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  • 1.
    Agnhage, Tove
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Perwuelz, A.
    Guan, J.P.
    Chen, G.Q.
    Eco-design innovative methods for fabric finishing2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Agnhage, Tove
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zhou, Yuyang
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Soochow University.
    Guan, Jinping
    Soochow University.
    Perwuelz, Anne
    ENSAIT.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT.
    Bioactive and multifunctional textile using plant-based madder dye: Characterization of UV protection ability and antibacterial activity2017In: Fibers And Polymers, ISSN 1229-9197, E-ISSN 1875-0052, ISSN 1229-9197, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 2170-2175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Artur, Cavaco-Paulo
    et al.
    University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
    Nierstrasz, VincentUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.Wang, QiangJiangnan University, Wuxi, China.
    Advances in Textile Biotechnology 2nd Edition2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Description

    Advances in Textile Biotechnology, Second Edition examines the latest in biotechnology for the fiber and textile industry. This new edition has been fully revised to include the current essential areas of development in the field, covering both natural and synthetic fibers. Chapters cover the latest technology in bioprocessing for bast fiber, PVA, polyester, wool and silk before exploring issues of enzyme stability. Essential areas of application and development are then considered, including biomedical textiles, silk materials for biotechnological applications, bacterial cellulose, the ink jetting of enzymes, and the role of enzymes, wool and silk fibers.

    Containing groundbreaking research, this book will be essential reading for manufacturers, designers and engineers in the textiles industry, textile and fiber scientists, and academic researchers and postgraduate students working in the area of textile technology.

    Key Features

    • Provides a thorough overview of current and future focuses of biotechnology in the fiber and textile industry
    • Presents fully revised content, with a new focus on biosynthesis and bioprocessing for novel textile fibers, both synthetic and natural
    • Enables readers to understand and utilize the benefits of biotechnology for the manufacture and production of textiles

    Readership

    Textile manufacturers, designers and engineers in the textile industry; textile and fibre scientists; academic researchers and postgraduate students in textile technology; experts in the biology, chemical and environmental engineering industries

  • 4. Billig, S.
    et al.
    Agrawal, P.B.
    Birkemeyer, C.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.
    Zimmerman, W.
    Biodegradation of diverse PET materials by polyester hydrolases from Thermobifida fusca and Fusarium solani2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effects of ink characteristics and piezo-electric inkjetting parameters on lysozyme activity2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 18252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing of enzymes can facilitate many novel applications where a small amount of materials need to be deposited in a precise and flexible manner. However, maintaining the satisfactory activity of inkjet printed enzyme is a challenging task due to the requirements of ink rheology and printhead parameters. Thus to find optimum inkjetting conditions we studied the effects of several ink formulation and jetting parameters on lysozyme activity using a piezoelectric printhead. Within linear activity range of protein concentrations ink containing 50 µg/mL lysozyme showed a satisfactory activity retention of 85%. An acceptable activity of jetted ink was found at pH 6.2 and ionic strength of 0.06 molar. Glycerol was found to be an effective viscosity modifier (10–15 mPa.s), humectant and protein structure stabilizer for the prepared ink. A non-ionic surfactant when used just below critical micelle concentration was found to be favourable for the jetted inks. An increase in activity retention was observed for inks jetted after 24 hours of room temperature incubation. However, no additional activity was seen for inkjetting above the room temperature. Findings of this study would be useful for formulating other protein-based inks and setting their inkjet printing parameters without highly compromising the functionality.

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  • 6.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Functionalization of textiles with enzymes by inkjet printing2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic activity of the enzymes can be introduced to textile surfaces for bio-sensing applications by immobilizing them through a resource-efficient deposition method such as inkjet printing [1]. Contrary to conventional dispensing methods, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can provide with high precision deposition of these enzymes along with flexibility for small-scale production [2]. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the inkjetting of enzymes are limited and often uses a modified/adapted commercial paper printer for jetting [3]. Additionally, the effect of ink formulation and printing condition variables on the activity of enzyme are not well explored. Many of such variables suggested for jetting of proteins [4] includes e.g. ink rheology, operating temperature, drop size retention, and the shear force acting on the ink. In our research effect of these variables are studied using a digital inkjet printer (Xennia Carnelian) with a Sapphire QS10 piezo-electric print head (Fujifilm Dimatix, USA). Lysozyme is used as a model enzyme for printing due to its well-known structure and catalytic mechanism. Effect of temperature and shear force development within the print head on lysozyme activity is investigated. Additionally, pre-treatment of the fabric to improve ink adhesion through various surface activation processes are studied. Finally, remaining activity of the printed enzymes over washing is evaluated to ensure the fastness property.

    Acknowledgment

    This research project is funded by University of Borås, Sweden.

    References

    [1]     Li J, Rossignol F, Macdonald J. Inkjet printing for biosensor fabrication: combining chemistry and technology for advanced manufacturing. Lab on a Chip 2015;15(12):2538-2558.

    [2]     Nierstrasz V, Yu J, Seipel S. Towards more flexible, sustainable and energy-efficient textile functionalization processes: Digital inkjet in functional and smart textile production. In: 9th Aachen-Dresden International Textile Conference 2015; 2015.

    [3]     Yamazoe H. Fabrication of protein micropatterns using a functional substrate with convertible protein-adsorption surface properties. J Biomed Mater Res A 2012;100(2):362-9.

    [4]     Delaney JT, Smith PJ, Schubert US. Inkjet printing of proteins. Soft Matter 2009;5(24):4866-4877.

  • 7.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjetting of Enzymes: Chapter 122019In: Advance in Textile Biotechnology 2nd edition / [ed] Artur Cavaco-Paulo, Vincent Nierstrasz, Qiang Wang, Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8. Ciera, L.
    et al.
    Beladjal, L.
    Almeras, X.
    Gheysens, T.
    Mertens, J.
    Nierstrasz, V.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, L.
    A model system to study resistance of biological compounds to melt extrusion process parameters.2013In: Proceedings of the 13th AUTEX World Textile  Conference, Dresden, Germany May 22-24  2013., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Ciera, L
    et al.
    Beladjal, L
    Almeras, X
    Gheysens, T
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, L
    Mertens, J
    Resistance of Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens spores to melt extrusion process conditions2014In: Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, ISSN 1230-3666, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing demand for functionalised textile materials, industry is focusing on research that will add novel properties to textiles. Bioactive compounds and their benefits have been and are still considered as a possible source of unique functionalities to be explored. However, incorporating bioactive compounds into textiles and their resistance to textile process parameters has not yet been studied. In this study, we developed a system to study the resistance of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores against melt extrusion process parameters, like temperature (21, 200, 250, 300 °C), pressure (0.1, 0.6 and 1.0 MPa) and residence time (0, 1 and 10 minutes). The spores were successfully embedded in PET (polyethylene terephthalate) films and fibres through melt extrusion. Afterwards the survival rate of the spores was determined after extrusion and the data was used to develop a quadratic equation that relates the survival rate to the spore concentration.

  • 10. Ciera, L.
    et al.
    Beladjal, L.
    Almeras, X.
    Gheysens, T.
    Van Landuyt, L.
    Mertens, J.
    Nierstrasz, V.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, L.
    Morphological and material properties of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) fibres with spores incorporated2014In: Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, ISSN 1230-3666, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the current demand for textiles with new functionalities and improved properties, there has been a continuous effort to modify Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) materials. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores can be incorporated into PET fibres during extrusion. However, the extent to which they can be incorporated without fundamentally changing the properties of the fibres is unknown. In this work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a Favimat tensile tester, and Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to study the properties of PET/spore fibres. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break were dependent on the spore concentration. Additionally the degree of crystallinity increased slightly, whereas the melting and crystallisation temperatures remained constant at all spore concentration levels. Nevertheless the properties of the fibres fall within the acceptable range of variation and are found to be as good as normal PET fibres.

  • 11. Ciera, Lucy
    et al.
    Gheysens, Tom
    Almeras, Xavier
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, Lieva
    Bio-based mosquito repellent textiles to fight malaria and dengue2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12. Ciera, Lucy
    et al.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, Lieva
    NO BUG: Biobased mosquitoes repellent personal protective equipment (PPE)2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In tropical regions (South America, Asia and Africa) diseases like malaria and dengue cause many deaths. These diseases are transmitted through mosquitoes bites (Anopheles sp. and Aedes aegypti respectively). The current practice to protect against transmission of these diseases is by use of mosquito repellents. Common mosquito repellents used today are synthetic in nature and are suspected or have been proved to be harmful to the user and environment (e.g. DEET, DDT, dimethylphylphthalate, parathion etc). This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and bio-based utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. To solve the problems associated with the synthetic repellents, novel bio-repellents will be identified and an innovative slow release system established. Our aim is to develop a novel insect repellent personal protective equipment to be used by professional travelers (education, business, research, volunteers, missionary and peace corps) when they travel for duty in mosquito prone areas. The target mosquitoes are Anopheles stephensi which cause malaria and Aedes aegypti that transmit dengue.

  • 13.
    Dural-Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biswas, Tuser
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Incorporation of probiotics on textile surface by sol–gel coating2018In: Journal of Industrial Textiles, ISSN 1528-0837, E-ISSN 1530-8057, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 954-965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of biocide-based antimicrobial textiles is proving to be a concern for the economy, and more evidently, for the environment and health. On the contrary, probiotic (beneficial bacteria) can replace these traditional biocides in order to overcome the toxicity and resistance problems. This paper elaborates an adapted sol-gel coating process to embed such beneficial spores on the polyester woven surface, and their viability is studied along with the characterization of the physical properties of the coated fabric. The results illustrate the successful incorporation of the beneficial spores with an adequate number of living organisms (even after repeated washing cycles), sufficient tensile strength, and good abrasion resistance properties with the opportunity to improve surface wettability maintaining sufficient adhesion between the fibre and the coated layer.

  • 14. Dural-Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    Niehaus, Kim-Laura
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of Probiotic Printings for Polyester Fabrics.2018In: Journal of Textiles and Engineer (Tekstil ve Mühendis), ISSN 1300-7599, Vol. 25, no 111, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Dural-Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of coating for incorporation of beneficial spores on hospital textiles2018In: Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, ISSN 1230-3666, Vol. 5, no 131, p. 59-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Dural-Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wessman, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Husmark, Ulrika
    SCA Hygiene Products AB.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biocontrol of solid surfaces in hospitals using microbial-based wipes2019In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hospital-acquired infections have become a major challenge which threaten the hospitalized patients’ safety. The presence of nosocomial pathogens is generally reported in connection with solid surfaces near patient environments. These surfaces become significant sources of transmission and lead most often to the contamination and cross-contamination of nosocomial pathogens to the patients and staff. This paper investigates strategies to apply beneficial bacteria on viscose-based nonwoven wipes and the viability of these beneficial bacteria on the wipes along with characterization of the physical properties of the wipes. Major findings include that it is possible to produce dry wipes which contain an adequate number of beneficial bacteria or spores. After these wipes are wetted, they can release a certain number of bacteria from the wetted wipes. These released beneficial bacteria can inhibit pathogens by growing and colonizing on the wiped surfaces.

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  • 17.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Chen, Yan
    University of Soochow.
    Guan, Jinping
    University of Soochow.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Stress, strain and deformation of poly-lactic acid filament deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate woven fabric through 3D printing process2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 14333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although direct deposition of polymeric materials onto textiles through 3D printing is a great technique used more and more to develop smart textiles, one of the main challenges is to demonstrate equal or better mechanical resistance, durability and comfort than those of the textile substrates before deposition process. This article focuses on studying the impact of the textile properties and printing platform temperature on the tensile and deformations of non-conductive and conductive poly lactic acid (PLA) filaments deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textiles through 3D printing process and optimizing them using theoretical and statistical models. The results demonstrate that the deposition process affects the tensile properties of the printed textile in comparison with the ones of the textiles. The stress and strain at rupture of the first 3D printed PLA layer deposited onto PET textile material reveal to be a combination of those of the printed layer and the PET fabric due to the lower flexibility and diffusion of the polymeric printed track through the textile fabric leading to a weak adhesion at the polymer/textile interface. Besides, printing platform temperature and textile properties influence the tensile and deformation properties of the 3D printed PLA on PET textile significantly. Both, the washing process and the incorporation of conductive fillers into the PLA do not affect the tensile properties of the extruded polymeric materials. The elastic, total and permanent deformations of the 3D-printed PLA on PET fabrics are lower than the ones of the fabric before polymer deposition which demonstrates a better dimensional stability, higher stiffness and lower flexibility of these materials.

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  • 18.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chen, Yan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Guan, Jinping
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    GEMTEX–Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles.
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Study of the Wear Resistance of Conductive Poly Lactic Acid Monofilament 3D Printed onto Polyethylene Terephthalate Woven Materials2020In: Materials, Vol. 10, no 13, article id 2334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear resistance of conductive Poly Lactic Acid monofilament 3D printed onto textiles, through Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and their electrical conductivity after abrasion are important to consider in the development of smart textiles with preserved mechanical and electrical properties. The study aims at investigating the weight loss after abrasion and end point of such materials, understanding the influence of the textile properties and 3D printing process parameters and studying the impact of the abrasion process on the electrical conductivity property of the 3D printed conductive polymers onto textiles. The effects of the 3D printing process and the printing parameters on the structural properties of textiles, such as the thickness of the conductive Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile and the average pore sizes of its surface are also investigated. Findings demonstrate that the textile properties, such as the pattern and the process settings, for instance, the printing bed temperature, impact significantly the abrasion resistance of 3D printed conductive Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) onto PET woven textiles. Due to the higher capacity of the surface structure and stronger fiber-to-fiber cohesion, the 3D printed conductive polymer deposited onto textiles through Fused Deposition Modeling process have a higher abrasion resistance and lower weight loss after abrasion compared to the original fabrics. After printing the mean pore size, localized at the surface of the 3D-printed PLA onto PET textiles, is five to eight times smaller than the one of the pores localized at the surface of the PET fabrics prior to 3D printing. Finally, the abrasion process did considerably impact the electrical conductivity of 3D printed conductive PLA onto PET fabric.

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  • 19.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chen, Yan
    University of Soochow.
    Guan, Jinping
    University of Soochow.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Optimization of adhesion of poly lactic acid 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate wovenfabrics through modelling using textile properties2019In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to evaluate and simulate the impact of the build platform temperature of the three-dimensional (3D) printer, the structure and heat transfer of textiles on the adhesion and durability after washing properties of 3D printed polymer onto textile materials using thin layers of conductive and non-conductive extruded poly lactic acid monofilaments (PLA) deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) woven fabrics through fused deposition modeling (FDM) process.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Prior to FDM process, thermal conductivity, surface roughness and mean pore size of PET woven fabrics were assessed using the “hot disk,” the profilometer and the capillary flow porometry methods, respectively. After the FDM process, the adhesion and durability after the washing process properties of the materials were determined and optimized based on reliable statistical models connecting those properties to the textile substrate properties such as surface roughness, mean pore size and thermal conductivity.

    Findings

    The main findings point out that higher roughness coefficient and mean pore size and lower thermal conductivity of polyester woven textile materials improve the adhesion properties and the build platform presents a quadratic effect. Additionally, the adhesion strength decreases by half after the washing process and rougher and more porous textile structures demonstrate better durability. These results are explained by the surface topography of textile materials that define the anchorage areas between the printed layer and the textiles.

    Originality/value

    This study is for great importance in the development of smart textiles using FDM process as it presents unique and reliable models used to optimize adhesion resistance of 3D printed PLA primary layer onto PET textiles.

  • 20.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Campagne, Christine
    Zeng, Xianyi
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Guan, Jinping
    Chen, Yan
    Correlation between heat transfer of polyester textiles and its adhesion with 3D-printed extruded thermoplastic filaments2018In: 18th AUTEX World Textile Conference, June 20-22, 2018, Istanbul, Turkey / [ed] IOP publishers, 2018, p. 118-121, article id 3132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FDM technology used for printing functionalized layers on textiles brought new challenges such as the understanding and the improvement of the adhesion performance of the thermoplastic filaments on synthetic textile materials. In addition to the impact of printing parameters, the correlation between the heat transfer and structure of the textile material and the adhesion performance after varying printer platform temperature was an important parameter considered in this paper. A factorial design, using material density, direction, and structure and platform temperature as factors, was followed. 3D-printed materials made of PLA filaments deposited on polyester woven and knit materials were manufactured on a dual-head printer and their adhesion was measured according to DIN EN ISO 13937-2 and ISO 11339 and the heat transfer of the fabrics according to ASTM D4966-98, ISO 6330 and ISO 22007-2. The findings showed that the heat transfer and structure of textile materials affect the adhesion properties of the 3D-printed material.

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  • 21.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Christine, Campagne
    ENSAIT.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    ENSAIT.
    Aurelie, Cayla
    ENSAIT.
    CHEN, Yan
    Soochow university.
    Guan, Jinping
    Soochow university.
    Study of the electrical resistance of conductive PLA deposited onto fabrics through 3D printing2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, conductive tracks are integrated onto textiles through Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process and the correlation between the FDM process parameters, the textile properties (the porosity and the structure for instance) and the electrical resistance of the composites is investigated. Many researchers have studied the electrical conductivity of polymers composites using incorporation of conductive fillers such as carbon black or carbon nanotube–polymer composites and the effect of the 3D printing process parameters, such as extruder temperature, on the electrical properties [1–7]. However, in this paper, in addition to study and understand the electrical properties of these conductive materials deposited onto textiles, they are maximized to guarantee the use of the textile composites in smart textiles field.Findings are very promising and important in the development of functionalized textiles as they demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing the electrical conductivity of textile composite materials through theoretical models based on the experimental data.

  • 22.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yan, Guan
    University of Soochow.
    Guan, Jinping
    University of Soochow.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Adhesion improvement of conductive poly-lactic acid filament 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate fabric through chemical bonding2019In: Adhesion improvement of conductive poly-lactic acid filament 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate fabric through chemical bonding, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of conductive poly-lactic acid filament (PLA) 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics is a one of the fundamental properties to guarantee their use in smart textiles field. The conductive PLA layer is made of carbon black (CB) incorporated into PLA polymer prior to extrusion process. It is commonly known that due to the low surface tensions of polymeric materials, 3D printed conductive PLA onto PET textiles possess poor adhesion. Therefore, an improvement of this property, even already approached by some researchers (1–6), is still highly required. In this research work, a pre and post-treatments were applied to significantly improve the adhesion strength at the interface polymeric layer/textile compared to former techniques used in other researches such as plasma treatment; coating of glue stick, washing and ironing processes. The pre-treatment consists in grafting acetic acid by UV curing onto both PET fabric and PLA filament through digital printing and deep coating respectively and then applying a solution pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) on the fabric via digital printing. After 3D printing process on textiles, heat and pressure were applied on the materials using a heat press to chemically bond the PLA layer to the PET fabric. The findings are very promising as they demonstrate the possibility of significantly improving the adhesion of thermoplastic polymer 3D printed on textiles for smart textiles applications. Compared to other alternative solutions, these findings can potentially be implemented, in the future, by using 3D printing technology for pre-treatment and printing processes followed by thermo-compression technique for complete chemical bonding.

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  • 23.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adhesion of polymers on textile fabrics using 3D print technology with fused deposition modelling technique2015In: Proceedings of the 9th Aachen-Dresden International Textile Conference, 2015, p. 198-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Investigation of the adhesion properties of direct 3D printing of polymers and nanocomposites on textiles: Effect of FDM printing process parameters.2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 403, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, 3D printing as a novel printing process was considered for deposition of polymers on synthetic fabrics to introduce more flexible, resource-efficient and cost effective textile functionalization processes than conventional printing process like screen and inkjet printing. The aim is to develop an integrated or tailored production process for smart and functional textiles which avoid unnecessary use of water, energy, chemicals and minimize the waste to improve ecological footprint and productivity. Adhesion of polymer and nanocomposite layers which were 3D printed directly onto the textile fabrics using fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique was investigated. Different variables which may affect the adhesion properties including 3D printing process parameters, fabric type and filler type incorporated in polymer were considered. A rectangular shape according to the peeling standard was designed as 3D computer-aided design (CAD) to find out the effect of the different variables. The polymers were printed in different series of experimental design: nylon on polyamide 66 (PA66) fabrics, polylactic acid (PLA) on PA66 fabric, PLA on PLA fabric, and finally nanosize carbon black/PLA (CB/PLA) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes/PLA (CNT/PLA) nanocomposites on PLA fabrics. The adhesion forces were quantified using the innovative sample preparing method combining with the peeling standard method. Results showed that different variables of 3D printing process like extruder temperature, platform temperature and printing speed can have significant effect on adhesion force of polymers to fabrics while direct 3D printing. A model was proposed specifically for deposition of a commercial 3D printer Nylon filament on PA66 fabrics. In the following, among the printed polymers, PLA and its composites had high adhesion force to PLA fabrics.

  • 25.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation on the effect of different variables of 3D printing process on adhesion of polymers to fabrics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, 3D printing as an alternative to conventional printing processes like inkjet printing and screen printing was considered for deposition of polymers on fabrics. The 3D printing process parameters were optimized to deposit film and patterns on fabric. Different parameters such as extruder temperature, platform temperature and printing speed showed significant various effects on adhesion force of polymers to fabrics.

  • 26.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Manufacturing of Poly lactic acid conductive composites for 3D printing2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    3D printed polymers and nanocomposites on textiles: characterization and adhesion properties2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    3D printing on fabrics: a novel process for functional and smart textiles2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Manufacturing of polylactic acid nanocomposite 3D printer filaments for smart textile applications2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, manufacturing of polylactic acid nanocomposite 3D printer filaments was considered for smart textile applications. 3D printing process was applied as a novel process for deposition of nanocomposites on PLA fabrics to introduce more flexible, resourceefficient and cost effective textile functionalization processes than conventional printing process like screen and inkjet printing. The aim is to develop an integrated or tailored production process for smart and functional textiles which avoid unnecessary use of water, energy, chemicals and minimize the waste to improve ecological footprint and productivity.

  • 30.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Morphological and electrical characterization of conductive polylactic acid based nanocomposite before and after FDM 3D printing2018In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 136, no 6, p. 1044-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing holds strong potential for the formation of a new class of multifunctional nanocomposites. Therefore, both the nanocomposites and 3D printing communities need to make more collaborations and innovations for developing and processing of new polymers and composites to get benefit of functionalities of 3D printed nanocomposites. The contribution of this paper is the creation of 3D printable filaments from conductive polymer nanocomposites using a melt mixing process. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and high-structured carbon black (Ketjenblack) (KB) were incorporated into polylactic acid. The percolation threshold of MWNT composites is 0.54 wt.% and of KB composites is 1.7 wt.% by four-point resistance measurement method. In the similar melt mixing process, there was no dependence of diameter of produced 3D printer filaments on the MWNT loading, instead the diameter was dependent on the KB loading and increased with increasing the filler amount. The conductivity of extruded filaments from 3D printer in low filler contents decreases with increasing extruder temperature, yet in higher filler contents there is no effect of extruder temperature on conductivity. Finally, the resistance decreases exponentially with the increase of cross sectional area of 3D printed tracks.

  • 31.
    Iyer, Sweta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT.
    Guan, Jinping
    Soochow university.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Toward Bioluminescent Materials by Plasma Treatment of Microfibrous Nonwovens, Followed by Immobilization of One or Both Enzyme(s) (Luciferase and FMN Reductase) Involved in Luminescent Bacteria2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, ISSN 2543-3440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioluminescent living organisms emit light through a specific biocatalyzed reaction involving a luciferin substrate and a luciferase enzyme. The present work investigated the possibility of creating optimal luminescence by immobilization of one or both the enzymes Luciferase (Luc) and FMN reductase (Red) involved in a bioluminescent bacterial system onto a plasma-activated microfibrous PET nonwoven. Parameters affecting the catalytic activity and efficiency of the bacterial system in aqueous medium were determined by luminescence intensity measurements using a luminometer. Two types of plasma, air atmospheric plasma (ATMP) and cold remote plasma (CRPNO) treatment, were used to activate the PET nonwoven. Further, one or both enzyme(s) were immobilized using a physical adsorption technique, without or with the use of natural biopolymers (gelatin and starch) and bovine serum albumin-BSA protein, to improve enzyme stability and activity. Coimmobilization of both Red and Luc enzymes on the CRPNO plasma-activated nonwoven in the presence of BSA led to the maximum luminescence. As high as 60,000 RLU equivalent to that of an LED light used for calibration was observed and showed stable intensity up to 6 min. Fiber surface analysis was tested using wettability tests (water contact angle and capillary uptake), while scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis showed changes in fiber surface morphology and chemical functional groups. A considerable increase in “N” atom content after coimmobilization of enzymes in the presence of BSA was detected. This study is the first successful attempt to use a biomimetic strategy for immobilization of enzymes involved in bacterial luminescence on a plasma-activated microfibrous nonwoven in an attempt to attain bioluminescent materials.

  • 32.
    Iyer, Sweta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT, GEMTEX.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bio-inspired approaches to design bio-luminescent textiles2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luminescent textiles are being increasingly used in apparel and sportswear aswell as in buildings, agriculture and automotives, for safety alert or forillumination or as a design feature[1]. Till now these luminescent textiles havebeen based on technologies such as LED, luminescent particles (rare earthmetals and metal oxides), which are not so eco‐friendly[2].Bio‐inspired strategies can provide efficient methods to achieve eco friendlybioluminescent textiles. Research projects have explored ways which aremainly based on culture of bioluminescent algae[3] or bacteria on textiles.Here we present another approach to achieve bioluminesence using biobasedproducts from various living organisms such as fireflies, fungi, earthwormsthat are found in land and in jelly fishes, shrimps, dinoflagellates, corals inmarine environment [4]. In order to mimic the luminescence effect seen innature, reaction mechanisms in various bioluminescent living organisms arestudied and the components or molecules responsible for luminescence areidentified [5‐10]. Most of the time, these involve enzymatic reactions.However the main challenge is to reproduce the bioluminescent mechanismand to adapt it to new materials which can yield some eco efficient bioinspired luminescent textiles.

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  • 33.
    Iyer, Sweta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nemeshwaree, Behary
    ENSAIT-GEMTEX.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Measurement of luminescence intensity on textiles using Luminous bacterial biocatalytic system2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature is the most exquisite thing around us with the existence of living organisms exhibiting different phenomena such as water repel/ency, touch sensitive plant and chameleon skin. Some of these phenomena inspired scientists to explore and design smart fabrics biomimicking the behaviour or pattern in living organisms. Bioluminescence is one such phenomenon where-in different living organisms such as firefly, jelly fish and crustaceans have the ability to impart visible light of specific wavelength, by enzyme catalysed reactions. Existence and study of such light emitting living organisms have been carried out, and harnessing these reactions has already transformed significant areas of medical field and clinical diagnosis, but research work on transforming this into living light is limited. In the present study, luminous bacterial system was investigated to assess and detect the bioluminescence behaviour onto the textile material. In the Luminous bacterial system, in vivo biochemical mecha­nism involves two different enzymes as well as different substrate components. Emission of light due to in vivo luminous bacterial reaction mechanism is seen in visible region. For in vitro reaction mechanism study, physical adsorption technique was used to graft both enzymes on plasma activated PET nonwoven textile and when substrates were introduced manually during the analysis, the biochemical reaction leading to light production occured. A Luminometer equipment was used to determine the light intensity in terms of Relative light units (RLU). The measurement results were obtained for nonwoven plasma treated PET with enzyme and substrate addition at different concentration and RLU value was obtained. The analysis data revealed that light intensity in RLU could be recorded by introducing both the enzymes and substrates on textile material, however intensive research is required in order to observe emitted light through the naked eye. The research study will help to attain

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  • 34.
    IYER, SWETA
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Photoluminescent textile using biobased riboflavin derivative (FMN)2018In: 18th AUTEX World Textile Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2018, p. 1-4, article id 3471Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Riboflavin derivative such as Flavin mononucleotide possesses distinctive biological and physicochemical properties such as photosensitivity, redox activity and fluorescence. Flavin mononucleotide widely known as FMN is a biomolecule having molecular formula as C17H20N4NaO9P and is produced from biobased riboflavin by enzymatic reaction in living organisms. In contrast to riboflavin which is sparingly soluble in water, FMN is highly water soluble due to the presence of an ionic phosphate group. The presence of isoalloxazine ring in FMN is responsible for its properties such as UV absorption and fluorescence. This study evaluates the potential use of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for production of photoluminescent textile.

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    Photoluminescent textile using biobased riboflavin derivative (FMN)
  • 35.
    Iyer, Sweta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT.
    Guan, Jinping
    Soochow university.
    Chen, Guoqiang
    Soochow university.
    Study of photoluminescence property on cellulosic fabric using multifunctional biomaterials riboflavin and its derivative Flavin mononucleotide2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, no 9, article id 8696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavins are ubiquitous in nature and participate in various biochemical reactions mainly in the form of coenzyme Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or as precursor such as Riboflavin (RF). Both flavins, RF and FMN are multifunctional bio-based molecules yielding yellow coloration and exhibit photoluminescence, UV protection, and redox properties. The aim of the present research study was to investigate the diffusion method as a technique to obtain photoluminescent cellulosic fabric using multifunctional RF and FMN. The photoluminescent moiety RF and FMN exhibited three maximum absorbance peaks at about 270 nm, 370 nm and 446 nm in aqueous solution at pH 7. The solutions of RF and FMN with concentration 4% and 20% (owf) at pH 7 were prepared and used in diffusion method for cellulosic fabric dyeing. The study involved the determination of color performance and evaluation of luminescence property of the dyed fabric using UV-visible spectrophotometer and photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. Under monochromatic UV lamp exposure emitting at 370 nm, the dyed fabric showed an intense emission of greenish yellow color, which was later confirmed by the intense photoluminescence observed at a wavelength of about 570 nm. The study demonstrates the theoretical evaluation of quantum efficiency (φ) obtaining maximum φ value of 0.28. Higher color strength value and improved wash fastness were obtained by treatment with different biobased mordants such as tannic acid and citric acid as well as calcium chloride for both RF and FMN. Additionally, ultraviolet (UV) protection ability for both RF and FMN dyed fabric were determined and showed UPF factor of 50+ and 35 respectively. The work allowed us to explore the photoluminescence property of riboflavin and Flavin mononucleotide for its application in the field of textiles as a new scope of producing photoluminescent textile along with multifunctional properties such as coloration and UV protection.

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  • 36.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Université de Lille, Nord de France, France.
    Aurélie, Cayla
    Université de Lille, Nord de France, France.
    Brigitte, Mutel
    Université de Lille, Nord de France, France.
    Jinping, Guan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surface modification of carbon felt by cold remote plasma for glucose oxidase enzyme immobilization2019In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 467, p. 1016-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their chemical inertness and poor hydrophobicity, carbon-based materials are widely used in electrochemical applications due to their robustness, good electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. The purpose of the work carried was to increase the wettability of nonwoven carbon fiber felts for improved efficiency in bio/electrochemical applications. Virgin Carbon Felt (VCF) was first treated with cold remote plasma (CRP) using a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (1 or 2 %) as plasma gas.  Bio-functionalization of the carbon felts with glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was then carried using physical adsorption method. FTIR and XPS analysis showed an integration of new oxygenated functional groups (C-O and C=O) as well as amines and amides on the surface of VCF treated by the CRP treatment, which improved the wettability of the samples. Capillary uptake increased from around 0 % (for VCF) to nearly 750 % with 2 % oxygen in plasma gas. GOx enzyme showed higher activity after immobilization at pH 5.5 on the CRP treated samples, maintaining up to 50 % of its initial enzymatic activity after six cycles while with the VCF, no enzymatic activity was observed after the fourth cycle. These obtained felts can be used as electrodes in sustainable bioprocesses.

  • 37.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT .
    Cayla, Aurélie
    ENSAIT.
    Guan, Jinping
    Soochow University .
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bio-Electro-Fenton for the Treatment of Textile Wastewater2018In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Fiber and Polymer Biotechnology / [ed] Jürgen Andreaus, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 73-74, article id OP 22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT.
    Cayla, Aurélie
    ENSAIT.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bio-Fenton and Bio-Electro-Fenton as sustainable methods for degrading organic pollutants in wastewater2018In: Process Biochemistry, ISSN 1359-5113, E-ISSN 1873-3298, Vol. 64C, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an overview of the bio-Fenton and bio-electro-Fenton processes for sustainable wastewater treatment is provided. These two methods have been used in recent years to treat many kinds of persistent pollutants while maintaining the sustainability in materials and power consumption compared to conventional methods, through efficient eco-designed systems. The different kinds of electrodes used for the bio-electro-Fenton are reviewed, along with the influencing factors affecting the efficiency of these methods, and the different designs used to construct the reactors. Moreover, the various organic pollutants from industrial sources, like effluents from textile and pesticides facilities, treated using these processes are also reported. However, the main challenge facing these technologies is to improve their performance, stability and lifetime to achieve more sustainable and cost-effective wastewater treatment on pilot and large scales. Hence, future perspectives and trends are discussed to overcome the drawbacks of these methods.

  • 39.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Melvinsson, Rebecca
    Malm, Veronica
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wand, Charlie
    The University of Manchester · School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science.
    Tahir, Mohammad Waseem
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Stigh, Ulf
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Melt Spun PVDF Actuator Fibres: the Effect of Spin-Line Orientation and MW on Actuation2015In: Regional Conference Polymer Processing Society Graz 2015: Book of Abstracts, 2015, p. 306-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the melt spinning and characterisation of polymer actuator fibres; fibres that reversibly contract along the fibre axis in response to heat. Recently, Haines et al (1) showed that low-cost filaments, e.g. fishing lines, can be relevant precursors for artificial muscles. They demonstrated a reversible fibre-direction thermal contraction, which was significantly amplified when the fibres were twisted and coiled. The effect was explained to result from an increase in the conformational entropy of the amorphous phase. In earlier studies on negative thermal expansion in anisotropic polymer structures, it has been shown that the negative thermal expansion in oriented highly crystalline polymers approaches values typical of polymer crystals (2).

     

    To further investigate the mechanisms behind these seemingly simple artificial muscles, we have melt spun fibres from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) – Solef  1006 and 1008 kindly provided by Solvay (Milan, Italy) – and compared their properties to a commercially available PVDF-fishing line. The fibres were characterised with respect to their thermal actuation properties, crystal morphology and degree of orientation along the spin-line axis.

     

    We have further done modelling on the molecular and macroscopic levels examining the possible mechanisms of negative thermal expansion in semi-crystalline PVDF. We believe that tie molecules (a polymer chain linking two crystalline regions) are the predominant factor influencing actuation. Two mechanisms are considered: an entropic effect and a conformational change effect. The entropic effect causes an increase in the elastic stiffness with an increase in temperature, effectively resulting in a contraction of a strained fibre. The conformational change effect is also expected to contribute to contraction as tie molecules, under strain, revert to their unloaded preferred conformation when heated.

    1. C. S. Haines et al., Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread. Science 343, 868-872 (2014).
    2. C. L. Choy et al., Negative Thermal Expansion in Oriented Crystalline Polymers. Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition 19, 335-352 (1981).
  • 40.
    Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterisation of Electrical and Stiffness Properties of Conductive Textile Coatings with Metal Flake-Shaped Fillers2019In: Materials, ISSN ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 21, p. 1-18, article id 3537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two conductive formulations containing different types of micron-sized metal flakes (silver-coated copper (Cu) and pure silver (Ag)) were characterised and used to form highly electrically conductive coatings (conductors) on plain and base-coated woven fabrics, the latter in an encapsulated construction. With e-textiles as the intended application, the fabric stiffness, in terms of flexural stiffness and sheet resistance (Rsh), after durability testing (laundering and abrasion) was investigated and related to user friendliness and long-term performance. Bare and encapsulated conductors with increasing amounts of deposited solids were fabricated by adjusting the knife coating parameters, such as the coating gap height (5, 20, 50, and 200 μm), which reduced the Rsh, as determined by four-point probe (4PP) measurements; however, this improvement was at the expense of increased flexural stiffness of the coated fabrics. The addition of a melamine derivative (MF) as a cross-linker to the Cu formulation and the encapsulation of both conductor types gave the best trade-off between durability and Rsh, as confirmed by 4PP measurements. However, the infrared camera images revealed the formation of hotspots within the bare conductor matrix, although low resistances (determined by 4PP) and no microstructural defects (determined by SEM) were detected. These results stress the importance of thorough investigation to assure the design of reliable conductors applied on textiles requiring this type of maintenance.

  • 41.
    Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Electrical resistance characterisations and durability of textile coatings containing metal flake fillers2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42. Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterisation of Electrical and Stiffness Properties of Conductive Textile Coatings with Metal Flake-shaped Fillers2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 21, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two conductive formulations containing different types of micron-sized metal flakes (silver-coated copper (Cu) and pure silver (Ag)) were characterised and used to form highly electrically conductive coatings (conductors) on plain and base-coated woven fabrics, the latter in an encapsulated construction. With e-textiles as the intended application, the fabric stiffness, in terms of flexural stiffness and sheet resistance (Rsh), after durability testing (laundering and abrasion) was investigated and related to user friendliness and long-term performance. Bare and encapsulated conductors with increasing amounts of deposited solids were fabricated by adjusting the knife coating parameters, such as the coating gap height (5, 20, 50, and 200 μm), which reduced the Rsh, as determined by four-point probe (4PP) measurements; however, this improvement was at the expense of increased flexural stiffness of the coated fabrics. The addition of a melamine derivative (MF) as a cross-linker to the Cu formulation and the encapsulation of both conductor types gave the best trade-off between durability and Rsh, as confirmed by 4PP measurements. However, the infrared camera images revealed the formation of hotspots within the bare conductor matrix, although low resistances (determined by 4PP) and no microstructural defects (determined by SEM) were detected. These results stress the importance of thorough investigation to assure the design of reliable conductors applied on textiles requiring this type of maintenance.

  • 43.
    Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fused deposition modelling – Towards 3D printed electrodes on fabric for surface electromyography (sEMG)2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring has promising applications within the field of human robot communication where wearable electrodes are used as the interface. This research investigates the production of flexible 3D printed electrodes using electrically conductive filaments, of thermoplastic polyurethane containing carbon black, and polyester fabric as substrate. Dry 3D printed electrodes of varying thickness, due to increased number of layers, were compared to conventional electrolytic gel electrodes. Initial tests show that the volume resistivity of 3D printed electrodes increased with increased number of layers. This because, with increased number of layers the diffusion between layers deteriorates and hinders conductive particle connections. Additional heat-treatments using hot press plates to improve diffusion between layers were promising as volume resistivity decreased with 200 % for all samples. As a first step to evaluate the 3D printed electrodes, skin-electrode impedance measurements were performed, and compared with measurements of conventional electrodes. Results showed that resistance and reactance versus frequency curves had similar trending slopes, decreasing with increasing frequency. However, this corresponded only between the thinnest (200 μm) 3D-printed dry electrode having a volume resistivity of 6.2 Ω cm and the conventional gel electrode. Future studies regarding the influence of platform and extruder temperature are planned for, focusing on improved diffusion between layers and increased conduction for proper electron transfer. 

  • 44. Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Stability of encapsulated electrical interconnections coated on fabric exposed to mechanical strain.In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, two different conductive coating formulation containing silver (Ag) and silver-coated copper (Cu) flakes are studied to evaluate the electromechanical stabilityof encapsulated conductors coated on textiles in a multilayer construction. Consideringe-textiles as a possible application area with integrated conductors functioning as interconnections, the purpose is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the deformation behaviour when subjected to tensile and compressive strains during bending. The results show that an increased Ag conductor thickness with flakes <5 μm was a favourable combination regardless of encapsulation thickness providing samples with minimal stress responses upon bending deformations at angles of -180°, -90°, 90°and 180°, and, sheet resistance (Rsh) values of 0.01 Ω/sq. It was shown that the conductor layer changed shape depending on the bending angle resulting in alternating convex and concave arcs at -180° and a more uniform curvature at 180°. The findings were correlated to lower and larger Rsh ratios, respectively, which are denoted as the thinner encapsulated Ag conductors and the Cu conductors of different thicknesses, respectively. Up to ten repetitive bendings at angles between -180° and 180° did however induce stresses within the material resulting in an increased Rsh by a factor of>10.

  • 45.
    Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Tadesse Abate, Molla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seipel, Sina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: A Sustainable Medium For Textile Dyeing And Finishing To Expand The Possibilities For A Resource Efficient Production Technology2019In: Autex 19th World Textile Conference: Textiles at the Crossroads, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In our research group focusing on resource efficient processes, we explore the waterless supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) technology as a promising sustainable alternative to the traditional textile wet dyeing and water based finishing processes. Already, it is industrially implemented for textile dyeing, in particular for synthetic fabrics, and, being a dry color process it is regarded as only using ¼ of the physical footprint compared to conventional dyeing. This, does not only account for water and energy savings, but also includes advantages such as reduced emissions of harmful effluents, less amount of used dye, no or minimal use of auxiliaries (dispersing agents, carriers and surfactants) and low waste of material. To expand the industrial capabilities of this technology and open up for new business opportunities, our research focuses on textile functionalization in SC-CO2, either by only applying a functional material or to combine dyeing and functionalization of fabric in a single-step process. For polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric dyeing (step 1) and functionalization (step 2) in a sequential process where similar processing parameters (high temperature and pressure) was used, it was found that the color was extracted in the second step. The PET dyeing kinetics using SC-CO2 as a solvent depend on the transition in the amorphous regions of the fiber and diffusion properties and solvating power of the SC-CO2 with the dye. Hence, extensive studies on compatibility between fiber, dye and functional compounds include solubility of dye and functional material in SC-CO2, optimization of process parameters (pressure and temperature) and depressurization. This is crucial for understanding the adhesion mechanism between fiber and chemicals, and, particularly for a proper adhesion with a durable functional performance. Furthermore, as SC-CO2 is a good solvent for hydrophobic compounds, nonionics and organic compounds with low molecules weight, there are challenges in modifying conventional compound or using co-solvents. Activities within this domain in our research group stretch between dyeing and functionalization of textiles with end-use properties such as antimicrobial, photochromic, moisture management, water repellency, soil repellency and flame retardant.

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    sammanfattning
  • 46.
    Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swerea IVF, Department of Textile and Plastics.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Flexible and durable highly conductive coatings for smart textile applications2015In: Bio-Boosting Today's Technology, 2015, p. 1-199Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to develop highly conductive coating compounds for the emergence of comfortable and durable garments with integrated technology. Metals as filler particles for coating and printing pastes are the focus in this work. This, due to that metal provides excellent conductive properties particularly important for producing reliable electronic circuits used in e.g. wearable body monitoring systems. The research presented center on the frequently reported research challenges; to overcome the stiffening effects of metals and the poor mechanical resistance of the conductive film, commonly shown during folding, abrasion and washing [1,2]. This affects the comfort for the wearer and the durability. A prior concern is also the toxicological effects of certain metal particles, possibly leaking out into the environment during washing or wearing. Therefore the mechanical resistance and adhesion of these types of coatings are further investigated.

    Today, the use of metal compounds for flexible electronic fabrics are frequently reported including their use for electromagnetic shielding and even antimicrobial effects [3]. In this work, conductive coatings containing silver-coated copper flakes are evaluated for their electrically and thermally conductive properties, using square resistance measurements and infrared camera imaging respectively. Different approaches for improving the durability of the conductive films are comprised, such as addition of a cross-linking agent and encapsulation of the conductive film.

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    Abstract_P91_Malm.pdf
  • 47.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Bouazizi, Nabil
    Guan, Jinping
    Soochow University.
    Chen, Guoqiang
    Soochow University.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surface modification of polyester fabric using plasma-dendrimer for robust immobilization of glucose oxidase enzyme2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, article id 15730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was achieved on poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabric (PN) after integration of favourable surface functional groups through plasma treatments [atmospheric pressure-AP or cold remote plasma-CRP (N2 + O2)] and/or chemical grafting of hyperbranched dendrimers [poly-(ethylene glycol)-OH or poly-(amidoamine)]. Absorption, stability, catalytic behavior of immobilized enzymes and reusability of resultant fibrous bio-catalysts were comparatively studied. Full characterization of PN before and after respective modifications was carried out by various analytical, instrumental and arithmetic techniques. Results showed that modified polyester having amine terminal functional groups pledged better surface property providing up to 31% enzyme loading, and 81% active immobilized enzymes. The activity of the enzyme was measured in terms of interaction aptitude of GOx in a given time to produce hydrogen peroxide using colorimetric assay. The immobilized GOx retained 50% of its original activity after being reused six (06) times and exhibited improved stability compared with the free enzyme in relation to temperature. The reaction kinetics, loading efficiency, leaching, and reusability analysis of enzyme allowed drawing a parallel to the type of organic moiety integrated during GOx immobilization. In addition, resultant fibrous bio-catalysts showed substantial antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) in the presence of oxygen and glucose. These results are of great importance because they provide proof-of-concept for robust immobilization of enzymes on surface-modified fibrous polyester fabric for potential bio-industrial applications.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Bouazizi, Nabil
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    3-Mercapto-1,2-propanediol modified robust polyester nonwoven for stabilization of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for multifunctional application2019In: Proceedings of 257th ACS National Meeting, Orlando, FL, USA: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019, Vol. 257Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly oxidation tendency of zerovalent iron nanoparticles limits itsvarious practical applications. In this work, stabilization of zerovalent ironnanoparticles (nZVI) in 3-Mercapto-1,2-propanediol (α-thioglycerol, α -TG)modified polyester nonwoven (PN) for improved catalytic and antibacterialapplication has been studied for the first time. Changes in wettability as wellas structural, morphological, thermal and catalytic properties of the resultingPN/α -TG/nZVI material were investigated by scanning electron microscopy,energy dispersive X-Ray, zeta potential measurements, thermogravimetricanalysis, differential scanning calorimetry, fourier transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopies. Prior to functionalization, hydrophilic functional groupshave been introduced in PN surface by air atmospheric plasma treatment.Iron nanoparticles were immobilized by α-thioglycerol on the polyester fiberswith a multi-meter particle size. α -TG stabilized nZVI by reducing thetendency of easy oxidation. nZVI insertion resulted in high thermal stability ofPN. As an application, PN/α-TG/nZVI exhibited an excellent catalytic activityin the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with appreciable recyclability. The resultsfurther demonstrate that PN/α-TG/nZVI can be employed not only for toxiccompounds removal but also to inhibit the growth of bacteria at normalconditions which herein open new prospects for concrete industrialapplications of nZVI based multifunctional systems.

  • 49.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Bouazizi, Nabil
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dendrimer-Mediated Immobilization of zero-valent iron (Fe0) on plasma treated polyester nonwovens2018In: Proceedings of AUTEX World Textile Conference / [ed] AUTEX, Istanbul – TURKEY, 2018, Vol. 18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile approach for immobilization of zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe0) on plasma treated polyester nonwovens (PET-NWs) using hyper-branched G5-PEG10k-OH dendrimer (G5-D) was studied. The objective was to investigate the potential use of dendrimer for immobilization of ZVI on fibrous PET textiles. For that, air atmospheric plasma treatment of PET-NWs was carried out followed by grafting of G5-D onto the hydrophilic PET-NWs surface. ZVI was immobilized on the designed PET-NWs@G5-D by means of reductive formation and immobilization. Microscopic image analysis and thermo-gravimetric analysis studies indicate successfully synthesis and formation of PET-NWs@G5-D-ZVI complex. The produced hybrid metrics is able to exhibit catalytic reaction in an aqueous system and degrade organic contaminants which suggest a significant prospect of potential use of dendrimers to immobilize iron onto porous textiles for a broad range of environmental remediation.

  • 50.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Bouazizi, Nabil
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Immobilization of glucose oxidase enzyme polyester fabrics: Comparative study2019In: Proceedings of 19th  AUTEX World Textile Conference, 11-15 June, 2019 at NH Gent Belfort, Gent, Belgium, Gent, Belgium, 2019, Vol. 19, article id 263Conference paper (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 116
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