arbetsträning och liknande. Detta innebär att verksam-heten i stor utsträckning bedrivs av volontärer samt av subventionerad personal vad avser ar-betskostnader. Samhällsnyttan som skapas genom detta är mycket stor och bör inte äventyras av förändringar i denna struktur. I regeringsuppdraget 2014 till Naturvårdsverket angående hantering av textilier framhålls detta också som en förutsättning.

    Den sorteringsverksamhet som bedrivs av dessa organisationer syftar till att sortera ut de bästa produkterna, som har förutsättningar att säljas genom egna butikskanaler. Ungefär 20 % av volymerna tar denna väg, och dessa har en helt avgörande ”värdeuppväxling”. Övriga 80 % exporteras till avsevärt lägre värde än de första 20 procenten.

    Eftersom välgörenhetsorganisationerna utför denna första fas på ett utomordentligt kostnads-effektivt sätt, samt därigenom skapar samhällsnytta som också är mycket kostnadseffektiv, kan vi inte se något som helst motiv att ändra på detta förhållande utan kanske istället förbättra möjligheterna att utveckla deras värdefulla arbete.

    För en regional/nationell sorteringscentral återstår alltså en potential bestående av ex-portkvantiteterna samt de volymer som hamnar i ”brännbart”.

    De beräkningar vi har utfört baseras på en sorteringsanläggning som bedrivs efter normala affärsbetingelser, dvs. avtalsenliga löner, marknadsmässiga hyror och avskrivningar samt rå-dande finansiella kostnader.

    Den kritiska volymen för en sådan anläggning har beräknats till en kapacitet om 40 ton/dag motsv. ca 50 anställda. Denna kapacitet motsvarar ca 40 % av totalförbrukningen (13 kg/ca-pita) i Västra Götaland eller ca 170 % om insamlingsnivån ligger på nuvarande ca 3 kg/capita.

    För att nå erforderlig volym krävs alltså:

    − Utökat geografiskt upptagningsområde

    − Maximerade marknadsandelar

    − Större insamlad volym per capita.

    Beaktande dagens kostnadsläge för en effektiv anläggning om 40 ton/dag samt de mark-nadsmässiga priser/intäkter som idag är för handen avseende ”2nd choice” kvantiteter är projektet inte ekonomiskt försvarbart. Kostnads/intäktsförhållandet ligger på ca 7,80 SEK/kg mot ca 6,50 SEK/kg.

    De faktorer som påverkar detta förhållande är följande:

    − Andelen förstasortering i fraktionerna (andelen är noll i vårt exempel)

    − Totalvolymerna

    − Kvalitetsfördelning. Bärbara plagg i förhållande till icke bärbart, dvs. kvantiteter för re-cycling etc.

    − Produktiviteten

    −Lönekostnaderna

    − Låga marknadspriser på framförallt material till recycling samt ”rags” (putstrasor)

    − Teknologi för hantering respektive potentiell sensorteknologi för automatisk sortering av-seende främst förekomst av skadliga kemikalier samt fiberinnehåll

    − Recyclingsteknik för återvinning av använda fiber till nya fiber; inte kommersiellt tillgäng-lig ännu

    − Vertikal integration (insamling-sortering; recyclingprocesser/second hand-retailing)Dessa förhållanden kan självfallet förändras och ändra bilden av konceptets realism.

    Slutsatser avseende marknadsutveckling:

    Beaktande att framtidens fiberbehov om mer än 200 miljoner ton/år (från nuvarande ca 90 miljoner ton/år) huvudsakligen genereras genom befolkningsökning och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer som utgör dagens exportmarknader, får detta till följd att dessa marknader blir självförsörjande avseende bärbara second hand-kläder. Alltså: våra exportmarknader minskar betydligt.

    De tekniker och marknader som måste utvecklas i strävan mot en lönsam cirkulär ekonomi utgörs följaktligen av

    − Sorteringsteknik som kan detektera och sortera på skadligt kemiskt innehåll respektive fiberinnehåll. Dessa två sorteringsförutsättningar är grundläggande för säkra och lönsamma produktinnovationer.

    − Nya tekniker och processer för utveckling av nya innovativa, värdeskapande produkter från både mekanisk, kemisk och termisk recycling.

    Dessa båda områden är centrala för att värdet på insamlade textilier kan öka vad avser både volym och priser.

    Förslag till fortsatt arbete; ett diskussionsscenario:Förslaget är att skapa en flexibel öppen struktur, baserad på tre grundkomponenter:

    1. Bygg upp regionala sorteringscentra som ger grundförutsättningar för insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva sin verksamhet på ett effektivt sätt.En bra samlad sorteringsvolym (summan av varje organisations insamling och sortering)ligger lämpligtvis på ca 40 ton/dag. Vissa gemensamma funktioner kan utvecklas som t.ex. balning/packning, intern transportlogistik etc. Detta skulle ge skalfördelar utan att påverka varje organisations egna affärsprocesser. Det bör kunna vara självfinansierat genom hyror respektive sålda logistiktjänster.

    2. Skapa en agentur eller liknande med uppgift att sälja exportkvantiteter på uppdrag av insamlingsorganisationerna. Motivet skall vara att bättre kunna optimera en kundsamman-sättning som ger en optimal mix av EKONOMI – EKOLOGI – ETIK. Genom att den totalt genererade volymen blir större borde en professionell organisation kunna nå bättre totalt utfall avseende de tre E:na. Erfarenheter från vår empiri ger vid handen att det finns potential för bättre utfall. Den borde också kunna vara självfinansierad genom t.ex. provisionsintäkter.OBS. Om förutsättningarna förändras enligt vår studie kan en fysisk sorteringsanläggning strukturellt etableras och ersätta agenturen.

    3. Ovanstående punkter ger förutsättningar för att bygga upp en testbädd som är inriktad på att kunna serva företag, forskningsorganisationer etc. med kapacitet att köra betatester, som är ett nödvändigt inslag i produktutvecklingsprocessen. Eftersom Sverige saknar en infrastruktur för både subindustriell produktion av fiber och recycling av textilier är detta en viktig förutsättning för utveckling av de produkter/processer som ligger till grund för värdeutvecklingen av använda textilier.

  • 2.
    Hedegård, Lars
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE FASHION RETAIL BASED ON REUSE – A STRUGGLE WITH MULTIPLE LOGICS2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reuse is a strategy to render fashion retail sustainable and an example is the take-back schemes established by international retailers. Managerial aspects are important in a reuse system, but management issues have seldom been studied. Accordingly, empirical investigations of the management of reuse systems are needed. Hence, the purpose of this study is to show the complexity in the management of fashion-retail based on reuse by identifying and explaining obstacles in the process. This is achieved by an analyze of ReTuna, a shopping mall based on reuse, from the perspective of institutional logics. ReTuna opened in 2015 and consists of approximately fourteen stores. The shops at ReTuna sell reused products, but this unconventional sourcing of goods aside, ReTuna aims to be a traditional mall. Most shops are staffed by the owner(s) and in some cases an employee. Garments and textiles that are sold origins from donations that are collected by the mall. The case illustrates the complexity, as it failed in establishing reuse-based fashion retail, despite its success in achieving enough donations and creating publicity. The analysis shows that the goal of re-circulating fashion is hindered by actors not being able to equally integrate the divergent sustainability dimensions in the mall owner’s goals. The obstacles are a result of the actors prioritizing the logics differently at the same time as not being able to fulfill the demands of the logics due to a lack of knowledge, experience and skills, and coordination.

  • 3.
    Hedegård, Lars
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Management of sustainable fashion retail based on reuse: A struggle with multiple logics2019In: The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In scholarly conversations, reuse is one of the common suggested strategies to render fashion retail sustainable. Previous research has stressed the complexity of fashion reuse and the importance of a well-organized system. The complexity stems from processes that involve many actors as well as products hard to evaluate. Consequently, it is challenging to organize reuse-based fashion retail, and studies are needed to further develop knowledge regarding how to manage such systems. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the complexity in the management of such an initiative, by identifying and explaining obstacles as well as implications. With institutional logics as a framework, three local logics (shopping mall, reuse, and work integration) are used to analyze the management of a reuse-based mall. Despite the mall’s success in getting sufficient donations and creating publicity, it has struggled to establish itself as viable reuse-based fashion retail. The findings illustrate the complexity created by the interplay of different logics and how the complexity influences both the daily and strategic management of the mall. Further, the outcome of this interplay depends largely on which rationality is enacted by involved actors. The study also extends literature on institutional logics, showing that differences in individual actors’ attention, knowledge, skills, coordination, and material conditions influence how logics are enacted and managed. We suggest that there are inherent managerial contradictions in the sustainable practices in fashion retail. Thus, in scholarly conversations, it is important to discuss what different divergent sustainability dimensions imply when seeking solutions for sustainable retail. In practice, there is a need to acknowledge and balance the presence of multiple logics, making it crucial to have competence in all logics. Also, managers of reuse-based fashion retail must consciously and continuously scrutinize their own strategies and actions to avoid an imbalance between the logics.

  • 4.
    Hedegård, Lars
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Contradictions In Reuse-based Fashion Retail - the ReTuna Mall Case2016In: GLOBAL FASHION CONFERENCE 2016 STOCKHOLM – SWEDEN, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the management of a novel commercial fashion retail concept – a shopping mall based on reuse and a local circular fashion supply chain – with the aim of identifying potential strategic issues with the concept.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This is an explorative case study, based on observations and interviews with shop managers, employees and the mall management.

    Findings

    The reuse concept strongly influences the mall's strategy, and the sourcing process is a key factor. The local reuse-based fashion supply chain follows the typical reuse process, but this study shows that the business logic that underpins the commercial strategy is not in line with the reuse and social enterprise ethoses that the mall ostensibly follows.

    Research limitations/implications

    This study illustrates the difficulties inherent in organising a reuse-based mall due to the need to combine a commercial strategy, a local and circular fashion supply chain, and a social enterprise ethic.

    Practical implications

    The findings highlight the mall management's responsibility for the sourcing of goods, the need for a closer cooperation between mall management and tenants in a reuse-based mall, and the need for competence in terms of reuse, fashion, and retail in order for the concept to be developed further.

    Originality/value

    ReTuna represents a new fashion retail phenomenon – the reuse-based shopping mall – that has not been studied yet.

    Keywords

    Fashion retail, textile reuse, clothing reuse, mall management, fashion supply chain, recycling, sustainability, circular supply chain.

    Article classification

    Research paper

  • 5.
    Kumar Paras, Manoj
    et al.
    Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles-Leather and Industrial Management.
    Hedegård, Lars
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles-Leather and Industrial Management.
    ReTuna Recycling Mall: Reuse based Circular Fashion Supply Chain Management2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shopping mall concept has emerged to provide unique mall profiles to satisfy consumers who search for the ultimate shopping experience. Under one roof different sellers are assembled together with food outlets and entertainment to full fill the requirements of consumers.Gradually an awareness of over consumption has raised together with calls for reuse activities that reduce the consumption of new products. As an answer to this problem a shopping mall for sustainable practice and reuse: ReTuna, has been developed in Eskilstuna, Sweden.This study has been undertaken to understand the practice of ReTuna and the local based circular fashion supply chain that it incorporates. Still in its beginning ReTuna is indeed a revolutionary concept to enhance the practice of reuse.

  • 6.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hemilä, Jukka
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University.
    Creating value through reverse logistics in a multi-echelon used clothing chain2016In: Sustainable Transport and Supply Chain Innovation / [ed] K S Pawar and KM Tsai, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2016, p. 419-429Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper:

    Reverse logistics (RL) in retail value chains is an increasingly emerging phenomenon yet under-explored in research (Bernon et al., 2011). The literature becomes shallower while discussing the “process” of value creation in such context. Given the inherent complexity and differentiated value creation in many RL networks (Schenkel et al., 2015), e.g. in used clothing, such values are constituted by different actors by prioritizing and committing their strategic resources for developing distinct rent-earning competencies.

    In this context, the purpose of this paper is to explore how differential value is created by firms embedded in a multi-echelon reverse value chain for used clothing, by successfully exploiting multi-level (intra- and inter- firm) resources, via various underlying rent-earning mechanisms.

     

    Design/methodology/approach:

    An explorative case study approach is adopted in reverse clothing value chain context to investigate the take-back scheme that includes multiple actor types and also spans globally. An abductive research process is adopted along two stages; Stage 1 (proposes a new theoretical framework on “how” value is created in reverse value chains based on resource-based (RB) and relational rent-earning views to exploit various RL attributes or capabilities) and Stage 2 (seeks real-life case observations to explore the empirical reality), and finally systematically combining these knowledge.

    Data is collected through semi-structured interviews, observation and documented notes and reports, conducted with various actors, viz. retailers, social enterprises (charities and non-profit retailers), commercial brokers/sorters, and specialized sorting firms from India.

     

    Findings:

    Differentiated values are created by the actors involved with multi-echelon take-back network. The RB and relational theories underpin the rent-earning mechanisms further highlighting several key ways to sustain this value.

    The VRIO model in the RB theory (Barney and Clark, 2007) shows how value is created within firm boundaries. The relational view highlights four rent-earning mechanisms: relational asset specificity and information sharing for the success of cost-neutral take-back agreement, along with resource and capability complementarities and trust in the relationship. Together they provide understanding of the entire “process” of rent generation.

     

    Value:

    This research contribute to exploring the “process” of rent-earning generated by critical intra- and inter- organizational enablers of value creation in complex RL networks.

     

    Practical implications:

    The paper improves the understanding of the key mechanism for value creation for actors working within the used clothing chain.

     

    References:

    Barney, J., & Clark, D. (2007). Resource-Based Theory: Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bernon, M., Rossi, S., & Cullen, J. (2011). Retail reverse logistics: a call and grounding framework for research. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 41(5), 484-510.

    Schenkel, M., Caniëls, M., Krikke, H., & van der Laanc, E. (2015). Understanding value creation in closed loop supply chains – Past findings and future directions. Journal of Manufacturing Systems. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2015.04.009

  • 7.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköpings universitet Tekniska högskolan.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Multidimensional value creation through different reverse supply chain relationships in used clothing sector2019In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 729-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to purport deeper understanding of, and instigate theoretical elaboration to, multidimensional value created through different reverse supply chain (RSC) relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    By capturing the relationships (and their differences) constituted and embedded in three “extreme” case studies from global used clothing supply chain, the sources of multidimensional values are explored in line with Dyer and Singh’s (1998) relational theory.

    Findings

    In the RSC, when downstream relationships are typically more opportunistic, value is created using inter-personal ways of knowledge sharing and through use of informal safeguards. In contrast, the upstream RSC relationships are more symbiotic, and value is created through more seamless (and routinized) knowledge sharing practices, and additional use of more formal transaction-specific controls or financial incentives as safeguarding instruments.

    Research limitations/implications

    The use of consolidated case studies may affect the consistency in the findings presented. Another limitation relates to deriving propositions per each source presented in relational theory.

    Practical implications

    Practitioners particularly from industries whose global RSCs include different natures of relationships and multiple value incentives can be benefited through this study.

    Originality/value

    The paper extends the original sources of value creation prescribed in relational theory by contextualizing them in RSCs. It depicts how multidimensional values are created relationally by dyadic partners as the nature of relationship differs between upstream and downstream.

  • 8.
    Paras, Manoj
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Testing a conceptual model of circular clothing value chain with product reuse in Swedish contest2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Close loop value chain is a concept which maximizes utility of a product; before and after end-of-product life cycle. Its main components are reuse, repair, up-cycling and down-cycling. This paper is an attempt to investigate theory and practice related to the concept of ‘reuse’ to test a conceptual framework for fashion value chain model.

    The theory includes literature review of value chain from fashion industry as well as other industries. Thorough search of articles have been done on Web of Science database with the help of relevant keywords. On the basis of this a conceptual framework has been developed for making all stages of reverse supply chain (collection, sorting and processing) more sustainable and efficient. The key drivers (i.e. System, Price, Design, Information, Legislation and consumer attitude.) have been figured out those affect the circular fashion value chain. Later the impact of these key drivers on effectiveness and performance of each stages of the chain has been analyzed. The results clearly indicate that consumer’s attitude towards product return, highly influence the collection stage. Further the results revealed that, the existing government legislation has a significant impact on the function of overall closed loop value chain.

    In the second section of the paper an attempt has been made to explore the current sustainable practice. For this unstructured interviews were conducted at the founder and senior managerial level in sustainable firms from second hand clothing industry. The results have been utilized to validate the conceptual model from current practice. System and Information found to be key drivers to have direct impact on the business of close loop clothing while government legislation influences it indirectly. Various social welfare schemes run for disabled and unskilled person considered to very useful for the financial suitability. Interviewing consumer and shop manager can be considered as future scope for empirical investigation of price, design and consumer attitude effects. The study has been concluded by suggesting implications and ways to improve the proposed model along with providing scope for future research.

  • 9.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Application of fuzzy technique for closed loop decision in clothing value chain2018In: International journal of value chain management, ISSN 1741-5357, E-ISSN 1741-5365, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 105-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing concern over the environment has encouraged consumer and industry to think about the huge amount of discarded clothes. This study has considered four methods: direct reuse, up-cycling, down-cycling and incineration to close the loop of clothing value chain. Three factors (material, economy and technology) affecting closed loop decision have been identified. These factors have a different degree of influences on the decision making the process of closed loop clothing value chain. Research data has been collected from the reverse logistic experts from clothing industry. The fuzzy technique has been used to quantify the response of experts. Findings have been analysed with the help of analytic hierarchy process technique. The material factor is found to dominating factor in the closed loop decisions over economy and technology. Up-cycling and direct reuse emerged to be the best alternatives in the current scenario. The clothing companies may replicate this approach of developing hierarchy model to choose best alternatives for the closed loop value chain.

  • 10.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Reuse-based Reverse Value Chain for Sustainable Apparel Industry2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The reverse value chain is a concept that maximizes the utility of a product after end-of-life or end-of-use. Its main components are reuse, repair, up-cycling and down-cycling. This thesis has investigated the business of apparel ‘reuse’ to develop a reuse-based reverse value chain model for apparel industry. The research began by understanding the existing theory of reverse value chain. The theory includes a literature review of the value chain from the apparel industry as well as from the other industries. A conceptual framework has been developed by considering processes of reverse value chain such as collection, sorting and reprocessing.

    Consequently, the thesis has undertaken a mix method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to study the reuse-based reverse value chain. An exploratory method based on multiple case studies has been adopted to explore the current sustainable practices of apparel reuse. Organizations were visited and unstructured interviews were conducted with founder and senior managers. The results have been utilized to develop an empirical model from the current practices of collection, sorting, and reprocessing. Qualitative findings highlight that higher economic recovery depends upon efficient reprocessing and collaborations with different stakeholders of the reverse value chain of apparel. Thus, an efficient resource recovery is economical as well as environmentally sustainable. Engagement of marginalized and vulnerable sections of society in the reverse value chain of apparel contributes towards social sustainability.

    The empirical model was further strengthened by mathematical model formulation. Analytical hierarchy process, Genetic algorithm and Markov principle have been used for the analysis of reuse-based reverse value chain. The thesis provides theoretical contribution, implications and ways to improve the current practice of apparel reuse along with providing scope for future research.

  • 11.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, A.
    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A state-of-the-art Literature Review of Upcycling: A Clothing Industry Perspective2016In: CORTEP 2016 - Book of Abstracts: 16th Romanian Textiles and Leather Conference / [ed] Avadanei Manuela, Bucharest: Editura Acreditata de Cncsis Bucuresti , 2016, p. 121-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to review and appreciate the developments in the literature of upcycling domain; (i) To comprehend the concept of upcycling and subsequently, understanding the difference among the prominent terminologies used in the literature (ii) To identify application of upcycling across various industries; (iii) To propose a framework of upcycling practices for clothing industries based on the insights.

     Methodology: A scientific literature review procedure proposed by Mayring (2002) was adopted to select and screen the paper which comprised of four steps; (i) Material collection: The collection of material is well defined and delimited based on the profiling approach. Each paper is defined as unit of analysis; (ii) Descriptive analysis: Different criteria are set to analyze collected materials. These are publication year, journal, methodology and author affiliations; (iii) Category selection: To do analysis different categories have been identified. Further those categories were divided into sub-categories; (iv) Material evaluation: According to above mentioned categorization, research papers are analyzed and interpreted to form a conceptual framework.

     Result: The paper has identified terminologies and definitions used in the literature. Recycling may be considered as  the use of the material properties (e.g. as a fire retardant non-woven material in a mattress spring cover) (Morley, Bartlett et al. 2009). Down-cycling may be conceptualized as making an inferior product or broken down into raw material. However, several scholars proposed various definitions of upcycling. The prominent may include: (i) Value/quality of product is improved by making superior product. (Dervojeda, Verzijl et al. 2014); (ii) Giving new value to materials that are either discarded, or are not being used anymore" (Fletcher and Grose 2012); (iii) repurposing lower-value items such as a neck scarf to construct a higher-value end use item, such as a wrap skirt or halter top (Janigo and Wu 2015). The results indicated that designing may be considered as one of the important steps in upcycling process. The process of redesigning consists of ideation, reconstruction and fitting. The limitation of redesigning is variability in size and pattern. This can be overcome by; craftsmanship, time, innovation, provenance, desire, narrative.

     Conclusion: The extant literature revealed that no study so far has attempted to summarize the literature in upcylcing area. Thus, this could be seen as a significant and unique contribution to the literature. Further, the bibliography and insights provided in the study may be used by future scholars as a ready reference for their research.

  • 12.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi.
    Revisiting upcycling phenomena: a concept in clothing industry2018In: Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, ISSN 1560-6074, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 46-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to review the literature and practice of upcycling. In particular, the objective of this study is threefold: to comprehend the concept of upcycling and, subsequently, understanding the prominent terminologies used in the literature; to understand the process of upcycling and problem associated with it; and to review current literature and practice of upcycling for clothes.

    Design/methodology/approach – A scientific literature review procedure proposed by Mayring (2002)was adopted to select and screen the paper that comprises the following steps: material collection, descriptive analysis and material evaluation.

    Findings – Upcycling literature has witnessed significant contribution in the past one decade. The paper has identified various terminologies and definitions such as recycling, down-cycling, upcycling and redesign, which are used in the literature.

    Research limitations/implications – The present study may help the scholars to understand the current state of literature. A practitioner of upcycling can use the findings to improve and standardise the existing process.

    Originality/value – The process of redesigning is one of the important steps in upcycling, which comprises ideation, reconstruction and fitting. The limitation of redesigning is variability in size and pattern. This can be overcome through various techniques such as craftsmanship, time, innovation, provenance, desire and narrative.

  • 13.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles-Leather and Industrial Management..
    Burlacu, Adrian
    "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi Robotics, Computer Vision, Control.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Upcycling Decision in the Closed Loop Clothing Value Chain Using an Analytical Hierarchy Process2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal is to develop a decision making tool to close the loop of clothing value chain. Material, economy and technology are vital factors influences decision in the closed loop chain. These three factors and sixteen criteria associated with factors are examined with analytical hierarchy process under fuzzy environment.

  • 14.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    TU Iasi.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wang, Lichuan
    Soochow University.
    Chen, Yan
    Soochow University.
    A Romanian case study of clothes and accessories upcycling2019In: Industria textila, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 285-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper aims to investigate the practice of upcycling and redesign. The study draws on the multiple organizations involved in the redesigning activities. The organizations selected for the study are located in the northern part of Romania. Semi-structured interviews along with direct observations were used to collect information. The paper provides practical insights to upcycling process.Various kinds of redesigned products are made out of consumer and industrial wastes such as redesigned clothes, accessories for ladies, handbags, ladies purses and office stationery. Upcycling is generally considered as economically non-feasible. However, this study has found contradictory results. The demand-based redesign activities can help an organization to earn a profit. Two out of three selected organizations are able to self-sustain. One of the organizations is newly entered into the Romanian used clothing markets and ables to compete with existing players. This study could be seen as one of the early attempts to empirically explore the practice of textile and accessories upcycling practice in Eastern Europe. The findings from the current case study can provide several useful insights for other similar companies to make redesign activities profitable.

  • 15.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Developing a framework for the performance evaluation of sorting and grading firms of used clothing2018In: Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, ISSN 2398-5364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to propose a framework for evaluating the performance of reverse value chain activities in the clothing industry operating at base of the pyramid. Specifically, the research explores firm and supply chain factors influencing clothing reverse value chain activities with a focus on developing economies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study adopted an explorative technique using direct observations and semi-structured interviews to collect information from eight companies and two traders. Internal resources and value chain capabilities were examined using theoretical underpinnings of resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid.

    Findings

    The paper identified multiple benefits of offshoring reverse value chain activities to the developing countries (at the base of the pyramid). Low operation cost, skilled manpower, business knowledge and location are found to be internal success factors. While favourable government legislation and domestic recycling markets are important external factors contributing to the success. Developing economies such as India contribute to firm performance by integrating, transforming, acquiring and co-creating the resources at base of the pyramid. Further, it was found that to achieve higher assets specificity, a few companies have opened their own shops in African countries, while others have opened sourcing branches in Canada or the USA to ensure good quality of raw materials. Collaboration and coordination among different value chain partners minimise cost and increases profitability. Innovation in the process such as clothes mutilation for recycling has created new business opportunities.

    Research limitations/implications

    Information was collected from only eight organisations and two traders from India. Future scholars may extend the research to generalise the findings by documenting similar phenomena.

    Practical implications

    The proposed framework can serve a basis for the practitioners to evaluate firm performance, and the insights can be used to achieve sustainability by engaging producers, employees, consumers and community using base of the pyramid approach.

    Originality/value

    The study provides unique insights into the prevalent export and re-exports phenomena of used clothing. The resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid strategy underpinned together to develop a framework for understanding reverse value chain activities of clothing.

  • 16.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Faculty of Textile, Leather and Industrial Management, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași.
    Chen, Yan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou .
    Wang, Lichuan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou .
    An Exploratory Study of Swedish Charities to Develop a Model for the Reuse-Based Clothing Value Chain2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper aims to explore the current clothes reuse business in order to develop a charity-driven model for the reuse-based clothing value chain. An exploratory study was carried out in Sweden to understand the business flow of clothes reuse. This study builds on the insights gained from the multiple charities involved in the reuse-based clothing value chain. Semi-structured interviews along with direct and participatory observation were used for data collection. In the current study of Swedish charities, the founders and senior managers of the organizations were interviewed. This paper provides several insights in the form of propositions and a model related to different drivers of the reuse-based clothing value chain. In this model, business factors (system, legislation, and awareness), product factors (design, quality, and price), and consumer attitude as donor/buyer are found to be key drivers. Product design, quality, and price depend upon clothes brand, construction, and material, which are collectively important for the sale of used products. In the future, researchers are encouraged to test the present set of propositions and the proposed model across different cultural settings. The model can serve as a framework for practitioners and will be helpful for designing business strategies based on the different factors identified in this study.

  • 17.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iași,Romania.
    Lars, Hedegård
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iași, Romania.
    ReTuna: The Recycling Mall2016In: ReTuna: The Recycling Mall, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been undertaken to understand the practice of ReTuna. This has been done through two phases: In the first phase backend operations have been studied by visiting collecting and sorting facilities and interviewing mall management. In the second phase each mall tenants have been studied and interviewed. After each interview data has been analysed and follow up interview were done to strengthen the information. The study shows that the reuse mall has been established near a recycling centre to promote the concept of reuse. Instead of disposing of goods to incineration, Citizens are encouraged to donate the goods to the mall. The collected products are sorted on the basis of type by mall employees and kept at different designated location of each tenants in line with their contract. Employees of the tenants visit the warehouse to receive and sort their assigned goods according to conditions and product categories. Some of the tenants have facilities to re-design, repair and wash the garments to improve the functionality of products. The mall management is doing efforts to increase the number of upcycling activities that the tenants perform to increase the value of the reused goods. The reuse mall also provides workshop and laboratory space to college involved in the education of reuse and re-design. Students of the college experiment with donated goods to redesign new products. 

  • 18.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Application of Markov chain for LCA: a study on the clothes 'reuse' in Nordic countries2017In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to count the number of cycles or trips that a clothing product could make in a reuse-based closed loop cycle. The model is primarily based on three scenarios: (i) self-reuse (ii) discard to second-hand market and (iii) disposed to incineration or the recycling stations. The present study extended and complemented the existing literature by presenting the application of the Markov chain to analyse the future of textile products on the basis of probabilities. Subsequently, the proposed model has been used to study the textile waste flow in the Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The application of the proposed model on the data from the Nordic Countries indicated that the average number of times the clothes reuse is highest in Denmark, whereas the lowest was found in Finland. Repair and redesign were found a hotspot for the recovery of clothes. Variation in these hotspots can increase the trip number of clothes. A sensitivity analysis is performed and conclusions are made regarding variations of clothes reuse under different scenarios. The proposed model may help in the decision formulation for the companies, government authorities and research agencies which focus on reuse and recycling of textile products. Based on the insights from the present work, the decision maker may take several initiatives to increase the life span of a textile product.

  • 19.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles-Leather and Industrial Management..
    Application of Absorbing Markov Chain for Life Cycle Assesment of Clothes Reuse in Nordic Countries2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper has developed a model to count the number of cycles or trips that clothing product makes in reused based closed loop cycle. The proposed model tested to study the textile waste flow in the Nordic countries. The result indicates clothes reuse is highest in Denmark whereas lowest in Finland.

  • 20.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Systematic literature review to develop a conceptual framework for a reuse-based clothing value chain2017In: The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A closed loop value chain is a concept that maximises a product’s utility both before and after end-of-life. This chain’s primary components are reuse, repair, up-cycling and down-cycling. This paper reviews the literature in the domain of ‘reuse’ to formulate and propose a conceptual framework for a ‘reuse-based clothing value chain’. We performed a systematic literature review in which a range of online databases were searched to select papers related to reuse between September 1994 and March 2015. Our review is presented broadly and in two parts: the first part provides a descriptive analysis of the articles, and the second part develops propositions based on the textual analysis. The review revealed that there are six primary drivers of the reuse-based clothing value chain: system, redesignability, price, information, legislation, and consumer attitude. Corresponding propositions highlight the key importance of system, product redesignability, product price, information, government legislation and consumer attitude to the economic success of the reuse-based clothing value chain. Finally, this work proposes a conceptual framework based on our propositions. This research may help scholars and practitioners to understand the current state of the literature. The list of references may be considered a source for future research in this area.

  • 21.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles-Leather and Industrial Management.
    Reuse based Closed Loop Clothing Value Chain: An Empirical investigation into Multinational Charities and Organizations of Norway, Sweden and UK2016In: Reuse based Closed Loop Clothing Value Chain: An Empirical investigation into Multinational Charities and Organizations of Norway, Sweden and UK, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper:

    The concept of closed loop value chain maximise the utilization of product. There are different ways to close the loop, reuse is most sustainable ways to do. Purpose of this paper are twofold; first to understand the activities of reuse based closed loop clothing value chain in Norway, Sweden and UK; and second to explore, how multinational charities and organizations in reuse based business can extract maximum values from discarded clothes.

     

    Design/methodology/approach:

    The present study adopted a single case study approach to understand the reverse logistics of clothes in three countries. Multiple sites were studied in different cultural environments to enhance the robustness of case study approach (Lau, 2012). Direct observation was made to understand the process in seven organizations. Eight face to face interviews were conducted with operation heads to understand the practices in-depth. These visits and interviews were made between September 2015 and February 2016. All interviews were transcribed and analysed with help of qualitative analysis software Nvivo 10. Different themes of value creation were categorised and used for cross-comparison of findings. Theoretical lens of resource based view has been used to understand to capability of a firm to extract maximum value from discarded clothes. In addition, we also examined the benefits of outsourcing different operations to supply chain partners in the absence of in-house facilities.

     

    Findings:

    Organizations endeavour to invent, re-invent and implement new ways to collect, sort and reprocess the used clothes. Collection events are organised in the different shopping malls to create awareness and increase the amount of collection. Contracts are signed with schools, local municipality, companies and postal departments to improve collection quality and quantity. After collection, the used garments are sorted and segregated into different categories. Sorting may be considered as one of the crucial stage which can provide competitive advantage to an organization in the second-hand clothing business (Ruiz-Torres, Ablanedo-Rosas, & Mukhopadhyay, 2013). Several firms had state-of-the-art machineries to simplify and handle the material management during sorting process efficiently. Some of the organizations are trying to have sensor based sophisticated technologies to reduce manual material handling. In contrast, a few companies have moved back to manual system to achieve high quality and productivity. Also, we observed that there is a scarcity of reprocessing facilities. As a result, a garment having small defects also gets mix up with discarded clothes. Some firms have small facility of washing and ironing, which is generally used for vintage garments.

     

    Success of an organization depends upon its ability to extract value from collected garments. Most of the firms are selling best quality of products in their own shops in the domestic markets while exporting inferior quality to developing counties. The second hand clothing companies are redefining their stores as an exclusive for vintage or redesign to improve domestic sales. Private labels have emerged to sale completely redesigned garments. Concept of selling products on the basis of weight in comparison to pieces has been adopted to move normal quality goods from retail stores. Some organizations have strengthened their own business network, hence they could get good price for the exported items. On the other hand, most of the selected firms export the used garments with the help of mediators located in Netherland, Belgium and Germany. The defected and damaged clothes are transported to energy station for incineration by paying small amount of user fees. A few organizations down cycle the damaged clothes to new products on their own or with the help of their supply chain partners. The reason that may be attributed is the lack of chemical and mechanical recycling facilities. A proper integration with recycling and rag making companies would enable organisations to obtain more value from textile waste and increase the revenue.

     

    Relevance/Contribution:

    The present study is an attempt to enhance the understanding of clothing reuse business in Norway, Sweden and UK. Every organisation try to acquire valuable and rare resources, like ‘one touch’ or sensors based sorting facility to get competitive advantage. The research also suggested that multinational charity and organisation performance mainly depends on its organizational ability to exploit resources available inside and outside the firms. Paras, Ekwall, and Pal (2015) case study focus on the local charity organisation those who have limited resources and organization skill. Resultantly value creation from collected goods is much less compare to value created by multinational charities and organisations. This can be implied that used clothing firms should focus on acquisition of valuable and rare resources to do effective collection and sorting. Firms should also organized resources within and outside firms by developing network throughout supply chain to maximise the revenue. This study is carried out in three European countries. It can be extended to other geographical region or more number of empirical evidence to achieve saturated result.

     

    References:

    Lau, K. H. (2012). Demand management in downstream wholesale and retail distribution: a case study. Supply Chain Management-an International Journal, 17(6), 638-654. doi:10.1108/13598541211269247

    Paras, M., Ekwall, D., & Pal, R. (2015). Testing a conceptual model of circular clothing value chain with product reuse in Swedish contest. Paper presented at the Global Cleaner Production & Sustainable Consumption Conference.

    Ruiz-Torres, a. J., Ablanedo-Rosas, J. H., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2013). Supplier allocation model for textile recycling operations. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 15(1), 108-124. doi:10.1504/IJLSM.2013.053241

  • 22.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wang, Lichuan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Chen, Yan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Curteza, Antonela
    “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Sustainable Application Based on Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Modularized Redesign Model in Apparel Reverse Supply Chain2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 3013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scarcity of natural resources and the problem of pollution have initiated the need for extending the life and use of existing products. The concept of the reverse supply chain provides an opportunity to recover value from discarded products. The potential for recovery and the improvement of value in the reverse supply chain of apparel has been barely studied. In this research, a novel modularized redesign model is developed and applied to the garment redesign process. The concept of modularization is used to extract parts from the end-of-use or end-of-life of products. The extracted parts are reassembled or reconstructed with the help of a proposed group genetic algorithm by using domain and industry-specific knowledge. Design fitness is calculated to achieve the optimal redesign. Subsequently, the practical relevance of the model is investigated with the help of an industrial case in Sweden. The case study finding reveals that the proposed method and model to calculate the design fitness could simplify the redesign process. The design fitness calculation is illustrated with the example of a polo t-shirt. The redesigned system-based modularization is in accordance with the practical situations because of its flexibility and viability to formulate redesign decisions. The grouping genetic algorithm could enable fast redesign decisions for designers.

1 - 22 of 22
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