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  • 1.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Yin, D M
    Institute of Urban and Rural Mining, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sapmaz, Tugba
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Varjani, S
    Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, India.
    Qiao, W
    Institute of Urban and Rural Mining, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.
    Koseoglu-Imer, D Y
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    A Glimpse of the World of Volatile Fatty Acids Production and Application: A review2022Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1249-1275Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable provision of chemicals and materials is undoubtedly a defining factor in guaranteeing economic, environmental, and social stability of future societies. Among the most sought-after chemical building blocks are volatile fatty acids (VFAs). VFAs such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids have numerous industrial applications supporting from food and pharmaceuticals industries to wastewater treatment. The fact that VFAs can be produced synthetically from petrochemical derivatives and also through biological routes, for example, anaerobic digestion of organic mixed waste highlights their provision flexibility and sustainability. In this regard, this review presents a detailed overview of the applications associated with petrochemically and biologically generated VFAs, individually or in mixture, in industrial and laboratory scale, conventional and novel applications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Akintunde, Moyinoluwa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Adebayo-Tayo, B C
    Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Ishola, M M
    Department of Energy and Environment, Göteborg Energi, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bacterial Cellulose Production from agricultural Residues by two Komagataeibacter sp. Strains2022Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 10010-10025Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural residues are constantly increasing with increased farming processes, and improper disposal is detrimental to the environment. Majority of these waste residues are rich in lignocellulose, which makes them suitable substrate for bacterial fermentation in the production of valueadded products. In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC), a purer and better form of cellulose, was produced by two Komagataeibacter sp. isolated from rotten banana and kombucha drink using corncob (CC) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) enzymatic hydrolyzate, under different fermentation conditions, that is, static, continuous, and intermittent agitation. The physicochemical and mechanical properties of the BC films were then investigated by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetry analysis, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic mechanical analysis. Agitation gave a higher BC yield, with Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73629 producing BC from CC with a dry weight of 1.6 g/L and 1.4 g/L under continuous and intermittent agitation, respectively, compared with that of 0.9 g/L in HS medium. While BC yield of dry weight up to 1.2 g/L was obtained from SCB by Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73630 under continuous agitation compared to that of 0.3 g/L in HS medium. FTIR analysis showed BC bands associated with cellulose I, with high thermal stability. The FE-SEM analysis showed that BC fibers were highly ordered and densely packed. Although the BC produced by both strains showed similar physicochemical and morphological properties, the BC produced by the Komagataeibacter sp. CCUG73630 in CC under intermittent agitation had the best modulus of elasticity, 10.8 GPa and tensile strength, 70.9 MPa. [GRAPHICS]

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Devda, V.
    et al.
    Paryavaran Bhavan, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
    Chaudhary, K.
    Paryavaran Bhavan, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
    Varjani, S.
    Paryavaran Bhavan, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
    Pathak, B.
    School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.
    Patel, A. K.
    Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.
    Singhania, R. R.
    Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ngo, H. H.
    Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Wong, J. W. C.
    Institute of Bioresource and Agriculture and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.
    Guo, W.
    Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Chaturvedi, P.
    Environmental Toxicology Group, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Recovery of resources from industrial wastewater employing electrochemical technologies: status, advancements and perspectives2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 4697-4718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last two decades, water use has increased at twice the rate of population growth. The freshwater resources are getting polluted by contaminants like heavy metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons, organic waste, pathogens, fertilizers, and emerging pollutants. Globally more than 80% of the wastewater is released into the environment without proper treatment. Rapid industrialization has a dramatic effect on developing countries leading to significant losses to economic and health well-being in terms of toxicological impacts on humans and the environment through air, water, and soil pollution. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove wastewater contaminants. A physical and/or chemical technique alone appears ineffective for recovering useful resources from wastewater containing complex components. There is a requirement for more processes or processes combined with membrane and biological processes to enhance operational efficiency and quality. More processes or those that are combined with biological and membrane-based processes are required to enhance operational efficiencies and quality. This paper intends to provide an exhaustive review of electrochemical technologies including microbial electrochemical technologies. It provides comprehensive information for the recovery of metals, nutrients, sulfur, hydrogen, and heat from industrial effluents. This article aims to give detailed information into the advancements in electrochemical processes to energy use, improve restoration performance, and achieve commercialization. It also covers bottlenecks and perspectives of this research area. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Duan, Y.
    et al.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Mehariya, S.
    Department of Engineering, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Aversa (CE), Italy.
    Kumar, A.
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur Maharashtra, India.
    Singh, E.
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur Maharashtra, India.
    Yang, J.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Kumar, S.
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur Maharashtra, India.
    Li, H.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Apple orchard waste recycling and valorization of valuable product-A review2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 476-495Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Huge quantities of apple orchard waste (AOW) generated could be regarded as a promising alternative energy source for fuel and material production. Conventional and traditional processes for disposal of these wastes are neither economical nor environment friendly. Hence, sustainable technologies are required to be developed to solve this long-term existence and continuous growing problem. In light of these issues, this review pays attention towards sustainable and renewable systems, various value-added products from an economic and environmental perspective. Refined bio-product derived from AOW contributes to resource and energy demand comprising of biomethane, bioethanol, biofuels, bio-fertilizers, biochar, and biochemicals, such as organic acid, and enzymes. However, the market implementation of biological recovery requires reliable process technology integrated with an eco-friendly and economic production chain, classified management. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Fristedt, R.
    Food and Nutrition Science, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, K.
    Food and Nutrition Science, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Undeland, I.
    Food and Nutrition Science, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    From stale bread and brewers spent grain to a new food source using edible filamentous fungi2020Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 582-598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By-products from the food sector with a high load of organic matter present both a waste-handling problem related to expenses and to the environment, yet also an opportunity. This study aims to increase the value of stale bread and brewers spent grain (BSG) by re-introducing these residues to the food production chain by converting them to new protein-enriched products using the edible filamentous fungi Neurospora intermedia and Rhizopusoryzae. After 6 days of solid state fermentation (at 35°C, with a95% relative humidity and moisture content of 40% in the substrate) on stale bread, a nutrient-rich fungal-fermented product was produced. The total protein content, as analyzed by total amino acids, increased from 16.5% in stale sourdough bread to 21.1% (on dry weight basis) in the final product with an improved relative ratio of essential amino acids. An increase in dietary fiber, minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn) and vitamin E, as well as an addition of vitamin D2 (0.89 µg/g dry weight sample) was obtained compared with untreated stale bread. Furthermore, addition of BSG to the sourdough bread with the aim to improve textural changes after fermentation showed promising outcomes. Cultivation of N. intermedia or R. oryzae on stale sourdough bread mixed with 6.5% or 11.8% BSG, respectively, resulted in fungal-fermented products with similar textural properties to a commercial soybean burger. Bioconversion of stale bread and BSG by fungal solid state fermentation to produce a nutrient-enriched food product was confirmed to be a successful way to minimize food waste and protein shortage. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Harirchi, Sharareh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wainaina, Steven
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sar, Taner
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nojoumi, S. A.
    Pasteur Institute of Iran.
    Parchami, Mohsen
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Varjani, S.
    Gujarat Pollution Control Board.
    Khanal, S. K.
    University of Hawaii.
    Wong, J.
    Awasthi, M. K.
    Hong Kong Baptist University.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Microbiological insights into anaerobic digestion for biogas, hydrogen or volatile fatty acids (VFAs): a review2022Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 6521-6557Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades, considerable attention has been directed toward anaerobic digestion (AD), which is an effective biological process for converting diverse organic wastes into biogas, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biohydrogen, etc. The microbial bioprocessing takes part during AD is of substantial significance, and one of the crucial approaches for the deep and adequate understanding and manipulating it toward different products is process microbiology. Due to highly complexity of AD microbiome, it is critically important to study the involved microorganisms in AD. In recent years, in addition to traditional methods, novel molecular techniques and meta-omics approaches have been developed which provide accurate details about microbial communities involved AD. Better understanding of process microbiomes could guide us in identifying and controlling various factors in both improving the AD process and diverting metabolic pathway toward production of selective bio-products. This review covers various platforms of AD process that results in different final products from microbiological point of view. The review also highlights distinctive interactions occurring among microbial communities. Furthermore, assessment of these communities existing in the anaerobic digesters is discussed to provide more insights into their structure, dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, the important factors affecting microbial communities in each platform of AD are highlighted. Finally, the review provides some recent applications of AD for the production of novel bio-products and deals with challenges and future perspectives of AD. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Patinvoh, R. J.
    Effect of organic compounds on dry anaerobic digestion of food and paper industry wastes.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Effect of organic compounds on dry anaerobic digestion of food and paper industry wastes2020Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 502-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of antimicrobial compounds on dry anaerobic digestion (dry-AD) processes were investigated. Four compounds with known inhibition effects on traditional wet digestion, i.e. car-3-ene, hexanal, 1-octanol and phenol were selected and investigated at concentrations of 0.005%, 0.05% and 0.5%. Food waste (FW) and Paper waste (PW) were used as model substrates, all assays were running with the substrate to inoculum ratio of 1:1 (VS basis) corresponding to 15% TS in reactors. Generally, increasing concentrations of inhibitors resulted in decreasing methane yields with a few exceptions; in all these specific cases, long, lag phase periods (60 days) were observed. These adaptation periods made possible for the microbial systems to acclimatize to otherwise not preferred conditions leading to higher methane yields. Comparing the effects of the four different groups, phenols had the highest inhibitory effects, with no methane production at the highest amount added, while the lowest effects were obtained in cases of car-3-ene. Furthermore, the results showed that adding inhibitors up to a certain concentrations can repair the balance in AD process, slowing down the degradation steps, hence making it possible for the methanogens to produce a higher amount of methane. This phenomenon was not observed in case of PW, which is already a slow degradable substrate in its nature. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Koul, Y
    et al.
    Gujarat Pollut Control Board, Paryavaran Bhavan, Gandhinagar 382010, India.
    Devda, V
    Gujarat Pollut Control Board, Paryavaran Bhavan, Gandhinagar 382010, India.
    Varjani, S
    Gujarat Pollut Control Board, Paryavaran Bhavan, Gandhinagar 382010, India.
    Guo, W S
    Univ Technol Sydney, Ctr Technol Water & Wastewater, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Ngo, H H
    Univ Technol Sydney, Ctr Technol Water & Wastewater, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Chang, J S
    Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Wong, J W C
    Hong Kong Baptist Univ, Inst Bioresource & Agr, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Bilal, M
    Huaiyin Inst Technol, Sch Life Sci & Food Engn, Huaian, Peoples R China.
    Kim, S H
    Yonsei Univ, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, Seoul, South Korea.
    Bui, X T
    Ho Chi Minh City Univ Technol Hcmut, Fac Environm & Nat Resources, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Parra-Saldivar, R
    Tecnol Monterrey, Escuela Ingn & Ciencias Ctr Biotecnol FEMSA, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Microbial electrolysis: a promising approach for treatment and resource recovery from industrial wastewater2022Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 8115-8134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater is one of the most common by-products of almost every industrial process. Treatment of wastewater alone, before disposal, necessitates an excess of energy. Environmental concerns over the use of fossil fuels as a source of energy have prompted a surge in demand for alternative energy sources and the development of sophisticated procedures to extract energy from unconventional sources. Treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater alone accounts for about 3% of global electricity use while the amount of energy embedded in the waste is at least 2-4 times greater than the energy required to treat the same effluent. The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is one of the most efficient technologies for waste-to-product conversion that uses electrochemically active bacteria to convert organic matter into hydrogen or a variety of by-products without polluting the environment. This paper highlights existing obstacles and future potential in the integration of Microbial Electrolysis Cell with other processes like anaerobic digestion coupled system, anaerobic membrane bioreactor and thermoelectric micro converter.

  • 9.
    Lukitawesa,
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Patinvoh, Regina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Millati, Ria
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia..
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Factors influencing volatile fatty acids production from food wastes via anaerobic digestion2020Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 39-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are intermediate products in anaerobic digestion. The effect of substrate loading or inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR), the addition of methanogen inhibitor, O2 presence, control the reactor's pH, and inoculum adaptation on the VFAs production from food waste through acidogenesis process was investigated in this study. Addition of 2-bromoethane sulfonic (BES) as methanogen inhibitor suppressed VFA consumption by methanogens at ISR 1:1. At higher substrate loading (ISR 1:3), methane production can be suppressed even without the addition of BES. However, at high substrate loading, controlling the pH during acidogenesis is important to achieve high VFAs yield. Acclimatization of inoculum is also one of the strategies to achieve high VFA yield. The highest VFAs yield obtained in this work was 0.8 g VFA/g VS added at ISR 1:3, controlled pH at 6, with the presence of initial O2 (headspace unflushed).

  • 10.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ravindran, B.
    Department of Environmental Energy and Engineering, Kyonggi University Youngtong-Gu , Suwon, South Korea.
    Sarsaiya, Surendra
    Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University , Zunyi, Guizhou, China.
    Chen, Hongyu
    Institute of Biology , Freie Universität Berlin Altensteinstr, Berlin, Germany.
    Wainaina, Steven
    Singh, Ekta
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute , Nagpur, India.
    Liu, Tao
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, Shaanxi Province, China.
    Kumar, Sunil
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute , Nagpur, India.
    Pandey, Ashok
    Centre for Innovation and Translational Research CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research , Lucknow, India.
    Singh, Lal
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute , Nagpur, India.
    Zhang, Zengqiang
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University , Yangling, Shaanxi Province, China.
    Metagenomics for taxonomy profiling: tools and approaches2020Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 356-374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of metagenomics is an emerging field that identifies the total genetic materials in an organism along with the set of all genetic materials like deoxyribonucleic acid and ribose nucleic acid, which play a key role with the maintenance of cellular functions. The best part of this technology is that it gives more flexibility to environmental microbiologists to instantly pioneer the immense genetic variability of microbial communities. However, it is intensively complex to identify the suitable sequencing measures of any specific gene that can exclusively indicate the involvement of microbial metagenomes and be able to advance valuable results about these communities. This review provides an overview of the metagenomic advancement that has been advantageous for aggregation of more knowledge about speci?c genes, microbial communities and its metabolic pathways. More speci?c drawbacks of metagenomes technology mainly depend on sequence-based analysis. Therefore, this ‘targeted based metagenomics’ approach will give comprehensive knowledge about the ecological, evolutionary and functional sequence of significantly important genes that naturally exist in living beings either human, animal and microorganisms from distinctive ecosystems.

  • 11.
    Patil, Suraj
    et al.
    Savitribai Phule Pune University, India.
    Joshi, Shrushti
    Savitribai Phule Pune University, India.
    Jamla, Monica
    Savitribai Phule Pune University, India.
    Zhou, Xianrong
    Yangtze Normal University, China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Suprasanna, Penna
    Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.
    Kumar, Vinay
    Savitribai Phule Pune University, India.
    MicroRNA-mediated bioengineering for climate-resilience in crops2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 10430-10456Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global projections on the climate change and the dynamic environmental perturbations indicate severe impacts on food security in general, and crop yield, vigor and the quality of produce in particular. Sessile plants respond to environmental challenges such as salt, drought, temperature, heavy metals at transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional levels through the stress-regulated network of pathways including transcription factors, proteins and the small non-coding endogenous RNAs. Amongs these, the miRNAs have gained unprecedented attention in recent years as key regulators for modulating gene expression in plants under stress. Hence, tailoring of miRNAs and their target pathways presents a promising strategy for developing multiple stress-tolerant crops. Plant stress tolerance has been successfully achieved through the over expression of microRNAs such as Os-miR408, Hv-miR82 for drought tolerance; OsmiR535A and artificial DST miRNA for salinity tolerance; and OsmiR535 and miR156 for combined drought and salt stress. Examples of miR408 overexpression also showed improved efficiency of irradiation utilization and carbon dioxide fixation in crop plants. Through this review, we present the current understanding about plant miRNAs, their roles in plant growth and stress-responses, the modern toolbox for identification, characterization and validation of miRNAs and their target genes including in silico tools, machine learning and artificial intelligence. Various approaches for up-regulation or knock-out of miRNAs have been discussed. The main emphasis has been given to the exploration of miRNAs for development of bioengineered climate-smart crops that can withstand changing climates and stressful environments, including combination of stresses, with very less or no yield penalties.

  • 12.
    Rousta, Neda
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Production of L-carnitine-enriched edible filamentous fungal biomass through submerged cultivation2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 358-368Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The edible filamentous fungi are hot candidate for future supply of functional food and feed with e.g. protein, essential amino acids, and compounds with immunostimulant activity. L-carnitine that plays a crucial role in energy metabolism represents a functional compound normally produced by Zygomycetes filamentous fungus Rhizopus oligosporus in solid-state fermentation. The present study provides the first insights on production of L-carnitine-enriched edible fungal biomass through submerged cultivation of several Ascomycetes and Zygomycetes including Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, Rhizopus oryzae, and Rhizopus oligosporus. A. oryzae with 3 mg L-carnitine yield per gram of fungal biomass, indicates great potential on production of this bioactive compound which is remarkably higher than the other tested fungi in this work and also previous studies. In addition to fungal strain, other factors such as cultivation time and presence of yeast extract were found to play a role. Further studies on submerged growth optimization of A. oryzae in both high-quality recipes and in medium based on low-value substrates are proposed in order to clarify its potential for production of L-carnitine-enriched fungal biomass. 

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  • 13.
    Sapmaz, Tugba
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taher, Mustafa N.
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Beler-Baykal, Bilsen
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Karagunduz, Ahmet
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Koseoglu-Imer, Derya Y.
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Waste-derived volatile fatty acid production and ammonium removal from it by ion exchange process with natural zeolite2022Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 14751-14769Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste are a promising alternative carbon source for various biological processes; however, their applications are limited due to the presence of impurities such as ammonium (NH4+). This study investigates the potential for removal of ammonium using a naturally occurring zeolite (clinoptilolite) from chicken manure (CKM) derived VFA effluent recovered from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). Experiments were conducted for both synthetic and actual VFA (AD-VFA) solutions, and the effects of different parameters were investigated with batch and continuous studies. It was observed that the Langmuir-type isotherm provided the best fit to the equilibrium data in the isotherm investigations carried out with the AD-VFA solution. The maximum adsorption capacity (qm) was found as 15.7 mg NH4+/g clinoptilolite. The effect of some operational parameters on process performance such as pH, initial NH4+ loading and potassium ion (K+) concentration was investigated. The pH had a negligible effect on ammonium removal for a pH range of 3–7, while the removal efficiency of ammonium decreased with the increase of initial NH4+ loading and K+ concentration. At the optimum conditions determined in batch experiments, the ammonium removal from synthetic and AD-VFA solutions were compared and average ammonium removal efficiencies of 93 and 94% were found in 12 h equilibrium time for synthetic and AD-VFA solutions, respectively. Overall findings indicated that clinoptilolite has excellent potential for ion exchange when combined with biological processes such as acidogenic fermentation of VFAs to purify the solution from high-ammonium content.

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  • 14.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Seker, Gamze
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Erman, Ayse Gokce
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Stark, Benjamin C.
    Biology Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Yesilcimen Akbas, Meltem
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey;Institute of Biotechnology, Gebze Technical University, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Repeated batch fermentation of immobilized E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin for long-term use2017Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 651-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes an efficient and reusable process for ethanol production from medium containing whey powder, using alginate immobilized ethanologenic E. coli strains either expressing (TS3) or not expressing (FBR5) Vitreoscilla hemoglobin. Reuseabilities of the FBR5 and TS3 strains were investigated regarding their ethanol production capacities over the course of 15 successive 96-h batch fermentations. The ethanol production was fairly stable over the entire duration of the experiment, with strain TS3 maintaining a substantial advantage over strain FBR5. Storage of both strains in 2 different solutions for up to 60 d resulted in only a modest loss of ethanol production, with strain TS3 consistently outperforming strain FBR5 by a substantial amount. Strains stored for 15 or 30 d maintained their abilities to produce ethanol without dimunition over the course of 8 successive batch fermentations; again strain TS3 maintained a substantial advantage over strain FBR5 throughout the entire experiment. Thus, immobilization is a useful strategy to maintain the advantage in ethanol productivity afforded by expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin over long periods of time and large numbers of repeated batch fermentations, including, as in this case, using media with food processing wastes as the carbon source. 

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  • 15.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Stark, Benjamin C.
    Yesilcimen Akbas, Meltem
    Effective ethanol production from whey powder through immobilizedE. coliexpressingVitreoscillahemoglobin2016Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 171-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol production from whey powder was investigated by using free as well as alginate immobilized E. coli and E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) in both shake flask and fermenter cultures. Media with varying levels of whey (lactose contents of 3%, 5%, 8% or 15%) and yeast extract (0.3% or 0.5%) were evaluated with fermentation times of 48–96 h. Immobilization and VHb expression resulted in higher ethanol production with all media; the increases ranged from 2% to 89% for immobilization and from 2% to 182% for VHb expression. It was determined that growth medium containing 8% lactose with 0.5% yeast extract yielded the highest ethanol production for free or immobilized strains, with or without VHb expression, in both shake flask and fermenter cultures. Immobilization with alginate was found to be a promising process for ethanol production by VHb-expressing ethanologenic E. coli

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  • 16.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Yesilcimen Akbas, Meltem
    Gebze Technical University.
    Potential use of olive oil mill wastewater for bacterial cellulose production2022Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 7659-7669Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW), an important waste in the Mediterranean basin, was evaluated to produce bacterial cellulose (BC). For this purpose, the effects of different ratios of OOMW fractions (25-100%) and some additional nutrients (yeast extract, peptone and Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) components) on BC productions were investigated. Unsupplemented OOMW medium (75% and 100%) yielded as much as BC obtained in HS medium (0.65 g/L), while enrichment of OOMW medium (%100) with yeast extract (5 g/L) and peptone (5 g/L) increased the amount of BC by 5.5 times, reaching to 5.33 g/L. In addition, produced BCs were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XRD and SEM analyses. BC from OOMW medium (100% OOMW with supplementation) has a high thermal decomposition temperature (316.8°C), whereas it has lower crystallinity index (57%). According to the FT-IR analysis, it was observed that the components of OOMW might be absorbed by BCs. Thus, higher yield productions of BCs from OOMW media compared to BC obtained from HS medium indicate that olive oil industry wastes can be integrated into BC production for industrial applications.

  • 17.
    Sharma, Shagun
    et al.
    Jaypee University of Information Technology, India.
    Singh, Astha
    Jaypee University of Information Technology, India.
    Sharma, Swati
    Jaypee University of Information Technology, India.
    Kant, Anil
    Jaypee University of Information Technology, India.
    Sevda, Surajbhan
    National Institute of Technology Warangal, India.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Garlapati, Vijay Kumar
    Jaypee University of Information Technology, India.
    Functional foods as a formulation ingredients in beverages: technological advancements and constraints2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 11055-11075Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a consequence of expanded science and technical research, the market perception of consumers has shifted from standard traditional to valuable foods, which are furthermore nutritional as well as healthier in today’s world. This food concept, precisely referred to as functional, focuses on including probiotics, which enhance immune system activity, cognitive response, and overall health. This review primarily focuses on functional foods as functional additives in beverages and other food items that can regulate the human immune system and avert any possibility of contracting the infection. Many safety concerns must be resolved during their administration. Functional foods must have an adequate amount of specific probiotic strain(s) during their use and storage, as good viability is needed for optimum functionality of the probiotic. Thus, when developing novel functional food-based formulations, choosing a strain with strong technological properties is crucial. The present review focused on probiotics as an active ingredient in different beverage formulations and the exerting mechanism of action and fate of probiotics in the human body. Moreover, a comprehensive overview of the regulative and safety issues of probiotics-based foods and beverages formulations. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 18.
    Shindhal, T.
    et al.
    Paryavaran Bhavan, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, India.
    Rakholiya, P.
    Paryavaran Bhavan, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, India.
    Varjani, S.
    Paryavaran Bhavan, Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, India.
    Pandey, A.
    Centre of Innovation and Translation Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India.
    Ngo, H. H.
    Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Guo, W.
    Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Ng, H. Y.
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Environmental Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    A critical review on advances in the practices and perspectives for the treatment of dye industry wastewater2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 70-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid industrialization has provided comforts to mankind but has also impacted the environment harmfully. There has been severe increase in the pollution due to several industries, in particular due to dye industry, which generate huge quantities of wastewater containing hazardous chemicals. Although tremendous developments have taken place for the treatment and management of such wastewater through chemical or biological processes, there is an emerging shift in the approach, with focus shifting on resource recovery from such wastewater and also their management in sustainable manner. This review article aims to present and discuss the most advanced and state-of-art technical and scientific developments about the treatment of dye industry wastewater, which include advanced oxidation process, membrane filtration technique, microbial technologies, bio-electrochemical degradation, photocatalytic degradation, etc. Among these technologies, microbial degradation seems highly promising for resource recovery and sustainability and has been discussed in detail as a promising approach. This paper also covers the challenges and future perspectives in this field.

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  • 19.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bioengineering to tackle environmental challenges, climate changes and resource recovery2019Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 698-699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Ucm, R
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Aem, M
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Lhb, Z
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Kumar, V
    School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Garlapati, V K
    Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Information Technology, Waknaghat 173234, India.
    Chandel, A K
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Comprehensive review on biotechnological production of hyaluronic acid: status, innovation, market and applications2022Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 9645-9661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing, existing demand for low-cost and high-quality hyaluronic acid (HA) needs an outlook of different possible production strategies from renewable resources with the reduced possibility of cross-infections. Recently, the possibility of producing HA from harmless microorganisms appeared, which offers the opportunity to make HA more economical, without raw material limitations, and environmentally friendly. HA production is mainly reported with Lancefield Streptococci A and C, particularly from S. equi and S. zooepidemicus. Various modes of fermentation such as batch, repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous culture have been investigated to optimize HA production, particularly from S. zooepidemicus, obtaining a HA yield of 2.5 g L-1 - 7.0 g L-1. Among the different utilized DSP approaches of HA production, recovery with cold ethanol (4 degrees C) and cetylpyridinium chloride is the ideal strategy for lab-scale HA production. On the industrial scale, besides using isopropanol, filtration (0.22 um), ultrafiltration (100 kDa), and activated carbon absorption are employed to obtain HA of low molecular weight and additional ultrafiltration to purify HA of higher MW. Even though mature technologies have already been developed for the industrial production of HA, the projections of increased sales volume and the expansion of application possibilities require new processes to obtain HA with higher productivity, purity, and specific molecular weights. In this review, we have put forth the progress of HA technological research by discussing the microbial biosynthetic aspects, fermentation and downstream strategies, industrial-scale scenarios of HA, and the prospects of HA production to meet the current and ongoing market demands.

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  • 21.
    Vu, Hoang Danh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wainaina, Steven
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Bacillus megaterium using food waste acidogenic fermentation-derived volatile fatty acids2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 2480-2498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High production costs still hamper fast expansion of commercial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This problem is greatly related to the cultivation medium which accounts for up to 50% of the whole process costs. The aim of this research work was to evaluate the potential of using volatile fatty acids (VFAs), derived from acidogenic fermentation of food waste, as inexpensive carbon sources for the production of PHAs through bacterial cultivation. Bacillus megaterium could assimilate glucose, acetic acid, butyric acid, and caproic acid as single carbon sources in synthetic medium with maximum PHAs production yields of 9–11%, on a cell dry weight basis. Single carbon sources were then replaced by a mixture of synthetic VFAs and by a VFAs-rich stream from the acidogenic fermentation of food waste. After 72 h of cultivation, the VFAs were almost fully consumed by the bacterium in both media and PHAs production yields of 9–10%, on cell dry weight basis, were obtained. The usage of VFAs mixture was found to be beneficial for the bacterial growth that tackled the inhibition of propionic acid, iso-butyric acid, and valeric acid when these volatile fatty acids were used as single carbon sources. The extracted PHAs were revealed to be polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by characterization methods of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The obtained results proved the possibility of using VFAs from acidogenic fermentation of food waste as a cheap substrate to reduce the cost of PHAs production. 

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  • 22. Wainaina, Steven
    et al.
    Lukitawesa, Lukitawesa
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bioengineering of anaerobic digestion for volatile fatty acids, hydrogen or methane production: A critical review2019Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, ISSN 2165-5979Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a well-established technology used for producing biogas or biomethane alongside the slurry used as biofertilizer. However, using a variety of wastes and residuals as substrate and mixed cultures in the bioreactor makes AD as one of the most complicated biochemical processes employing hydrolytic, acidogenic, hydrogen-producing, acetate-forming bacteria as well as acetoclastic and hydrogenoclastic methanogens. Hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) including acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric and caproic acid and other carboxylic acids such as succinic and lactic acids are formed as intermediate products. As these acids are important precursors for various industries as mixed or purified chemicals, the AD process can be bioengineered to produce VFAs alongside hydrogen and therefore biogas plants can become biorefineries. The current critical review paper provides the theory and means to produce and accumulate VFAs and hydrogen, inhibit their conversion to methane and to extract them as the final products. The effects of pretreatment, pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), chemical methane inhibitions, and heat shocking of the inoculum on VFAs accumulation, hydrogen production, VFAs composition, and the microbial community were discussed. Furthermore, this paper highlights the possible techniques for recovery of VFAs from the fermentation media in order to minimize product inhibition as well as to supply the carboxylates for downstream procedures.

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  • 23.
    Wang, Ricky
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mohammadi, Mahtab
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    In-vitro digestion models: a critical review for human and fish and a protocol for in-vitro digestion in fish2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 3040-3064Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digestive systems in human, animals, and fish are biological reactors and membranes to digest food and extract nutrients. Therefore, static and dynamic models of in-vitro digestion systems are developed to study e.g. novel food and feed before in-vivo studies. Such models are well developed for human, but not to the same extent for animals and fish. On the other hand, recent advances in aquaculture nutrition have created several potential fish meal replacements, and the assessment of their nutrient digestibility is critical in the application as a fish meal replacement. Using an in-vitro method, the assessment of an ingredient digestibility could be faster and less expensive compared to using an in-vivo experiment. An in-vitro method has been widely used to assess food nutrient digestibility for humans; however, its application for fish is still in the early stages. Both the human and fish as monogastric vertebrates share similar gastrointestinal systems; thus, the concept from the application for humans could be applied for fish. This review aims to improve the in-vitro digestion protocol for fish by adapting the concept from then study for humans, summarizing the current available in-vitro digestion model developed for human and fish in-vitro digestion study, identifying challenges specifically for fish required to be tackled and suggesting an engineering approach to adapt the human in-vitro gastrointestinal model to fish. Protocols to conduct in-vitro digestion study for fish are then proposed.

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  • 24.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Manikharda,
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Baldermann, Susanne
    Universitat Bayreuth, Germany.
    Ningrum, Andriati
    Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Application of cell culture technology and genetic engineering for production of future foods and crop improvement to strengthen food security2021Inngår i: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 11305-11330Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing population and the climate changes put a pressure on food production globally, therefore a fundamental transformation of food production is required. One approach to accelerate food production is application of modern biotechnology such as cell culture, marker assisted selection, and genetic engineering. Cell culture technology reduces the usage of arable land, while marker-assisted selection increases the genetic gain of crop breeding and genetic engineering enable to introduce a desired traits to crop. The cell culture technology has resulted in development of cultured meat, fungal biomass food (mycoprotein), and bioactive compounds from plant cell culture. Except cultured meat which recently begin to penetrate the market, the other products have been in the market for years. The marker-assisted selection and genetic engineering have contributed significantly to increase the resiliency against emerging pests and abiotic stresses. This review addresses diverse techniques of cell culture technology as well as advanced genetic engineering technology CRISPR Cas-9 and its application for crop improvement. The pros and cons of different techniques as well as the challenges and future perspective of application of modern biotechnology for strengthening food security are also discussed.

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