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  • 1.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ingman, Petri
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    Synthesis and characterization of unsaturated lactic acid based thermoset bio-resins2014In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 67, p. 570-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based thermoset resins have been synthesized using lactic acid oligomers, which were functionalized with carbon–carbon double bonds, in order to allow their crosslinking by a free radical mechanism. Two different resin structures were synthesized. One resin was composed of an allyl alcohol terminated lactic acid oligomer, which was end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride (MLA resin). The second resin was a mixture of the same allyl alcohol-lactic acid oligomer, and penthaerythritol. This mixture was end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride, in order to get a methacrylate functionalized lactic acid oligomer, and methacrylate functionalized penthaerythritol (PMLA resin). The synthesized resins were characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry as well as dynamic mechanical analysis to confirm the resin structure and reactivity. The flow viscosities were also measured in order to evaluate the suitability of the resins to be used as a matrix in composite applications. The results showed that the PMLA resin has better mechanical, thermal and rheological properties than the MLA resin, and both had properties which were comparable with a commercial unsaturated polyester resin. The high biobased content of 90% and the high glass transition temperature at 100 °C for the PMLA resin makes it an attractive candidate for composite applications where crude oil based unsaturated polyester resins are normally used.

  • 2.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ingman, Petri
    University of Turku.
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
    Synthesis and characterisation of unsaturated lactic acid based thermoset bio-resins2015In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 67, no June 2015, p. 570-582Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Recycling of bioplastics, their blends and biocomposites: A review2013In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 2839-2858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review presents scientific findings concerning the recycling of bioplastics, their blends and thermoplastic biocomposites, with special focus on mechanical recycling of bio-based materials. The paper does not include bio-based commodity plastics such as bio-derived polyolefins that are identical to their petroleum-based counterparts and that can be recycled in the same way. During the past few years, recycling of biopolymers and their blends has been studied using both mechanical and chemical methods, whereas in biocomposites, the focus has been on mechanical recycling. This review goes through the findings on the recyclability of various materials, the strengths and weaknesses of applied methods, as well as the potential strategies and opportunities for future improvements. There are still many blends that have not been investigated for their recyclability. Information about commercially available blends containing bioplastics is summarised in the Appendix because of the importance of their possible effects on the conventional plastic recycling streams.

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