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  • 1.
    Abedinifar, S.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Karimi, K
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Khanahmadi, M.
    Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation2009In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 828-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 °C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g-1 sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g-1) and untreated straw (0.46 g g-1). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L-1 resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g-1 ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g-1 biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g-1 glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g-1 ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g-1 biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g-1. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g-1, respectively. 

  • 2. Abedinifar, Sorahi
    et al.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Khanahmadi, Morteza
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizapus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation2009In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 828-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and beta-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 degrees C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g (1) sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g (1)) and untreated straw (0.46 g g(-1)). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L-1 resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g(-1) ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g(-1) biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g(-1) glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g(-1) ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g(-1) biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g(-1). This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g(-1), respectively. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Ebrahimi, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Khanahmadi, Morteza
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol production from bread residues2008In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 333-337Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Elled, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Davidsson, K.O.
    Åmand, L.E.
    Sewage sludge as a deposit inhibitor when co-fired with high potassium fuels2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 1546-1554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to survey the fate of potassium in the gas phase of a fluidised bed boiler and gain deeper understanding of the involved mechanisms during co-firing of municipal sewage sludge with biomass containing high amounts of potassium and chlorine. The results show that formation of alkali chlorides in the flue gas and corrosive deposits on heat transfer surfaces can be controlled by addition of municipal sewage sludge even though the fuel is highly contaminated with chlorine. The beneficial effects are partly due to the content of sulphur in the sludge, partly to the properties of the sludge ash. The sludge ash consists of both crystalline and amorphous phases. It contains silica, aluminium, calcium, iron and phosphorus which all are involved in the capture of potassium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5. Goshadrou, Amir
    et al.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol and biogas production from birch by NMMO pretreatment2013In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 49, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Birch wood was pretreated with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO or NMO) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol or digestion to biogas. The pretreatments were carried out with NMMO (wNMMO ¼ 85%) at 130 C for 3 h, and the effects of drying after the pretreatment were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the untreated wood resulted in 8%e10% of theoretical glucose yield after 4 days hydrolysis, while the NMMO pretreatment improved this yield to 91%. Consequently, ethanol production yield from NMMO-pretreated materials resulted in around 9-fold improvement compared to the untreated wood. On the other hand, drying of the pretreated wood had a negative impact and decreased the yield of enzymatic hydrolysis by 4%e10%. Digestion of the untreated wood with thermophilic bacteria resulted in maximum methane yield of 158 cm3 g 1 of VS in 30 days, while the NMMO pretreatment improved the methane yield up to 232 cm3 g 1 of VS (80% of the theoretical biogas yield) in just 9 days.

  • 6.
    Ishola, Mofoluwake M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Simultaneous glucose and xylose utilization for improved ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass through SSFF with encapsulated yeast.2015In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 77, p. 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous glucose and xylose uptake was investigated for ethanol prodn. using the simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermn. (SSFF) process with pretreated wheat straw as a xylose-rich lignocellulosic biomass. A genetically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0936) with the ability to ferment xylose was used for the fermns. SSFF was compared with a conventional method of simultaneous saccharification and fermn. (SSF) for glucose and xylose uptake, ethanol prodn., and cell viability on 10% and 12% suspended solids (SS) basis. With 10% SS, an ethanol yield of 90% of the theor. level was obtained during SSFF with 80% xylose uptake while only 53% ethanol yield was obsd. during the SSF process. Increasing the solid load to 12% resulted in an ethanol yield of 77% of the theor. value and 36% xylose uptake during SSFF while only 27% ethanol yield and no xylose uptake was obsd. during the corresponding SSF process. The SSFF process preserved the viability of the genetically engineered yeast throughout the fermn., even when reused for 2 consecutive cultivations. The results show that the SSFF process does not only enhance effective cell performance but also facilitates simultaneous glucose and xylose utilization, which is important for broad range of biomass utilization for lignocellulosic ethanol prodn. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 7. Karimi, K.
    et al.
    Kheradmandinia, S.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Conversion of rice straw to sugars by dilute-acid hydrolysis2006In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrolysis of rice straw by dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature and pressure was investigated in one and two stages. The hydrolyses were carried out in a 10-l reactor, where the hydrolysis retention time (3-10 min), pressure (10-35 bar) and acid concentration (0-1%) were examined. Optimization of first stage hydrolysis is desirable to achieve the highest yield of the sugars from hemicellulose and also as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show the ability of first stage hydrolysis to depolymerize xylan to xylose with a maximum yield of 80.8% at hydrolysis pressure of 15 bar, 10 min retention time and 0.5% acid concentration. However, the yield of glucose from glucan was relatively low in first stage hydrolysis at a maximum of 25.8%. The solid residuals were subjected to further dilute-acid hydrolysis in this study. This second-stage hydrolysis without addition of the acid could not increase the yield of glucose from glucan beyond 26.6%. On the other hand, the best results of the hydrolysis were achieved, when 0.5% sulfuric acid was added prior to each stage in two-stage hydrolysis. The best results of the second stage of the hydrolysis were achieved at the hydrolysis pressure and the retention time of 30 bar and 3 min in the second stage hydrolysis, where a total of 78.9% of xylan and 46.6% of glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively in the two stages. Formation of furfural and HMF were functions of the hydrolysis pressure, acid concentration, and retention time, whereas the concentration of acetic acid was almost constant at pressure of higher than 10 bar and a total retention time of 10 min.

  • 8.
    Pettersson, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åmand, Lars-Erik
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and wood, Part I: Recovery of phosphorus2008In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 224-235Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Pettersson, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åmand, Lars-Erik
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Leaching of ashes from co-combustion of sewage sludge and wood-Part II: The mobility of meatals during phosphorus extraction2008In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Teghammar, Anna
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Enhanced biogas production from rice straw, triticale straw and softwood spruce by NMMO pretreatment2012In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 36, p. 116-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Softwoodspruce (chips and milled), ricestraw and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat) straw, were pretreated with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO or NMO) prior to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The pretreatments were performed at 130 °C for 1–15 h, and the digestions continued for six weeks. The digestions of untreated chips (10 mm) and milled (<1 mm) spruce, ricestraw and triticalestraw resulted in 11, 66, 22 and 30 Nml CH4/g raw material. However, the pretreatments have improved these methane yields by 400–1200%. The best digestion results of the pretreated chips and milled spruce, ricestraw and triticalestraw were 125, 245, 157 and 203 Nml CH4/g raw material (or 202, 395, 328 and 362 Nml CH4/g carbohydrates) respectively, which correspond to 49, 95, 79 and 87% of the theoretical yield of 415 Nml CH4/g carbohydrates. Although the experiments were carried out for six weeks, one and a half weeks was enough to digest the materials.

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