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  • 1.
    Akintunde, Moyinoluwa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Adebayo-Tayo, B C
    Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Ishola, M M
    Department of Energy and Environment, Göteborg Energi, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bacterial Cellulose Production from agricultural Residues by two Komagataeibacter sp. Strains2022In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 10010-10025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues are constantly increasing with increased farming processes, and improper disposal is detrimental to the environment. Majority of these waste residues are rich in lignocellulose, which makes them suitable substrate for bacterial fermentation in the production of valueadded products. In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC), a purer and better form of cellulose, was produced by two Komagataeibacter sp. isolated from rotten banana and kombucha drink using corncob (CC) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) enzymatic hydrolyzate, under different fermentation conditions, that is, static, continuous, and intermittent agitation. The physicochemical and mechanical properties of the BC films were then investigated by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry analysis, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic mechanical analysis. Agitation gave a higher BC yield, with Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73629 producing BC from CC with a dry weight of 1.6 g/L and 1.4 g/L under continuous and intermittent agitation, respectively, compared with that of 0.9 g/L in HS medium. While BC yield of dry weight up to 1.2 g/L was obtained from SCB by Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73630 under continuous agitation compared to that of 0.3 g/L in HS medium. FTIR analysis showed BC bands associated with cellulose I, with high thermal stability. The FE-SEM analysis showed that BC fibers were highly ordered and densely packed. Although the BC produced by both strains showed similar physicochemical and morphological properties, the BC produced by the Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73630 in CC under intermittent agitation had the best modulus of elasticity, 10.8 GPa and tensile strength, 70.9 MPa. [GRAPHICS]

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  • 2.
    Bahrami, Bahador
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 Iran.
    Behzad, Tayebeh
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 Iran.
    Salehinik, Fatemeh
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 Iran.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Heidarian, Pejman
    School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, 3216 Australia.
    Incorporation of Extracted Mucor indicus Fungus Chitin Nanofibers into Starch Biopolymer: Morphological, Physical, and Mechanical Evaluation2021In: Starch, ISSN 0038-9056, Vol. 73, no 7-8, article id 2000218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-nanocomposites based on starch are reinforced by different percentages of chitin nanofibers (ChNFs) and compatibilized by glycerol. Nanofibers are extracted from Mucor indicus fungus through different chemo-mechanical pretreatments. The mechnical, chemo-physical, and morphological properties of the nanocomposite starch films were evaluated and compared with the unfilled thermoplastic starch (TPS) film. Based on the obtained results, Young's modulus of the film at 5 wt.% ChNFs indicated 239% enhancement compared to the TPS film due to the existence of good interactions between starch and ChNFs. Moreover, the ultimate strength of the reinforced film at 5 wt.% ChNFs and the unreinforced counterpart are found to be 5.5 and 1.74 MPa, indicating 216% improvement; however, the elongation at break of the films decreases from 59.3% to 19.3% by adding 5 wt.% ChNFs. In addition, the moisture absorption of the film decreases after the incorporation of ChNFs. Based on the morphological study, ChNFs increase the roughness of the starch matrix with a homogenous morphology revealing the good dispersion of nanofibers in the TPS film. Finally, the nanocomposite film with 5 wt.% ChNFs show the best properties to employ for bio-film applications.

  • 3. Benedikt Maria Köhnlein, M.
    et al.
    Abitbol, T.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Materials and Surfaces, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osório Oliveira, A.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, M. S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, K. H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Sofie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, M.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioconversion of food waste to biocompatible wet-laid fungal films2022In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 216, article id 110534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Rhizopus delemar was grown on bread waste in a submerged cultivation process and wet-laid into films. Alkali or enzyme treatments were used to isolate the fungal cell wall. A heat treatment was also applied to deactivate biological activity of the fungus. Homogenization of fungal biomass was done by an iterative ultrafine grinding process. Finally, the biomass was cast into films by a wet-laid process. Ultrafine grinding resulted in densification of the films. Fungal films showed tensile strengths of up to 18.1 MPa, a Young's modulus of 2.3 GPa and a strain at break of 1.4%. Highest tensile strength was achieved using alkali treatment, with SEM analysis showing a dense and highly organized structure. In contrast, less organized structures were obtained using enzymatic or heat treatments. A cell viability assay and fluorescent staining confirmed the biocompatibility of the films. A promising route for food waste valorization to sustainable fungal wet-laid films was established. © 2022 The Authors

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  • 4. Bidgoli, Hossein
    et al.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effect of carboxymethylation conditions on water binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 345, no 18, p. 2683-2689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from chitosan was provided via carboxymethylation of chitosan, followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and freeze-drying. This work was focused on an investigation of the effects of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), sodium hydroxide, and reaction time on preparation of carboxymethylchitosan (CMCS). The CMCS products were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, and their degrees of substitution (DS) were measured using conductimetry and FTIR analysis. The highest DS value was obtained when the carboxymethylation reaction was carried out using 1.75 g MCAA and 1.75 g NaOH per g of chitosan in 4 h. The water solubilities of the CMCS products at various pHs were also evaluated, and the results indicated a significant impact of the reaction parameters on the solubility of CMCS. The CMCSs with the highest DS value resulted in SAPs having the highest water-binding capacity (WBC). TheWBCof the best SAP measured after 10 minexposure in distilled water, 0.9% NaCl solution, synthetic urine, and artificial blood was 104, 33, 30, and 57 g/g, respectively. The WBC of this SAP at pH 2–9 passed a maximum at pH 6.

  • 5.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jabbari, Mostafa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Production of Pectin-Cellulose Biofilms: A New Approach for Citrus Waste Recycling2017In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, Vol. 2017, p. 1-9, article id 9732329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While citrus waste is abundantly generated, the disposal methods used today remain unsatisfactory: they can be deleterious for ruminants, can cause soil salinity, or are not economically feasible; yet citrus waste consists of various valuable polymers. This paper introduces a novel environmentally safe approach that utilizes citrus waste polymers as a biobased and biodegradable film, for example, for food packaging. Orange waste has been investigated for biofilm production, using the gelling ability of pectin and the strength of cellulosic fibres. A casting method was used to form a film from the previously washed, dried, and milled orange waste. Two film-drying methods, a laboratory oven and an incubator shaker, were compared. FE-SEM images confirmed a smoother film morphology when the incubator shaker was used for drying. The tensile strength of the films was 31.67 ± 4.21 and 34.76 ± 2.64 MPa, respectively, for the oven-dried and incubator-dried films, which is within the range of different commodity plastics. Additionally, biodegradability of the films was confirmed under anaerobic conditions. Films showed an opaque appearance with yellowish colour.

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  • 6.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The effect of glycerol, sugar and maleic anhydride on pectin-cellulose biofilms prepared from orange waste2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to improve the properties of thin films prepared from orange waste by the solution casting method. The main focus was the elimination of holes in the film structure by establishing better cohesion between the major cellulosic and pectin fractions. For this, a previously developed method was improved first by the addition of sugar to promote pectin gelling, then by the addition of maleic anhydride. Principally, maleic anhydride was introduced to the films to induce cross-linking within the film structure. The effects of concentrations of sugar and glycerol as plasticizers and maleic anhydride as a cross-linking agent on the film characteristics were studied. Maleic anhydride improved the structure, resulting in a uniform film, and morphology studies showed better adhesion between components. However, it did not act as a cross-linking agent, but rather as a compatibilizer. The middle level (0.78%) of maleic anhydride content resulted in the highest tensile strength (26.65 ± 3.20 MPa) at low (7%) glycerol and high (14%) sugar levels and the highest elongation (28.48% ± 4.34%) at high sugar and glycerol levels. To achieve a uniform film surface with no holes present, only the lowest (0.39%) level of maleic anhydride was necessary. 

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  • 7.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The Effect of Glycerol, Sugar, and Maleic Anhydride on Pectin-Cellulose Thin Films Prepared from Orange Waste2019In: POLYMERS, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to improve the properties of thin films prepared from orange waste by the solution casting method. The main focus was the elimination of holes in the film structure by establishing better cohesion between the major cellulosic and pectin fractions. For this, a previously developed method was improved first by the addition of sugar to promote pectin gelling, then by the addition of maleic anhydride. Principally, maleic anhydride was introduced to the films to induce cross-linking within the film structure. The effects of concentrations of sugar and glycerol as plasticizers and maleic anhydride as a cross-linking agent on the film characteristics were studied. Maleic anhydride improved the structure, resulting in a uniform film, and morphology studies showed better adhesion between components. However, it did not act as a cross-linking agent, but rather as a compatibilizer. The middle level (0.78%) of maleic anhydride content resulted in the highest tensile strength (26.65 +/- 3.20 MPa) at low (7%) glycerol and high (14%) sugar levels and the highest elongation (28.48% +/- 4.34%) at high sugar and glycerol levels. To achieve a uniform film surface with no holes present, only the lowest (0.39%) level of maleic anhydride was necessary.

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  • 8.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mostafa, Jabbari
    Srivastava, Rajiv K.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Synthesis and characterization of maleic anhydride-grafted orange waste for potential use in biocomposites2018In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 4986-4997Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 9.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pallhed, Jonny
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of biocomposite films from citrus waste2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download (pdf)
    Veronika_poster
  • 10.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pectin-based Composites2017In: Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials: Biodegradable Materials, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 487-518Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One third of the cell wall of vascular plants is composed of pectin, which serves as the cementing material for the cellulosic network, behaving as a stabilized gel. Industrially, pectin is produced from juice and sugar production waste. Different sources and extraction conditions result in diversity in characteristics and applications of pectin. Most commonly, pectin is used in the food industry as a gelling and thickening agent and it is favored in the pharmaceutical industry as a carrier for colon-specific drugs. Pectin has good potential to be utilized as a matrix in production of environmentally friendly film packaging as well as biocomposite materials. Pectin is sensitive to chemical reactions and promotes the homogeneous immobilization of cells, genes, and proteins. However, due to limited mechanical properties pectin is not used for structural applications but instead rather for composites in which its biodegradable properties can be utilized. Pectin is often reinforced with hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. It can also be used as a biosorbent for copper removal from aqueous solutions. Active packaging of nanohybrids composed of pectin and halloysite nanotubes that are loaded with rosemary essential oil is another application of pectin-based composites.

  • 11.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review2018In: Waste Management, Vol. 80, p. 406-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), leading to renewableenergy production in the form of methane, is a preferable method for dealing with the increasing amountof waste. Food waste is separated at the source in many countries for anaerobic digestion. However, thepresence of plastic bags is a major challenge for such processes. This study investigated the anaerobicdegradability of different bioplastics, aiming at potential use as collecting bags for the OFMSW. Thechemical composition of the bioplastics and the microbial community structure in the AD processaffected the biodegradation of the bioplastics. Some biopolymers can be degraded at hydraulic retentiontimes usually applied at the biogas plants, such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s, starch, cellulose and pectin,so no possible contamination would occur. In the future, updated standardization of collecting bags forthe OFMSW will be required to meet the requirements of effective operation of a biogas plant.

  • 12.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kooroshnia, Marjan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Syed, Samira
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Orange Waste Films as a Raw Material for Designing Bio-Based Textiles: A Hybrid Research Method2022In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 1063, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based textiles are an emerging area of cross-disciplinary research, involving material science and design and contributing to textile sustainability. An example of a bio-based textile is an orange-waste film, which is plant-based and biodegradable and possesses mechanical properties which are comparable to some commodity plastics. The research project presented in this article aimed to explore orange-waste film as a new material for textile and fashion design and highlights how experimental co-design processes and innovation involving orange waste film as a textile material adds a new layer of material understanding to both textile design and technology-driven material research. Material-development methods were used to develop the orange-waste film, as were textile design methods with a focus on surface design. The results show that material variables such as tensile strength and elongation are dependent on the grinding process and drying temperature used for the raw material, as these determined the quality and durability of the orange-waste film and its applicability to the field of textile design. The use of orange waste in the creation of textiles opens up more ways of thinking about and working with materials, and orange waste could become a desirable raw material for textile design on the basis that it introduces certain aesthetic and functional possibilities through its visual and tactile expression and material behaviour, in addition to defining methods of producing textiles.

  • 13.
    Furgier, Valentin
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 501 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Root, Andrew
    MagSol, Tuhkanummenkuja 2, 00970 Helsinki, Finland.
    Heinmaa, Ivo
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 501 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 501 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Development and Characterisation of Composites Prepared from PHBV Compounded with Organic Waste Reinforcements, and Their Soil Biodegradation2024In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) is a biobased and biodegradable polymer. This polymer is considered promising, but it is also rather expensive. The objective of this study was to compound PHBV with three different organic fillers considered waste: human hair waste (HHW), sawdust (SD) and chitin from shrimp shells. Thus, the cost of the biopolymer is reduced, and, at the same time, waste materials are valorised into something useful. The composites prepared were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile strength and scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Tests showed that chitin and HHW did not have a reinforcing effect on tensile strength while the SD increased the tensile strength at break to a certain degree. The biodegradation of the different composites was evaluated by a soil burial test for five months. The gravimetric test showed that neat PHBV was moderately degraded (about 5% weight loss) while reinforcing the polymer with organic waste clearly improved the biodegradation. The strongest biodegradation was achieved when the biopolymer was compounded with HHW (35% weight loss). The strong biodegradation of HHW was further demonstrated by characterisation by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Characterisation by SEM showed that the surfaces of the biodegraded samples were eroded.

  • 14.
    Gomes Hastenreiter, Lara Lopes
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India.
    Yadav, Anilkumar
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Synthesis of Lactic Acid-Based Thermosetting Resins and Their Ageing and Biodegradability2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, no 12, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is focused on the synthesis of bio-based thermoset polymers and their thermo–oxidative ageing and biodegradability. Toward this aim, bio-based thermoset resins with different chemical architectures were synthesized from lactic acid by direct condensation with ethylene glycol, glycerol and pentaerythritol. The resulting branched molecules with chain lengths (n) of three were then end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride. The chemical structures of the synthesized lactic acid derivatives were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) before curing. To evaluate the effects of structure on their properties, the samples were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the tensile testing. The samples went through thermo-oxidative ageing and biodegradation; and their effects were investigated. FT-IR and 1H-NMR results showed that three different bio-based resins were synthesized using polycondensation and end-functionalization. Lactic acid derivatives showed great potential to be used as matrixes in polymer composites. The glass transition temperature of the cured resins ranged between 44 and 52 °C. Pentaerythritol/lactic acid cured resin had the highest tensile modulus and it was the most thermally stable among all three resins. Degradative processes during ageing of the samples lead to the changes in chemical structures and the variations in Young’s modulus. Microscopic images showed the macro-scale surface degradation on a soil burial test.

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  • 15. Gurram, Rajesh
    et al.
    Souza Filho, Pedro
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass2018In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 4282-4292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-binding ability of the pectin molecules was used to produce pectin films using the compression molding technique, as an alternative method to the high energy-demanding and solvent-using casting technique. Moreover, incorporation of fungal biomass and its effects on the properties of the films was studied. Pectin powder plasticized with 30% glycerol was subjected to heat compression molding (120 °C, 1.33 MPa, 10 min) yielding pectin films with tensile strength and elongation at break of 15.7 MPa and 5.5%, respectively. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was cultivated using the water-soluble nutrients obtained from citrus waste and yielded a biomass containing 31% proteins and 20% lipids. Comparatively, the same strain was cultivated in a semi-synthetic medium resulting in a biomass with higher protein (60%) and lower lipid content (10%). SEM images showed addition of biomass yielded films with less debris compared to the pectin films. Incorporation of the low protein content biomass up to 15% did not significantly reduce the mechanical strength of the pectin films. In contrast, addition of protein-rich biomass (up to 20%) enhanced the tensile strength of the films (16.1–19.3 MPa). Lastly, the fungal biomass reduced the water vapor permeability of the pectin films.

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  • 16. Gustafsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Landberg, Mikael
    Bátori, Veronika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. 

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  • 17.
    Jeihanipour, Azam
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effect of growing time on the chitosan content of cell wall of zygomycetes fungi2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Karimi-Avargani, Mina
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biria, D.
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The promiscuous potential of cellulase in degradation of polylactic acid and its jute composite2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 278, article id 130443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that cellulolytic enzymes can be effective on the degradation of PLA samples. The idea was investigated by examining the impact of cellulase on degradation of PLA and PLA-jute (64/36) composite in an aqueous medium. The obtained results demonstrated 55% and 61% thickness reduction in PLA and PLA-jute specimens after four months of treatment, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed significant decline in the number average molecular weight (Mn) approximately equal to 85% and 80% for PLA and PLA-jute in comparison with their control. The poly dispersity index (PDI) of PLA and PLA-jute declined 41% and 49% that disclosed more homogenous distribution in molecular weight of the polymer after treatment with cellulase. The cellulase promiscuity effect on PLA degradation was further revealed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis where substantial decrease in the peak intensities of the polymer related functional groups were observed. In addition, PLA biodegradation was studied in more detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) of control and cellulase treated specimens. The obtained results confirmed the promiscuous function of cellulase in the presence or the absence of jute as the specific substrate of cellulase. This can be considered as a major breakthrough to develop effective biodegradation processes for PLA products at the end of their life cycle.

  • 19.
    Karimi-Avargani, Mina
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biria, Davoud
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The special effect of the Aspergillus flavus and its enzymes on biological degradation of the intact polylactic acid (PLA) and PLA-Jute composite2020In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biodegradation of PLA and PLA-Jute (64/36) in an aqueous media with Aspergillus flavus CCUG 28296, as well as its cell-free enzyme extract, was investigated through their physical, molecular, and thermal characterization. Results indicated that the thicknesses of the fungal treated PLA and PLA-jute samples during seven months have reduced by 52% and 63%, respectively while for the enzyme-treated samples, 45% and 49% reduction in the thickness has occurred. Moreover, the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) revealed a substantial decrease (about 75%) in the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of PLA and PLA-Jute treated with fungus, which confirmed the effective performance of A. flavus on the biological degradation of PLA. The obtained results were further supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) of the treated and control samples as well. Interestingly, the observed reduction in the Mw of PLA in PLA-Jute was 64% after the enzymatic treatment, while for the unblended PLA, it was just about 32%. These results pointed to the synergistic effect of jute on PLA degradation because of the promiscuous activity of the effective enzymes on jute degradation, which could accelerate the PLA decomposition.

  • 20.
    Mohammadkhani, Ghasem
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adolfsson, Karin H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    New Solvent and Coagulating Agent for Development of Chitosan Fibers by Wet Spinning2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 2121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipic acid was evaluated as a novel solvent for wet spinning of chitosan fibers. A solvent with two carboxyl groups could act as a physical crosslinker between the chitosan chains, resulting in improved properties of the fibers. The performance of adipic acid was compared with conventional solvents, i.e., lactic, citric, and acetic acids. Chitosan solutions were injected into a coagulation bath to form monofilaments. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and its mixture with ethanol (EtOH) were used as coagulation agents. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of uniform chitosan monofilaments with an even surface when using adipic acid as solvent. These monofilaments generally showed higher mechanical strength compared to that of monofilaments produced using conventional solvents. The highest Young’s modulus, 4.45 GPa, was recorded for adipic acid monofilaments coagulated in NaOH-EtOH. This monofilament also had a high tensile strength of 147.9 MPa. Furthermore, taking advantage of chitosan insolubility in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at room temperature, chitosan fibers were successfully formed upon coagulation in H2SO4-EtOH. The dewatering of fibers using EtOH before drying resulted in a larger fiber diameter and lower mechanical strength. Adipic acid fibers made without dehydration illustrated 18% (for NaOH), 46% (for NaOH-EtOH), and 91% (for H2SO4-EtOH) higher tensile strength compared to those made with dehydration.

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  • 21.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioethylene Production from Ethanol: A Review and Techno-economical Evaluation.2017In: Challenges in Sustainability, ISSN 2297-6477, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 75-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufg. of bioethylene via dehydration of bioethanol is an alternative to the fossil-based ethylene prodn. and decreases the environmental consequences for this chem. commodity. A few industrial plants that utilize 1st generation bioethanol for the bioethylene prodn. already exist, although not functioning without subsidiaries. However, there is still no process producing ethylene from 2nd generation bioethanol. This study is divided into two parts. Different ethanol and ethylene prodn. methods, the process specifications and current technologies are briefly discussed in the first part. In the second part, a techno-economic anal. of a bioethylene plant was performed using Aspen plus and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, where different qualities of ethanol were considered. The results show that impurities in the ethanol feed have no significant effect on the quality of the produced polymer-grade bioethylene. The capacity of the ethylene storage tank significantly affects the capital costs of the process. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 22. Mousavi, Najmeh
    et al.
    Parchami, Mohsen
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioconversion of Carrot Pomace to Value-Added Products: Rhizopus delemar Fungal Biomass and Cellulose2023In: Fermentation, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carrot pomace (CP) which is generated in a large volume in the juice production process, is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, sugars, pectin, and minerals. However, in many previous investigations, only cellulose was purified and utilized while other components of CP were discarded as waste. Here, CP was valorized into fungal biomass and cellulose with the aim of utilizing all the CP components. Enzymatic pretreatments were applied to solubilize the digestible fraction of CP including hemicellulose, pectin, sucrose, and other sugars for fungal cultivation, while cellulose remained intact in the solid fraction. The dissolved fraction was utilized as a substrate for the cultivation of an edible fungus (Rhizopus delemar). Fungal cultivation was performed in shake flasks and bench-scale bioreactors. The highest fungal biomass concentration was obtained after pretreatment with invertase (5.01 g/L) after 72 h of cultivation (36 and 42% higher than the concentrations obtained after hemicellulase and pectinase treatments, respectively). Invertase pretreatment resulted in the hydrolysis of sucrose, which could then be taken up by the fungus. Carbohydrate analysis showed 28–33% glucan, 4.1–4.9% other polysaccharides, 0.01% lignin, and 2.7–7% ash in the CP residues after enzymatic pretreatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also confirmed the presence of cellulose in this fraction. The obtained fungal biomass has a high potential for food or feed applications, or as a raw material for the development of biomaterials. Cellulose could be purified from the solid fraction and used for applications such as biobased-textiles or membranes for wastewater treatment, where pure cellulose is needed.

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  • 23.
    Mousavi, Seyedeh Najmeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Wood and Paper Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari 4818168984, Iran.
    Nazarnezhad, N.
    Department of Wood and Paper Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari 4818168984, Iran.
    Asadpour, G.
    Department of Wood and Paper Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari 4818168984, Iran.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ultrafine friction grinding of lignin for development of starch biocomposite films2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 2024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work demonstrates the utilization of fractionalized lignin from the black liquor of soda pulping for the development of starch-lignin biocomposites. The effect of ultrafine friction grinding on lignin particle size and properties of the biocomposites was investigated. Microscopic analysis and membrane filtration confirmed the reduction of lignin particle sizes down to micro and nanoparticles during the grinding process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed the compatibility between lignin particles and starch in the composites. The composite films were characterized for chemical structure, ultraviolet blocking, mechanical, and thermal properties. Additional grinding steps led to the reduction of large lignin particles and the produced particles were uniform. The formation of 7.7 to 11.3% lignin nanoparticles was confirmed in the two steps of membrane filtration. The highest tensile strain of the biocomposite films were 5.09 MPa, which displays a 40% improvement compared to starch films. Further, thermal stability of the composite films was better than that of starch films. The results from ultraviolet transmission showed that the composite films could act as an ultraviolet barrier in packaging applications. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 24.
    Perrin, Natacha
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mohammadkhani, Ghasem
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Homayouni Moghadam, Farshad
    Department of Animal Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran.
    Delattre, Cédric
    Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont Auvergne INP, CNRS, Institut Pascal, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France; Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biocompatible fibers from fungal and shrimp chitosans for suture application2022In: Current Research in Biotechnology, ISSN 2590-2628, Vol. 4, p. 530-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purified fungal chitosan and crustacean chitosan were wet spun by using adipic and lactic acids as solvent. The lowest viscosity at which fiber formation was possible was 0.5 Pa·s; below this value, aggregates from low molecular weight fungal chitosan (32 kDa) formed, which could not be collected and dried. Fiber formation was achieved with high molecular weight fungal (400 kDa) and shrimp (406.7 kDa) chitosans as well as low molecular weight shrimp chitosan (50–190 kDa). Fibers made of high molecular weight chitosans with adipic acid as the solvent generally exhibited higher tensile strength; the highest observed tensile strength and Young’s modulus were 308.0 ± 18.4 MPa and 22.7 ± 4.0 GPa, respectively. SEM images indicated the formation of cylindrical chitosan fibers. The survival (viability) of human skin fibroblasts in presence of different fibers was measured using tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay and results confirmed that chitosan fibers have better biocompatibility than common conventional sutures, regardless of the chitosan and acid type. Accordingly, chitosan fibers from fungal and shrimp sources serve as good candidates for application as sutures.

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  • 25.
    Salehinik, F.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Behzad, T.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bahrami, B.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Extraction and characterization of fungal chitin nanofibers from Mucor indicus cultured in optimized medium conditions2021In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 167, p. 1126-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitin nanofibers (ChNFs) were extracted from Mucor indicus by a purification method followed by a mechanical treatment, cultivated under obtained optimum culture medium conditions to improve fungal chitin production rate. A semi synthetic media containing 50 g/l glucose was used for cultivation of the fungus in shake flasks. The cell wall analysis showed that N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) content, which is an indication of chitin content, was maximum in presence of 2.5 g/l H3PO4, 2.5 g/l of NaOH, 1 g/l of yeast extract, 1 mg/l of plant hormones, and 1 ml/l of trace metals. The chemical characterizations demonstrated that the isolated fibers had a degree of deacetylation lower than of 10%, and were phosphate free. The FTIR results revealed successful removal of different materials during the purification step. The FE-SEM of fibrillated chitin illustrated an average diameter of 28 nm. Finally, X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallinity index of nanofibers was 82%.

  • 26.
    Satari, B.
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås.
    Karimi, K.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Co-production of fungal biomass derived constituents and ethanol from citruswastes free sugars without auxiliary nutrients in airlift bioreactor2016In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 17, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of two zygomycetes fungi, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae, in assimilating citrus waste free sugars (CWFS) and producing fungal chitosan, oil, and protein as well as ethanol was investigated. Extraction of free sugars from citrus waste can reduce its environmental impact by decreasing the possibility of wild microorganisms growth and formation of bad odors, a typical problem facing the citrus industries. A total sugar concentration of 25.1 g/L was obtained by water extraction of citrus waste at room temperature, used for fungal cultivation in shake flasks and airlift bioreactor with no additional nutrients. In shake flasks cultivations, the fungi were only able to assimilate glucose, while fructose remained almost intact. In contrast, the cultivation of M. indicus and R. oryzae in the four-liter airlift bioreactor resulted in the consumption of almost all sugars and production of 250 and 280 g fungal biomass per kg of consumed sugar, respectively. These biomasses correspondingly contained 40% and 51% protein and 9.8% and 4.4% oil. Furthermore, the fungal cell walls, obtained after removing the alkali soluble fraction of the fungi, contained 0.61 and 0.69 g chitin and chitosan per g of cell wall for M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Moreover, the maximum ethanol yield of 36% and 18% was obtained from M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Furthermore, that M. indicus grew as clump mycelia in the airlift bioreactor, while R. oryzae formed spherical suspended pellets, is a promising feature towards industrialization of the process. 

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  • 27. Satari, Behzad
    et al.
    Palhed, Jonny
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Process optimization for citrus waste biorefinery via simultaneous pectin extraction and pretreatment.2017In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1706-1722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a novel valorization approach for simultaneous pectin extn. and pretreatment (SPEP) of citrus waste (CW) by dil. nitric acid and ethanol, almost all of the CW was converted to bio-derived chems. in a singlestep process at a low/moderate temp. The SPEP was performed at different temps. (70 °C and 80 °C), pH (1.8, 3.0, and 4.3), and extn. times (2 h and 3 h) with a full factorial design. The max. pectin yield of 45.5% was obtained at pH 1.8, 80 °C, and 2 h. The pectin yields at pH 1.8 were much higher than at pH 4.3 and 3. Also, the degree of methyl-esterification at pH 1.8 was higher than 50%, whereas at the higher pH, low methoxyl pectins were extd. The treated CW obtained after the SPEP, free from limonene, was subjected to sep. cellulolytic enzymic hydrolysis and ethanolic fermn. The glucose yields in the enzymic hydrolyzates were higher for the CW treated at pH 1.8. The fermn. of the enzymic hydrolyzates by Mucor indicus resulted in fungal biomass yields in the range of 355 to 687 mg per g of consumed sugars. The optimum conditions for obtaining the max. SPEP yield (glucose + pectin (g) / raw material (g)*100) were pH 1.8, 80 °C, and 2 h, which resulted in a yield of 58.7% (g/g CW). [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 28.
    Satari, Behzad
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Isfahan University of Technology.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Isfahan University of Technology.
    Co-Production of Fungal Biomass Derived Constituents and Ethanol from Citrus Wastes Free Sugars without Auxiliary Nutrients in Airlift Bioreactor2016In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of two zygomycetes fungi, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae, in assimilating citrus waste free sugars (CWFS) and producing fungal chitosan, oil, and protein as well as ethanol was investigated. Extraction of free sugars from citrus waste can reduce its environmental impact by decreasing the possibility of wild microorganisms growth and formation of bad odors, a typical problem facing the citrus industries. A total sugar concentration of 25.1 g/L was obtained by water extraction of citrus waste at room temperature, used for fungal cultivation in shake flasks and airlift bioreactor with no additional nutrients. In shake flasks cultivations, the fungi were only able to assimilate glucose, while fructose remained almost intact. In contrast, the cultivation of M. indicus and R. oryzae in the four-liter airlift bioreactor resulted in the consumption of almost all sugars and production of 250 and 280 g fungal biomass per kg of consumed sugar, respectively. These biomasses correspondingly contained 40% and 51% protein and 9.8% and 4.4% oil. Furthermore, the fungal cell walls, obtained after removing the alkali soluble fraction of the fungi, contained 0.61 and 0.69 g chitin and chitosan per g of cell wall for M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Moreover, the maximum ethanol yield of 36% and 18% was obtained from M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Furthermore, that M. indicus grew as clump mycelia in the airlift bioreactor, while R. oryzae formed spherical suspended pellets, is a promising feature towards industrialization of the process.[on SciFinder (R)]

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  • 29.
    Souza Filho, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management from Potato Starch Production: Present Status and Alternative Biotreatments2017In: Fermentation, Vol. 3, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 30.
    Souza Filho, Pedro Ferreira
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Edible Protein Production by Filamentous Fungi using Starch Plant Wastewater2018In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process to obtain starch from wheat requires high amounts of water, consequently generating large amounts of wastewater with very high environmental loading. This wastewater is traditionally sent to treatment facilities. This paper introduces an alternative method, where the wastewater of a wheat-starch plant is treated by edible filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae) to obtain a protein-rich biomass to be used as e.g. animal feed. The wastewater was taken from the clarified liquid of the first and second decanter (ED1 and ED2, respectively) and from the solid-rich stream (SS), whose carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations ranged between 15 and 90 and 1.25–1.40 g/L, respectively. A. oryzae showed better performance than R. oryzae, removing more than 80% of COD after 3 days for ED1 and ED2 streams. Additionally, 12 g/L of dry biomass with protein content close to 35% (w/w) was collected, demonstrating the potential of filamentous fungi to be used in wastewater valorization. High content of fermentable solids in the SS sample led to high production of ethanol (10.91 g/L), which can be recovered and contribute to the economics of the process.

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  • 31.
    Souza Filho, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Production of Edible Fungi from Potato Protein Liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor2017In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potato protein liquor (PPL), a side stream from the potato starch industry, is normally used as fertilizer. However, with more than 100 g/L of sugars, 20 g/L of Kjeldahl nitrogen and Chemical Oxigen Demand (COD) of 300 g/L, it represents serious environmental challenges. The use of PPL for fungal cultivation is a promising solution to convert this waste into valuable products. In this study, PPL was characterized and used to cultivate edible zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae, which is widely used in Southeast Asian cuisine to prepare e.g., tempeh. Moreover, it can be potentially used as a protein source in animal feed worldwide. Under the best conditions, 65.47 ± 2.91 g of fungal biomass per litre of PPL was obtained in airlift bioreactors. The total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the biomass was above 70 g/kg dry biomass. The best results showed 51% reduction of COD and 98.7% reduction in the total sugar content of PPL.

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  • 32.
    Souza Filho, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-970 Natal, Brazil.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Valorization of Wheat Byproducts for the Co-Production of Packaging Material and Enzymes2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management systems are overloaded with huge streams of plastic, a large part of this being originated from packaging. Additionally, the production of wheat, one of the most cultivated crops in the world, generates low-value lignocellulosic materials, which are mostly discarded. In this study, the wheat lignocellulosic byproducts straw and bran were used for the co-production of enzymes and bio-based materials with possible application as packaging via the compression molding method. The mechanical properties of the films were studied based on the effects of the removal of lignin by alkali and biological pretreatment, the growth of filamentous fungi, the size of the particles, and the enzyme recovery. Generally, the straw films were stiffer than the bran ones, but the highest Young’s modulus was obtained for the biologically pretreated bran (1074 MPa). The addition of a step to recover the fungal cellulases produced during the cultivation had no statistical effect on the mechanical properties of the films. Moreover, alkali and biological pretreatments improved the anaerobic biodegradability of the straw films. Thus, the wheat bran and straw can be used for the co-production of enzymes, materials, and biogas, potentially changing how wheat and packaging wastes are managed.

  • 33.
    Souza Filho, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Solid Precipitation from Potato Protein Liquor by Ethanol2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of starch in European Union (EU 28) was around 10 million tonnes in 2013, 12.6% of them being from potato1. During the potato processing, two main by-products which have high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) are formed, i.e. potato pulp (PP) and potato liquor (PL)2. Proteins can be partially recovered from PL, resulting in a concentrated residual material known as potato protein liquor (PoPL)2,3. The use of PoPL has been investigated to cultivate fungal4 and yeast3 biomass, and produce enzymes2. However, presence of nitrogen and phosphate containing materials as well as suspended solids at high concentrations4 limits its application in bioprocesses. The present study was proposed to investigate the precipitation of components from PoPL by ethanol in order to get an easily fermentable solution. PoPL from Lyckeby Starch AB was mixed with different amounts of ethanol and centrifuged at 3000 g for 5 min. The liquid obtained was put under a fume hood for 48 h at room temperature for ethanol evaporation. All the samples had their volumes adjusted to the same value using distilled water. The precipitate was dried at 105 °C. All experiments were done in duplicate. The precipitation of solids improved almost 500% for a mixture of equal volumes of PoPL and ethanol compared to PoPL without ethanol addition. The protein and ash contents of the precipitate were respectively higher than 245 g/kg and 420 g/kg in all the cases, making it eligible for production of fertilizer or animal feed. Most of the analysed sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) stayed in the liquid phase. Ethanol concentration in the liquid phase remained close to initial value after the 48-hour evaporation. This indicates the need for a distillation column for ethanol recovery before the remaining sugar solution can be used for fermentation purposes.

  • 34.
    Svensson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bucuricova, Ludmila
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Souza Filho, Pedro F.
    Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-970 Natal, Brazil.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Valorization of Bread Waste to a Fiber- and Protein-Rich Fungal Biomass2021In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filamentous fungi can be used for the valorization of food waste as a value-added product. The goal of this study was the valorization of bread waste through fungal cultivation and the production of value-added products. The fungal cultivation was verified for upscaling from shake flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor (4.5 L) and a pilot-scale bioreactor (26 L). The fungus showed the ability to grow without any additional enzymes or nutrients, and it was able to consume a bread concentration of 4.5% (w/v) over 48 h. The biomass concentration in the shake flasks was 4.1 g/L at a 2.5% bread concentration, which increased to 22.5 g/L at a 15% bread concentration. The biomass concentrations obtained after 48 h of cultivation using a 4.5% bread concentration were 7.2–8.3 and 8.0 g/L in 4.5 and 26 L bioreactors, respectively. Increasing the aeration rate in the 4.5 L bioreactor decreased the amount of ethanol produced and slightly reduced the protein content of the fungal biomass. The initial protein value in the bread was around 13%, while the protein content in the harvested fungal biomass ranged from 27% to 36%. The nutritional value of the biomass produced was evaluated by analyzing the amino acids and fatty acids. This study presents the valorization of bread waste through the production of a protein- and fatty-acid-rich fungal biomass that is simultaneously a source of microfibers.

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  • 35.
    Svensson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Karin H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fungal textiles: Wet spinning of fungal microfibers to produce monofilament yarns2021In: Sustainable Materials and Technologies, ISSN 2214-9937, Vol. 28, article id e00256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cell wall of a zygomycetes fungus was successfully wet spun into monofilament yarns and demonstrated as a novel resource for production of sustainable textiles. Furthermore, the fungus could be cultivated on bread waste, an abundant food waste with large negative environmental impact if not further utilized. Rhizopus delemar was first cultivated in bread waste in a bubble column bioreactor. The fungal cell wall collected through alkali treatment of fungal biomass contained 36 and 23% glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine representing chitosan and chitin in the cell wall, respectively. The amino groups of chitosan were protonated by utilizing acetic or lactic acid. This resulted in the formation of a uniform hydrogel of fungal microfibers. The obtained hydrogel was wet spun into an ethanol coagulation bath to form an aggregated monofilament, which was finally dried. SEM images confirmed the alignment of fungal microfibers along the monofilament axis. The wet spun monofilaments had tensile strengths up to 69.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 4.97 GPa. This work demonstrates an environmentally benign procedure to fabricate renewable fibers from fungal cell wall cultivated on abundant food waste, which opens a window to creation of sustainable fungal textiles.

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  • 36.
    Svensson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oliveira, A. O.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, K. H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinmaa, I.
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Root, A.
    MagSol, Tuhkanummenkuja 2, 00970 Helsinki, Finland.
    Kondori, N.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institution of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 413 46 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, M.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Turning food waste to antibacterial and biocompatible fungal chitin/chitosan monofilaments2022In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 209, p. 618-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, cell wall of a zygomycete fungus, Rhizopus delemar, grown on bread waste was wet spun into monofilaments. Using the whole cell wall material omits the common chitosan isolation and purification steps and leads to higher material utilization. The fungal cell wall contained 36.9% and 19.7% chitosan and chitin, respectively. Solid state NMR of the fungal cell wall material confirmed the presence of chitosan, chitin, and other carbohydrates. Hydrogels were prepared by ultrafine grinding of the cell wall, followed by addition of lactic acid to protonate the amino groups of chitosan, and subsequently wet spun into monofilaments. The monofilament inhibited the growth of Bacillus megaterium (Gram+ bacterium) and Escherichia coli (Gram- bacterium) significantly (92.2% and 99.7% respectively). Cytotoxicity was evaluated using an in vitro assay with human dermal fibroblasts, indicating no toxic inducement from exposure of the monofilaments. The antimicrobial and biocompatible fungal monofilaments, open new avenues for sustainable biomedical textiles from abundant food waste. © 2022 The Authors

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  • 37.
    Wijayarathna, E.R. Kanishka B.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mohammadkhani, Ghasem
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi Soufiani, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adolfsson, Karin H.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Heinmaa, Ivo
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallin, Estonia.
    Root, Andrew
    Magsol, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fungal textile alternatives from bread waste with leather-like properties2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, article id 106041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste and fashion pollution are two of the most prominent global environmental issues. To alleviate the problems associated with food waste, while simultaneously contributing to sustainable fashion, the feasibility of making an alternative textile material with leather-like properties from fungal biomass cultivated on bread waste was investigated. The filamentous fungus, Rhizopus delemar, was successfully grown on waste bread in a submerged cultivation process, and fungal biomass was treated with vegetable tannin of chestnut wood. NMR and FTIR confirmed interactions between tannin and fungal biomass, while OM, SEM and AFM visualised the changes in the hyphae upon the tannin treatment. Thermal stability was assessed using TGA analysis. The wet-laid technique commonly utilised for paper-making was used to prepare sheets of hyphae. Some of the sheets were treated with glycerol and/or a biobased binder as post-treatment. Overall, three of the produced materials exhibited leather-like properties comparable to that of natural leather. Sheets from untreated biomass with only glycerol post-treatment showed a tensile strength of 7.7 MPa and an elongation at break of 5%. Whereas sheets from untreated biomass and tannin treated biomass with both glycerol and binder treatments led to tensile strengths of 7.1 MPa and 6.9 MPa, and the elongation at break of 12% and 17%, respectively. The enhancement of hydrophobicity after the binder treatment, helped to preserve the absorbed glycerol within the sheet and thereby the flexibility was retained when in contact with moisture. These findings demonstrate that bread waste-derived fungal sheets have great potential as environmentally friendly materials with leather-like properties.

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  • 38.
    Wijayarathna, E.R. Kanishka B.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mohammadkhani, Ghasem
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni
    Department of Animal Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology ACECR Isfahan 83431 Iran.
    Berglund, Linn
    Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics Luleå University of Technology Luleå SE‐971 87 Sweden.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adolfsson, Karin H.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm SE‐100 44 Sweden.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm SE‐100 44 Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tunable Fungal Monofilaments from Food Waste for Textile Applications2023In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fungal biorefinery is presented to valorize food waste to fungal monofilaments with tunable properties for different textile applications. Rhizopus delemar is successfully grown on bread waste and the fibrous cell wall is isolated. A spinnable hydrogel is produced from cell wall by protonation of amino groups of chitosan followed by homogenization and concentration. Fungal hydrogel is wet spun to form fungal monofilaments which underwent post-treatments to tune the properties. The highest tensile strength of untreated monofilaments is 65 MPa (and 4% elongation at break). The overall highest tensile strength of 140.9 MPa, is achieved by water post-treatment. Moreover, post-treatment with 3% glycerol resulted in the highest elongation % at break, i.e., 14%. The uniformity of the monofilaments also increased after the post-treatments. The obtained monofilaments are compared with commercial fibers using Ashby's plots and potential applications are discussed. The wet spun monofilaments are located in the category of natural fibers in Ashby's plots. After water and glycerol treatments, the properties shifted toward metals and elastomers, respectively. The compatibility of the monofilaments with human skin cells is supported by a biocompatibility assay. These findings demonstrate fungal monofilaments with tunable properties fitting a wide range of sustainable textiles applications. 

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  • 39. Yazdani, Parviz
    et al.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterization of Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae biomass composition and its potential for biofuel production.2015In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 176, p. 196-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae, harvested from Persian Gulf, was chem. characterized and employed for the prodn. of ethanol, seaweed ext., alginic acid, and biogas. In order to improve the products yields, the biomass was pretreated with dil. sulfuric acid and hot water. The pretreated and untreated biomasses were subjected to enzymic hydrolysis by cellulase (15 FPU/g) and β-glucosidase (30 IU/g). Hydrolysis yield of glucan was 29.8, 82.5, and 72.7 g/kg for the untreated, hot-water pretreated, and acid pretreated biomass, resp. Anaerobic fermn. of hydrolyzates by Saccharomycescerevisiae resulted in the max. ethanol yield of 34.6 g/kg of the dried biomass. A seaweed ext. contg. mannitol and a solid residue contg. alginic acid were recovered as the main byproducts of the ethanol prodn. On the other hand, the biogas yield from the biomass was increased from 170 to 200 m3 per ton of dried algae biomass by hot water pretreatment. [on SciFinder(R)]

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  • 40.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Superabsorbent Polymers from the Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis presents new renewable, antimicrobial and biodegradable superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), produced from the cell wall of zygomycetes fungi. The cell wall was characterized and chitosan, being one of the most important ingredients, was extracted, purified, and converted to SAP for use in disposable personal care products designed for absorption of different body fluids. The cell wall of zygomycetes fungi was characterized by subsequent hydrolysis with sulfuric and nitrous acids and analyses of the products. The main ingredients of the cell wall were found to be polyphosphates (4-20%) and copolymers of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine, i.e. chitin and chitosan (45-85%). The proportion of each of these components was significantly affected by the fungal strain and also the cultivation conditions. Moreover, dual functions of dilute sulfuric acid in relation to chitosan, i.e. dissolution at high temperatures and precipitation at lowered temperatures, were discovered and thus used as a basis for development of a new method for extraction and purification of the fungal chitosan. Treatment of the cell wall with dilute sulfuric acid at room temperature resulted in considerable dissolution of the cell wall polyphosphates, while chitosan and chitin remained intact in the cell wall residue. Further treatment of this cell wall residue, with fresh acid at 120°C, resulted in dissolution of chitosan and its separation from the remaining chitin/chitosan of the cell wall skeleton which was not soluble in hot acid. Finally, the purified fungal chitosan (0.34 g/g cell wall) was recovered by precipitation at lowered temperatures and pH 8-10. The purity and the yield of fungal chitosan in the new method were significantly higher than that were obtained in the traditional acetic acid extraction method. As a reference to pure chitosan, SAP from shellfish chitosan, was produced by conversion of this biopolymer into water soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), gelation of CMCS with glutaraldehyde in aqueous solutions (1-2%), and drying the resultant gel. Effects of carboxymethylation, gelation and drying conditions on the water binding capacity (WBC) of the final products, were investigated. Finally, choosing the best condition, a biological superabsorbent was produced from zygomycetes chitosan. The CMCS-based SAPs were able to absorb up to 200 g water/g SAP. The WBC of the best SAP in urine and saline solutions was 40 and 32 g/g respectively, which is comparable to the WBC of commercially acceptable SAPs under identical conditions (34-57 and 30-37 g/g respectively).

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  • 41.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, L.
    Niklasson, C.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Temperature Shifts for Extraction and Purification of Zygomycetes Chitosan with Dilute Sulfuric Acid2010In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 2976-2987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8-10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%.

  • 42.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Sjöström, Björn
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Extraction and Precipitation of Chitosan from Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi by Dilute Sulfuric Acid2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 3786-3790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed in this work for extraction of chitosan and partial characterization of zygomycetes fungi. The method is based on temperature-dependent solubility of chitosan in dilute sulfuric acid. Chitin (acetylated chitosan) is neither soluble in cold nor hot dilute sulfuric acid. Similarly chitosan is not soluble at room temperature. However, it is dissolved in 1% H2SO4 at 121°C within just 20 min. The new method was developed to measure the chitosan content of biomass and cell wall materials derived from different sources. The procedures were investigated by measuring phosphate, protein, ash, glucuronic acid and degree of acetylation. The cell wall derivatives of fungus Rhizomucor pusillus were then examined by this new method. The results indicated 8% of the dry biomass as chitosan. After treatment with NaOH, the alkali insoluble material (AIM) contained 45.3% chitosan. Treatment of AIM with acetic acid resulted in acetic acid soluble material (AcSM), 16.5% and alkali and acid insoluble material (AAIM), 79.0%. AcSM is traditionally cited as pure chitosan, but this new method shows major impurities by e.g. phosphate. Furthermore, traditional methods usually consider AAIM as chitosan-free fraction of the cell walls, while this new method shows more than 76% of the chitosan present in AIM to be found in AAIM. It might indicate the inability of acetic acid to separate fungal chitosan from the cell wall.

  • 43.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Henriksson, D.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    A new foaming technique for production of superabsorbents from carboxymethyl chitosan2010In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 1091-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A foaming technique was developed for production of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) with high, medium and low molecular weights. In this method n-pentane was used as a blowing agent due to low boiling point and immiscibility with water. n-Pentane was added to a warm aqueous solution of CMCS and boiled. CMCS was then gelled by adding the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde and consequently n-pentane was captured inside the polymer network. The n-pentane was evaporated from this network while drying in oven. It resulted in stable foam that prevented the hydrogel from collapsing and the dried product had a porous structure with a high water-binding capacity (WBC). The effects of molecular weight of CMCS and its concentration, and the amounts of glutaraldehyde and n-pentane used, on WBC were investigated and optimized using response surface experimental design. The best result for WBC of foam-dried SAP was 107 (g/g) after exposing for 1 h in pure water and 60 (g/g) and 37 (g/g) after exposing for one min in pure water and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. The WBC of the SAP produced by the foaming technique was more than five times higher than the WBC of the oven-dried crosslinked CMCS.

  • 44.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Jeihanipour, Azam
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Determination of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine in fungal cell walls2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 18, p. 8314-8318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed to determine glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) in materials containing chitin and chitosan, such as fungal cell walls. It is based on two steps of hydrolysis with (i) concentrated sulfuric acid at low temperature and (ii) dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature, followed by one-step degradation with nitrous acid. In this process, chitin and chitosan are converted into anhydromannose and acetic acid. Anhydromannose represents the sum of GlcN and GlcNAc, whereas acetic acid is a marker for GlcNAc only. The method showed recovery of 90.1% of chitin and 85.7-92.4% of chitosan from commercial preparations. Furthermore, alkali insoluble material (AIM) from biomass of three strains of zygomycetes, Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizomucor pusillus, was analyzed by this method. The glucosamine contents of AIM from R. oryzae and M. indicus were almost constant (41.7 +/- 2.2% and 42.0 +/- 1.7%, respectively), while in R. pusillus, it decreased from 40.0 to 30.0% during cultivation from 1 to 6 days. The GlcNAc content of AIM from R. oryzae and R. pusillus increased from 24.9 to 31.0% and from 36.3 to 50.8%, respectively, in 6 days, while it remained almost constant during the cultivation of M. indicus (23.5 +/- 0.8%).

  • 45.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effects of partial dehydration and freezing temperature on water binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 49, no 17, p. 8094-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) cross-linked to a gel, concentrated by partial dehydration in a rotary evaporator (at 70, 85, and 100 °C), frozen at −5, −20, and −196 °C, and then freeze dried. A 0.9% aqueous solution of CMCS was gelled by addition of glutaraldehyde and partially dehydrated to 1.3−16.8% dry matter (DM) before freeze drying. The water binding capacity (WBC) of the products was up to 171 g/g of superabsorbent. The best results were obtained when 32−81% of the water in the gel was removed in the evaporator at 85−100 °C, and the concentrated gel (1.3−4.7% DM) was frozen in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C before freeze drying. On average, these SAPs, according to SEM micrographs, had a porous sponge-like structure and absorbed 35 and 32 g/g of saline and urine solutions after 10 min exposure, respectively. The corresponding WBC of two commercial polyacrylate-based SAPs was 34−57 g/g for saline and 30−37 g/g for urine solutions.

  • 46.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Effects of partial dehydration and freezing temperature on the morphology and water binding capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0196-4321, Vol. 49, no 17, p. 8094-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) cross-linked to a gel, concentrated by partial dehydration in a rotary evaporator (at 70, 85, and 100°C), frozen at -5, -20, and -196°C, and then freeze dried. A 0.9% aqueous solution of CMCS was gelled by addition of glutaraldehyde and partially dehydrated to 1.3-16.8% dry matter (DM) before freeze drying. The water binding capacity (WBC) of the products was up to 171 g/g of superabsorbent. The best results were obtained when 32-81% of the water in the gel was removed in the evaporator at 85-100°C, and the concentrated gel (1.3-4.7% DM) was frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196°C before freeze drying. On average, these SAPs, according to SEM micrographs, had a porous sponge-like structure and absorbed 35 and 32 g/g of saline and urine solutions after 10 min exposure, respectively. The corresponding WBC of two commercial polyacrylate-based SAPs was 34-57 g/g for saline and 30-37 g/g for urine solutions. 

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