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  • 1. Aslanzadeh, Solmaz
    et al.
    Ishola, Mofoluwake M.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    An Overview of Existing Individual Unit Operations2014In: Biorefineries: Integrated Biochemical Processes for Liquid Biofuels, Elsevier Inc. , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Because of its extreme toxicity for microorganisms, the limonene content of citrus wastes (CWs) has been a major obstacle to the conversion of CWs to biofuels. The main objective of this study was to develop a new process for the utilization of CWs that can be economically feasible when the supply of CW is low.

    RESULTS: Steam explosion pre-treatment was applied to improve the anaerobic digestibility of CWs, resulting in a decrease of initial limonene concentration by 94.3%. A methane potential of 0.537 ± 0.001 m 3 kg -1 VS (volatile solids) was obtained during the following batch digestion of treated CWs, corresponding to an increase of 426% compared with that of the untreated samples. Long-term effects of the treatment were further investigated by a semi-continuous co-digestion process. A methane production of 0.555 ± 0.0159 m 3 CH 4 kg -1 VS day -1 was achieved when treated CWs (corresponding to 30% of the VS load) were co-digested with municipal solid waste.

    CONCLUSION: The process developed can easily be applied to an existing biogas plant. The equipment cost for this process is estimated to be one million USD when utilizing 10 000 tons CWs year -1. 8.4 L limonene and 107.4 m 3 methane can be produced per ton of fresh citrus wastes in this manner. 

  • 2.
    Bolton, Kim
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mohsenzadeh Syouki, Abas
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    DFT study of the adsorption and dissociation of water on Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces2014In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 627, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water adsorption and dissociation on catalytic metal surfaces play a key role in a variety of industrial processes, and a detailed understanding of this process and how it is effected by the surface structure will assist in developing improved catalysts. Hence, a comparative study of the adsorption and dissociation of water on Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces, which is often used as catalyst, has been performed using density functional theory. The results show that the adsorption energies and dissociation rates depend on the surface structure. The adsorption energies for H2O and OH decrease in the order Ni(110) > Ni(100) > Ni(111), and for the O and H atoms the adsorption energies decrease in the order Ni(100) > Ni(111) > Ni(110). In addition, the splitting of water to OH and H has lower activation energies over less packed Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces compared to the highly packed Ni(111) surface. The subsequent splitting of the OH to O and H also has the lowest activation energy on the Ni(110) surface. At 463 K, which is typical for industrial processes that include the water gas shift reaction, the H2O splitting is approximately 6000 and 10 times faster on the Ni(110) surface compared to the Ni(111) and Ni(100) surfaces, respectively, and OH splitting is 200 and 3000 times faster, respectively. The complete water dissociation reaction rate decreases in the order Ni(110) > Ni(100) > Ni(111).

  • 3.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Combined gasification-fermentation process in waste biorefinery2018In: Waste Biorefinery: Potential and Perspectives, Elsevier, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal processes of wastes lead to production of energy in form of electricity and/or heat. However, if the goal is to produce materials, thermochemical processes can be applied. These processes via e.g. gasification produce raw syngas that is a mixture of principally H2, CO and CO2, with some impurities. This raw syngas is traditionally cleaned and catalytically treated via chemical processes such as Fischer-Tropsch. However, as there is a variety of microorganisms that can assimilate syngas, this gas can be used as a substrate to produce different chemicals via biochemical routes. This chapter is dedicated to describe an efficient thermochemical-biochemical route of waste treatment. The gasification process, the design and the factors that affect the syngas composition are firstly described. Thereafter, the microbiology, biochemical reactions, metabolic pathways and process conditions toward production of several metabolic products from syngas such as carboxylic acids, ethanol, butanol, 2,3-butanediol, methane and biopolymers are presented. 

  • 4.
    Eboh, Francis Chinweuba
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ahlström, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Estimating the specific chemical exergy of municipal solid waste2016In: Energy Science & Engineering, ISSN 2050-0505, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 217-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Eboh, Francis Chinweuba
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Resource Recovery.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Richards, Tobias
    Estimating the specific exergy of municipal solid waste2016In: Energy Science & Engineering, ISSN 2050-0505, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 217-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model for predicting the specific chemical exergy of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented; the model is based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine on a dry ash-free basis (daf). The proposed model was obtained from estimations of the higher heating value (HHV) and standard entropy of MSW using statistical analysis. The ultimate analysis of 56 different parts of MSW was used for the derivation of the HHV expression. In addition, 30 extra parts were used for validation. One hundred and seventeen relevant organic substances that represented the main constituents in MSW were used for derivation of the standard entropy of solid waste. The substances were divided into different waste fractions, and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The specific chemical exergy of inorganic matter in the waste was also investigated by considering the inorganic compounds in the ash. However, as a result of the extremely low value calculated, the exergy of inorganic matter was ignored. The results obtained from the HHV model show a good correlation with the measured values and are comparable with other recent and previous models. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture is less accurate than the correlations of each individual waste fraction. However, the correlations give similar results for the specific chemical exergy, indicating that HHV has a greater impact when estimating the specific exergy of solid waste than entropy.

  • 6.
    Eboh, Francis Chinweuba
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ahlström, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Evaluating improvements in a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant2019In: Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, ISSN 2214-157XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of different alternatives for enhancement in a waste combustion process enables adequate decisions to be made for improving its efficiency. Exergy analysis has been shown be an effective tool in assessing the overall efficiency of a system. However, the conventional exergy method does not provide information of the improvements possible in a real process. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate state-of-the art techniques applied in a municipal solid-waste fired heat and power plant. The base case plant is evaluated first; the results are then used to decide upon which technical modifications should be introduced and they are thereafter evaluated. A modified exergy-based method is used to discover the improvement potential of both the individual components and the overall base case plant. The results indicate that 64% of exergy destruction in the overall process can theoretically be improved. The various modifications selected involve changing the bed material, using a gasifier followed by a gas boiler and incorporating a more durable material into the boiler walls. In addition, changing the heating medium of the incoming air (from steam to flue gas) along with a reduction in the stack temperature and the integration of flue gas condensation were considered for utilizing the exergy in the flue gases. The modification involving gasifier, gas boiler and flue gas condensation proved to be the best option, with the highest exergy efficiency increment of 21%.

  • 7.
    Eboh, Francis Chinweuba
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Ahlström, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Exergy Analysis of Solid Fuel-Fired Heat and Power Plants: A Review2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing demand for energy is particularly important to engineers with respect to how the energy produced by heat and power plants can be used efficiently. Formerly, performance evaluation of thermal power plants was done through energy analysis. However, the energy method does not account for irreversibilities within the system. An effective method to measure and improve efficiency of thermal power plant is exergy analysis. Exergy analysis is used to evaluate the performance of a system and its main advantage is enhancement of the energy conversion process. It helps identify the main points of exergy destruction, the quantity and causes of this destruction, as well as show which areas in the system and components have potential for improvements. The current study is a comprehensive review of exergy analyses applied in the solid fuels heat and power sector, which includes coal, biomass and a combination of these feedstocks as fuels. The methods for the evaluation of the exergy efficiency and the exergy destruction are surveyed in each part of the plant. The current review is expected to advance understanding of exergy analysis and its usefulness in the energy and power sectors: it will assist in the performance assessment, analysis, optimization and cost effectiveness of the design of heat and power plant systems in these sectors.

  • 8.
    Eboh, Francis Chinweuba
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ahlström, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste2016In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, E-ISSN 2010-3778, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 689-694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

  • 9.
    Eboh, Francis Chinweuba
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Economic evaluation of improvements in a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the efficiency of waste-to-energy combined heat and power plants increases their production of both electricity and heat. Economic evaluation of such improvements enables adequate decisions to be made between the various alternatives with respect to economic viability of the plant. In this study, the cost and profitability of different modifications to improve efficiency in a waste-to-energy plant are considered: these include the re-arrangement of air heaters, the introduction of a reheater, flue gas condensation (FGC) and an integrated gasification-combustion process. The base case and the modifications are evaluated and compared when operating either as a combined heat and power plant or as a power plant. Modelling, simulation and cost estimations were performed with the Aspen Plus software. Although the integrated gasification-combustion technology with FGC has the highest exergy efficiency, its higher capital cost is greater than all of the other alternatives. Modification 6, which involves both re-arrangement and changing the air heating medium has the lowest capital cost with respect to enhancing exergy efficiency. Modifications 1 and 7, involving FGC, are the best alternatives for the capital cost per total unit of revenue generated. These modifications not only provides the highest heat production but also the highest net present value (NPV). The base case and the modifications investigated all have positive NPV, indicating that a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant is an attractive investment. However, an increase of about 122% in the gate fees would be required for a system with only electricity production to be profitable.

  • 10.
    Manhica, F
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lucas, C.
    Richards, T.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of the flow field in wood-fired bakery ovens2012In: International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, ISSN 2221-0997, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circulation of hot gases within a bakery oven is used to describe and predict the exchange of heat and its influence on the final product. A bi-dimensional model was used, together with a CFD model, to estimate the flow pattern inside an oven by varying the velocity of the airflow in order to simulate changes in the combustion chamber. Acceptable agreement was found in the comparison between the models and the measured temperatures. The inlet velocity and the geometry affect the flow pattern in a baking oven. Low velocity cause low levels of circulation, which implies better conditions in the baking process. High velocities the temperature decreases in the oven due to excess air even with a high recirculation of gases. During the feeding process, the overall heat transfer was also affected by a changed effective thermal conductivity and recirculation of hot gases in the baking oven.

  • 11.
    Manhica, Fabiao
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lucas, Carlos
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Wood Consumption and Analysis of the Bread Baking Process in Wood-Fired Bakery Ovens2012In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 5, no 47, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion of biomass in small-scale furnaces is used widely in different applications. The technology used is often “fixed grate” combustion in small batch furnaces. The efficiency of such a furnace is often low, which results in a high environmental impact. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of the existing wood-fired bakery ovens that can be used to improve the efficiency. The data collected from 15 semi-direct and 3 indirect bakeries consisted of: the dimensions of the oven, the temperature profiles of the combustion chamber and the baking oven, the baking time and the bread quality. It was found that as much as 60 tons/day of green wood are consumed in the bread baking process in the area investigated. Two types of bakery ovens are used most commonly: indirect and semi-direct. The specific consumption was found to be 0.55 and 0.90 kg of wood per kg of wheat flour baked for the indirect and the semi-direct respectively. The analyses of the bread baked show that the variation of the temperature profile during the baking process influences the quality of the bread produced.

  • 12. Mattsson, Tuve
    et al.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The separation of green liquor sludge: A comparison between liquors produced in a gasifier and a recovery boiler2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Green liquor is produced as when chemicals are recovered in the kraft pulp process. The industrial formed green liquor contains a solid, non-solvable phase, called green liquor dregs and are removed either by filtration, or by sedimentation. This work compares separation properties of green liquor produced in a gasifier unit with green liquor produced in a recovery boiler. The two types of green liquors were found to have almost similar separation properties with respect to both sedimentation and filtration. For filtration, the average specific filtration resistance was about 1012 m/kg at 1 bar filtration pressure.

  • 13. Mattsson, Tuve
    et al.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The separation of green liquor sludge: A comparison between liquors produced in a gasifier and a recovery boiler2010In: FILTRATION, ISSN 1479-0602, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 207-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green liquor is produced when chems. are recovered in the kraft pulp process. Industrially produced green liquor contains a solid, non-sol. phase known as 'green liquor dregs' which is removed either by filtration or sedimentation. The work presented in this paper compares the sepn. properties of green liquor produced in a gasifier unit with that produced in a recovery boiler. The two types of green liquors were found to have almost similar sepn. properties with respect to both sedimentation and filtration. In the case of filtration, the av. specific filtration resistance was around 1012 to 1013 m/kg at 1 bar filtration pressure.

  • 14.
    Megwai, Godswill
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Power Systems Using Aspen Plus2016In: International Journal of Power and Renewable Energy Systems (IJPRES), ISSN 2374-3751, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an analysis of biomass‐based power technologies in terms of electric performance, environmentalindicators and economic evaluations. Several power generation processes are analyzed: gas turbines, steam turbines, micro gasturbines, Stirling engines and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, the potential of nitrogen oxide (NOx) produced ineach process model is used as a measure of the environmental impact made. The parameters considered for economic feasibilitywere fixed capital cost, working capital cost and total capital investment. It was found that a higher electric efficiency wasachieved when biomass gasification technology was integrated with gas‐based power systems; the Stirling engine power systemalso indicated a good potential when its process model was optimized. Moreover, the internal combustion engine process emitsmore nitrogen oxides than other technologies, thus indicating a need of more gas cleaning. The economic studies showed thatthe internal combustion engine and Stirling engine power system prove to be economically feasible, especially in small‐scalepower production. Higher total capital investment costs were indicated for both the steam turbine and the gas turbine powersystems, illustrating the reason for their being employed mainly in medium/large‐scale biomass power generation systems.

  • 15.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oxidation and dissociation of formyl on Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces: A comparative density functional theory (DFT) study2015In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 58, no 14-17, p. 1136-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Oxidation and dissociation of formyl on Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces: A comparative density functional theory study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formyl (CHO) is an important adsorbate and a key intermediate in industrial processes such as water gas shift (WGS), Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and catalytic hydrocarbon combustion reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) with the PBE functional was used to calculate the adsorption, reaction and activation energies of formyl oxidation and dissociation on Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces. The results show that these energies are sensitive to the surface structure. The dissociation barrier for CHO → CH + O (FTS process) is higher than that for CHO → CO + H (catalytic combustion) on all three surfaces. This means that the dissociation to CO and H is kinetically favored. The dissociation reaction rate decreases in the order Ni(110) > Ni(111) > Ni(100) for both dissociation reactions. The formation of formate (CHO + O → HCOO), which is included in one of the pathways for the WGS reaction, has lowest activation energy on the Ni(111) surface, and the energy increases in the order Ni(111) < Ni(110) < Ni(100). However, the reaction rate at 463 K, which is a typical temperature for industrial processes that involve these reactions, is at least five orders of magnitude higher for the CHO → CO + H reaction than for the other two reactions, irrespective of the crystallographic structure of the Ni surface. This means that Ni surfaces studied here are better catalysts for this reaction. The results also show that the WGS reaction on a Ni catalyst does not primarily occur via the formate pathway.

  • 17.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Börjesson, Anders
    Wang, Jeng-Han
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Co-Adsorption on Ni-Catalysed Water Dissociation2013In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 23301-23314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111) surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O–H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O–H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of CO. In addition, the distances between the Ni surface and H2O reactant and OH and H products decrease in the presence of the CO. The changes in structures and vibrational frequencies lead to a reaction energy that is 0.17 eV less exothermic in the presence of the CO, and an activation barrier that is 0.12 eV larger in the presence of the CO. At 463 K the water dissociation rate constant is an order of magnitude smaller in the presence of the CO. This reveals that far fewer water molecules will dissociate in the presence of CO under reaction conditions that are typical for the water-gas-shift reaction.

  • 18.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A density functional theory study of hydrocarbon combustion and synthesis on Ni surfaces2015In: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 21, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion and synthesis of hydrocarbons may occur directly (CH → C + H and CO → C + O) or via a formyl (CHO) intermediate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to calculate the activation and reaction energies of these reactions on Ni(111), Ni(110), and Ni(100) surfaces. The results show that the energies are sensitive to the surface structure. The dissociation barrier for methylidyne (CH → C + H: catalytic hydrocarbon combustion) is lower than that for its oxidation reaction (CH + O → CHO) on the Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces. However the oxidation barrier is lower than that for dissociation on the Ni(111) surface. The dissociation barrier for methylidyne dissociation decreases in the order Ni(111) > Ni(100) > Ni(110). The barrier of formyl dissociation to CO and H is almost the same on the Ni(111) and Ni(110) surfaces and is lower compared to the Ni(100) surface. The energy barrier for carbon monoxide dissociation (CO → C + O: catalytic hydrocarbon synthesis) is higher than that of for its hydrogenation reaction (CO + H → CHO) on all three surfaces. This means that the hydrogenation to CHO is favored on these nickel surfaces. The energy barrier for both reactions decreases in the order Ni(111) > Ni(100) > Ni(110). The barrier for formyl dissociation to CH + O decreases in the order Ni(100) > Ni(111) > Ni(110). Based on these DFT calculations, the Ni(110) surface shows a better catalytic activity for hydrocarbon combustion compared to the other surfaces, and Ni is a better catalyst for the combustion reaction than for hydrocarbon synthesis, where the reaction rate constants are small. The reactions studied here support the BEP principles with R2 values equal to 0.85 for C-H bond breaking/forming and 0.72 for C-O bond breaking /forming reactions.

  • 19.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    DFT study of the water gas shift reaction on Ni (111), Ni (100) and Ni (110) surfaces2016In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 644, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the water gas shift (WGS) reaction on Ni(111), Ni(100) and Ni(110) surfaces. The adsorption energy for ten species involved in thereaction together with activation barriers and reaction energies for the nine most important elementary steps were determined using the same model and DFT methods. The results reveal that these energies are sensitive to the surface structure. In spite of this, the WGS reaction occurs mainly via the direct (also referred to as redox) pathway with the CO + O → CO2 reaction as the rate determining step on all three surfaces. The activation barrier obtained for this rate limiting step decreases in the order Ni(110) > Ni(111) > Ni(100). Therefore, if O species are present on the surfaces then the WGSreaction is fastest on the Ni(100) surface. However, the barrier for desorption of H2O (which is the source of the O species) is lower than its dissociation reaction on the Ni(111) and Ni(100) surfaces, but not on the Ni(110) surface. Hence, at low H2O(g) pressures, the direct pathway on the Ni(110) surface will dominate and will be the rate limiting step. The calculations also show that the reason that the WGS reaction does not primarily occur via the formate pathway is that this species is a stable intermediate on all surfaces. The reactions studied here support the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) principles with an R2 value of 0.99. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    DFT study of the water gas shift reaction on Ni(111), Ni(100) and Ni(110) surfaces2015In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 644, p. 53-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to study the water gas shift (WGS) reaction on Ni(111), Ni(100) and Ni(110) surfaces. The adsorption energy for ten species involved in the reaction together with activation barriers and reaction energies for the nine most important elementary steps were determined using the same model and DFT methods. The results reveal that these energies are sensitive to the surface structure. In spite of this, the WGS reaction occurs mainly via the direct (also referred to as redox) pathway with the CO + O → CO2 reaction as the rate determining step on all three surfaces. The activation barrier obtained for this rate limiting step decreases in the order Ni(110) > Ni(111) > Ni(100). Therefore, if O species are present on the surfaces then the WGS reaction is fastest on the Ni(100) surface. However, the barrier for desorption of H2O (which is the source of the O species) is lower than its dissociation reaction on the Ni(111) and Ni(100) surfaces, but not on the Ni(110) surface. Hence, at low H2O(g) pressures, the direct pathway on the Ni(110) surface will dominate and will be the rate limiting step. The calculations also show that the reason that the WGS reaction does not primarily occur via the formate pathway is that this species is a stable intermediate on all surfaces. The reactions studied here support the Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi (BEP) principles with an R2 value of 0.99.

  • 21.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Hydrocarbon combustion and synthesis on Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces: A comparative density functional theory study2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion and synthesis of hydrocarbons may occur directly (CH → C + H and CO → C + O) via a formyl intermediate (CH + O → CHO followed by CHO → CO + H and CO + H → CHO followed by CHO → CH + O) . The activation and reaction energies of these reactions on the Ni(111), Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Calculations show that the barriers are sensitive to the surface structure. The barrier for CH dissociation (catalytic hydrocarbon combustion) is lower than that of for its oxidation reaction (CH + O → CHO) on the Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces. In contrast, the barrier for oxidation is lower than that for dissociation on the Ni(111) surface. This means CH will preferably dissociate on the Ni(110) and Ni(100) surfaces, but not on the Ni(111) surface. The barrier for dissociation increases in the order Ni(110) < Ni(100) < Ni(111). The barrier of CHO dissociation to CO and H is almost the same on the Ni(111) and Ni(110) surfaces and it is lower compared to the Ni(100) surface. The energy barrier for carbon monoxide dissociation (catalytic hydrocarbon synthesis) is higher than that of for its hydrogenation reaction on all three surfaces. This means that the hydrogenation to CHO favored over the nickel surfaces studied here. The barrier for both reactions increases in the order Ni(110) < Ni(100) < Ni(111). Formyl dissociation to CH + O barrier is the lowest on the Ni(110) surface and follows the order Ni(100) > Ni(111) > Ni(110). Our DFT results show that the Ni(110) surface has a larger catalytic activity compared to the other surfaces, and that Ni is a better catalyst for hydrocarbon combustion than synthesis.

  • 22.
    Moradian, Farzad
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Herstad Svärd, Solvie
    Richards, Tobias
    Co-combustion of animal waste in a commercial waste-to-energy BFB boiler2013In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 6170-6187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  • 23.
    Moradian, Farzad
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bed Agglomeration Characteristics during Cocombustion of Animal Waste with Municipal Solid Waste in a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Boiler: A Thermodynamic Modeling Approach2014In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 2236-2247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: Full-scale waste combustion tests showed that adding animal waste (AW) to municipal solid waste (MSW) prevented bed agglomeration, and the reason for this fi nding was not fully understood. This study uses thermodynamic modeling to investigate the composition of equilibrium products for two combustion scenarios: monocombustion of MSW (the reference case) and cocombustion of AW with MSW (the AW case). The modeling was performed using FactSage, and experimental data obtained during the full-scale combustion tests were used as input data for the calculations. The results of equilibrium modeling, together with information extracted from ternary phase diagrams, suggest higher bed temperature as the primary cause for formation of bed agglomerates in the reference case. In addition, melt-induced agglomeration is suggested as the bed agglomeration mechanism in this case. In the AW case, however, reduced bed temperature, as well as enriched calcium phosphate and sulfate in the bottom ashes are considered to signi fi cantly decrease the slagging tendency.

  • 24.
    Moradian, Farzad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model Applied to Predict Fouling Tendency in a Commercial Fluidized-Bed Boiler, Combusting Solid Waste2015In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 3483-3494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermodynamic equilibrium model, combined with an advanced fuel analysis, was applied to predict the fouling tendency in a commercial bubbling fluidized-bed (BFB) boiler, combusting a mixture of solid waste. In order to enhance the performance of the model, further modifications were made, considering the combustion pattern in the fluidized-bed system and also the temperature profile in the combustion zone. The modeling was performed using Factsage, and experimental data obtained during the full-scale measurements were used as input for the model, simulating the deposit formation in the real boiler. The simulation results were then compared with the results obtained during the full-scale combustion tests to estimate the accuracy and validity of the applied model. The thermodynamic equilibrium modeling proved to be a reliable tool for predicting the fouling in the BFB boiler, thus determining the fraction of the melt in the deposited salts formed on the heat transfer surfaces during the flue gas condensation. The calculations showed that the ratio of the SO2 to alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas was the decisive factor that affected the rate of the deposit formation in the boiler. Both the simulation and the experimental results indicated that lower bed temperatures and cocombustion of P-rich fuels decrease the deposition buildup in the boiler. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  • 25.
    Oluoti, Kehinde
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pettersson, Anita
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigating the morphology and reactivity of chars from Triplochiton scleroxylon pyrolysed under varied conditions2016In: Bioresource technology, E-ISSN 3736-3751, Vol. 208, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The astronomical increase in global energy demand makes locating energy sources other than fossil fuels worthwhile. The use of tropical biomass wood waste as a renewable energy source was investigated in this study. The thermal conversion analysis of Albizia gummifera (ayinre) was carried out in a thermobalance reactor via steam gasification under varying temperature (700 to 1000 °C) and steam partial pressure (0.020 to 0.050 MPa). The experimental data was evaluated using three gas-solid reaction models. The modified volume reaction model (mVRM) gave the overall highest coefficient of determination (0.9993) and thereby the best conversion prediction. The observed char activation constant rates (from paired reaction conditions) indicated, on average, an increase in reactivity as the parameters increased. The results showed that the activation energy of the mVRM gave the lowest value (32.54 kJ/mpI) compared with those of the shrinking core model (SCM) and the volume reaction model (VRM) (49.29 and 49.89 kJ/mol, respectively).

  • 26.
    Oluoti, Kehinde
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Lagos State University.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation of the Reaction Behavior of Albizia gummifera Wood under Steam Gasification with Varied Partial Pressures and Gasification Temperatures2016In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 2016, no 11, p. 3736-3751, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The astronomical increase in global energy demand makes locating energy sources other than fossil fuels worthwhile. The use of tropical biomass wood waste as a renewable energy source was investigated in this study. The thermal conversion analysis of Albizia gummifera (ayinre) was carried out in a thermobalance reactor via steam gasification under varying temperature (700 to 1000 °C) and steam partial pressure (0.020 to 0.050 MPa). The experimental data was evaluated using three gas-solid reaction models. The modified volume reaction model (mVRM) gave the overall highest coefficient of determination (0.9993) and thereby the best conversion prediction. The observed char activation constant rates (from paired reaction conditions) indicated, on average, an increase in reactivity as the parameters increased. The results showed that the activation energy of the mVRM gave the lowest value (32.54 kJ/mol) compared with those of the shrinking core model (SCM) and the volume reaction model (VRM) (49.29 and 49.89 kJ/mol, respectively).

  • 27.
    Oluoti, Kehinde
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Doddapaneni, Tharaka
    Kanagasabapathi, DhipanKumar
    Evaluation of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Tropical Wood Biomass2014In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 2179-2190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two tropical biomass species, teak (Tectona grandis) and obobo (Guarea thompsonii), were obtained in the form of sawmill waste from Nigeria and evaluated to determine their potential for gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification kinetics of the samples were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) at temperatures of 900 oC and 1,000 oC. Four iso-conversional methods, one peak temperature method, and two model-fitting methods were employed to determine the kinetic parameters, i.e. the apparent activation energy Ea, and pre-exponential factor A. Values of the gasification kinetic rate constant K were determined using two gas-solid reaction models: the volumetric reaction model (VRM) and the shrinking core model (SCM). The values obtained for all three kinetic parameters showed good agreement with values derived for samples of non-tropical wood.

  • 28.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brorström, Björn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hedegård, Lars
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlson Ingdahl, Tina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oudhuis, Margaretha
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Påhlsson, Birgitta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Re: en ny samhällssektor spirar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resurser och hållbarhet är nära förknippade. Hållbarhet innebär att hushålla med resurser - materiella, miljömässiga och mänskliga. Och hushållning är per definition kärnan i ekonomi. Man börjar alltmer se framväxten av en hel arsenal av verktyg och förhållnings- och angreppssätt för att bygga hållbarhet. Detta förenas av ett synsätt att det som hitintills setts  om avfall och värdelöst, och rent utav besvärligt att ta hand om, nu blir en värdefull resurs. Det glömda och gömda kommer åter. Faktum är att många ord och begrepp kring detta börjar på just åter- eller re- . Internationellt talar man om Redesign, Recycling, Remake, Recycle, Recraft, Reuse, Recreate, Reclaim, Reduce, Repair, Refashion.

    Vad är då allt detta? Ja, vill man dra det långt, är det inte mindre än framväxten av ett nyvunnet sätt att tänka, ja av en ny samhällssektor, en bransch och en industri,  sammanbundet av filosofin att återanvändningen, spillminskningen, vidarebruket, efterlivet anses som viktiga faktorer för ett miljömedvetet samhälle. Re: blir paraplytermen för detta. I denna antologi av forskare från skilda discipliner vid Högskolan i Borås lyfts ett antal av dessa begrepp inom Re: fram.

  • 29.
    Pettersson, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Moradian, Farzad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    Herstad Svärd, Solvie
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Examples of Full scale tests on BFB Waste to Energy boilers (WtE) with direct impact on the future operation of the facility2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing problem with municipal solid waste has helped to accelerate de development of Waste to Energy plants (WtE). However, WtE-plants have problems with agglomeration, deposition and corrosion. And at the same time new waste streams are considered for combustion. Co-combustion has sometimes proven to have positive effects on the combustion environment. In this project full scale tests were performed on two twin 20 MWth WtE Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) boilers in Borås, Sweden. The aim of the research was to investigate if a lowered bed temperature by means of flue gas recirculation or addition of animal waste to the normal waste mix (NWM) could improve the boiler performance. The bed temperature was decreased from 870°C, the boiler design temperature, to around 750°C. The animal waste is a pumpable slurry consisting of crushed carcasses and slaughterhouse waste classified with risk of infection because of BSE (Bovine spongiforme encephalopathy or the mad cow disease). The result shoved both decreased deposit formation rate and decreased agglomeration tendency of the bed. And in the case with animal waste addition the NOx emission was reduced with 50% compared to ordinary performance. Furthermore the ammonia addition for NOx reduction was also cut by half in this case.

  • 30.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Opportunities for thermal waste treatment2016In: Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, ISSN 2090-4533, E-ISSN 2090-4541, p. 70-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal waste treatment faces many challenges of high ash related compounds from waste fuels.Vagaries in its composition that are very heterogeneous lead to problems faced during incinerationapart of course high energy consumption. However, new technologies and techniques have becomemore efficient addressing some of these problems too. Despite this, it is advisable to use this treatmentonly for waste streams which can not be effectively treated through other alternate techniques.

  • 31.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thermal pretreatment of black liquor: A conceptual design2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recovery boiler is a vital part of the chemical recovery cycle and should produce a smelt of the cooking chemicals together with steam at high temperature and pressure. Part of these chemicals are found in the gases, either as small fume particles or as gases and this could cause problems such as deposits, corrosion and material losses. A thermal pre-treatment method is proposed to minimize the sodium and sulfur in the upper region of the boiler. Sulfur is released at temperatures below 600 °C in reducing atmospheres but most of this is recaptured by the black liquor droplets. The sodium losses are mostly by fume formation during char burning but a part could also be by physical ejection which would release sulfur as well.

  • 32.
    Richards, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Erikson, Martin G
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Eriksson, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johnson, Erland
    A conceptual model of how research can influence student development2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Richards, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    Filtering of Clay Colloids in Bentonite Detritus Material2010In: Chemical Engineering & Technology, ISSN 0930-7516, E-ISSN 1521-4125, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1303-1310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bentonite clay consists of two types of materials, small nanoscale smectite particles and larger accessory material particles. When used as a barrier, it is important that as little material as possible is lost. This loss may occur if water with low salinity passes by the bentonite clay. First, the clay will swell and then the smectite particles can solubilize. This study investigates under which circumstances the material can form a filter cake of the accessory material and slow down or stop the penetration of smectite through the filter cake. It has been shown that it is possible to form such a filter cake and that the filter cake can be further improved by adding other particles.

  • 34.
    Richards, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    Filtering of clay colloids in MX-80 detritus material2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bentonite clay consists of two types of materials; the small nanoscale smectite particles and the larger accessory material particles. When used as a barrier, it is important that no material is lost. This might occur if water with low salinity is passing by the bentonite clay. First, the clay will first swell and then the smectite particles can be solubilised. This work investigates under which circumstances the material can form a filter cake of the accessory material and slow down or stop the penetration of smectite through the filter cake. We have showed that it is possible to form such a filter cake and that the filter cake can be further improved by adding other particles.

  • 35. Richards, Tobias
    et al.
    Theliander, Hans
    White liquor production: A comparison of the causticizing stages using gasifier and recovery boiler produced green liquor2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green liquor, starting with sludge removal and ending with white liquor separation, has been investigated from a recovery boiler and a state-of-the-art gasification unit using the same black liquor for the two processes. This has been possible due to the co-location of a demonstration-sized pressurized gasification unit and a recovery boiler. Tests were performed under varying conditions in the gasifier while the conditions in the recovery boiler were assumed constant. Our investigation shows that the separation properties of green liquor sludge after a gasifier are almost similar to the separation properties after a recovery boiler. It is clear that the total load of reburned lime mud increases in the case of a gasifier, but the total concentration of the produced white liquor equals mill demand (i.e. is the same as recovery boiler produced white liquor). It was also found that causticizing efficiency was not affected by the increased load of reburned lime mud and the changed composition in the gasifier produced green liquor. Therefore, it can be concluded that the formation of sodium hydroxide in the white liquor produced from an entrained flow gasifier will not be limited by the existing process technology.

  • 36.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kaeni Moghadam, Mitra
    Haji Karimkhani, Parima
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Evaluation the inhabitants' participation in separation at source by waste characterization2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste2015Book (Refereed)
1 - 37 of 37
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