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  • 1. Bhaskar, Thallada
    et al.
    Lee, Keat Teong
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sauer, Michael
    Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan
    New Horizons in Biotechnology - NHBT 20152016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bolton, Kim
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact.

  • 3.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. Research Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Pardaev, Sindor
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. University of Samarkand.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. Research Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Biohydrogen and carboxylic acids production from wheat straw hydrolysate2016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 4.
    Duan, Y.
    et al.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Awasthi, S. K.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Chen, H.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Liu, T.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Zhang, Z.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Zhang, L.
    College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University.
    Awasthi, M. K.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Evaluating the impact of bamboo biochar on the fungal community succession during chicken manure composting2019Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 272, s. 308-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the fungal community succession and variations in chicken manure (CM) compost with different concentration of bamboo biochar (BB) as additive via the using of metagenomics method. The consequent obviously revealed that Chytridiomycota, Mucoromycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant phylum, while Batrachochytrium, Funneliformis, Mucor, Phizophagus and Pyronema were the pre-dominant genera in each treatment. Redundancy analyses indicated that higher dosage of biochar applied treatments has significant correlation between fungal communities and environmental factors. The diversity of fungal community was analogous but the relative abundance (RA) was inconsistent among the all treatments. In addition, the principal component analysis was also confirmed that T5 and T6 treatments have considerably correlation than other treatments. However, the mean value of RA remained maximum in higher dosage of biochar blended treatments. Ultimately, the RA of different fungal genus and species were influenced in CM compost by the BB amendment.

  • 5.
    Duan, Y.
    et al.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Awasthi, S. K.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Liu, T.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Chen, H.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Zhang, Z.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Wang, Q.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Ren, X.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Tu, Z.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University.
    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Dynamics of fungal diversity and interactions with environmental elements in response to wheat straw biochar amended poultry manure composting2019Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, s. 410-417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungal dynamics and its correlation with physicochemical and gaseous emission were investigated using metagenomics and Heat map illustrator (HEMI). Five different concentrations of wheat straw biochar (WSB) were applied to poultry manure (PM) and composted for 50 days; those without the WSB treatment were used as a control. The results revealed the dominant phyla to be ChytridiomycotaMucoromycotaAscomycota and Basidiomycota, while BatrachochytriumRhizophagus, Mucor, and Puccinia were the superior genera. In particular, the diversity of Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota was more abundant among all of the treatments. Overall, the diversity of the fungal species was correspondent, but relative abundance varied significantly among all of the composts. Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and Non-Metric Multi- Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) indicated that different concentrations of WSB applied treatments have significantly distinct fungal communities. In addition, correlation analyses of fungal interactions with environmental elements via HEMI also indicate a clear difference among the treatments. Ultimately, the relative abundance of fungal composition significantly influenced the PM compost treated by the WSB.

  • 6.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Edebo, Lars
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Zygomycetes-based biorefinery: Present status and future prospects2013Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 135, s. 523-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungi of the phylum Zygomycetes fulfil all requirements for being utilized as core catalysts in biorefineries, and would be useful in creating new sustainable products. Apart from the extended use of Zygomycetes in preparing fermented foods, industrial metabolites such as lactic acid, fumaric acid, and ethanol are produced from a vast array of feedstocks with the aid of Zygomycetes. These fungi produce enzymes that facilitate their assimilation of various complex substrates, e.g., starch, cellulose, phytic acid, and proteins, which is relevant from an industrial point of view. The enzymes produced are capable of catalyzing various reactions involved in biodiesel production, preparation of corticosteroid drugs, etc. Biomass produced with the aid of Zygomycetes consists of proteins with superior amino acid composition, but also lipids and chitosan. The biomass is presently being tested for animal feed purposes, such as fish feed, as well as for lipid extraction and chitosan production. Complete or partial employment of Zygomycetes in biorefining procedures is consequently attractive, and is expected to be implemented within a near future.

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  • 7.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Waste biorefineries using filamentous ascomycetes fungi: Present status and future prospects2016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 215, nr sept, s. 334-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Filamentous ascomycetes fungi have had important roles in natural cycles, and are already used industrially for e.g. supplying of citric, gluconic and itaconic acids as well as many enzymes. Faster human activities result in higher consumption of our resources and producing more wastes. Therefore, these fungi can be explored to use their capabilities to convert back wastes to resources. The present paper reviews the capabilities of these fungi in growing on various residuals, producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and production of organic acids, ethanol, pigments, etc. Particular attention has been on Aspergillus, Fusarium, Neurospora and Monascus genera. Since various species are used for production of human food, their biomass can be considered for feed applications and so biomass compositional characteristics as well as aspects related to culture in bioreactor are also provided. The review has been further complemented with future research avenues.[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 8.
    Ishola, Mofoluwake M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Isroi, Isroi
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Effect of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment on ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB)2014Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 165, s. 9-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB), a lignocellulosic residue of palm oil industries was examined for ethanol production. Milled OPEFB exposed to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted just in 14.5% ethanol yield compared to the theoretical yield. Therefore, chemical pretreatment with phosphoric acid, a biological pretreatment with white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, and their combination were carried out on OPEFB prior to the SSF. Pretreatment with phosphoric acid, combination of both methods and just fungal pretreatment improved the digestibility of OPEFB by 24.0, 16.5 and 4.5 times, respectively. During the SSF, phosphoric acid pretreatment, combination of fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment and just fungal pretreatment resulted in the highest 89.4%, 62.8% and 27.9% of the theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. However, the recovery of the OPEFB after the fungal pretreatment was 98.7%, which was higher than after phosphoric acid pretreatment (36.5%) and combined pretreatment (45.2%).

  • 9.
    Ishola, Mofoluwake M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Jahandideh, A
    Haidarian, B
    Brandberg, T
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, M J
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF): A novel method for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass2013Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 133, s. 68-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF) was developed for lignocellulosic ethanol production. In SSFF, pretreated lignocellulosic material is enzymatically hydrolyzed in a reactor, while the suspension is continuously pumped through a cross-flow membrane. The retentate goes back to the hydrolysis vessel, while a clear sugar-rich filtrate continuously perfuses through the fermentation vessel before it is pumped back to the hydrolysis vessel. The capacity and life span of the cross-flow filter module was examined for 4 weeks using enzymatically hydrolyzed slurry, initially with 14.4% suspended solids, without clogging or fouling. An ethanol yield of 85.0% of the theoretical yield was obtained in SSFF and a flocculating strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was successfully reused for five cultivations of SSFF.

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  • 10.
    Jeihanipour, Azam
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Ethanol production from cotton-based waste textiles2009Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 100, nr 2, s. 1007-1010Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol production from cotton linter and waste of blue jeans textiles was investigated. In the best case, alkali pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in almost complete conversion of the cotton and jeans to glucose, which was then fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol. If no pretreatment applied, hydrolyses of the textiles by cellulase and P-glucosidase for 24 h followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) in 4 days, resulted in 0.140-0.145 g ethanol/g textiles, which was 25-26% of the corresponding theoretical yield. A pretreatment with concentrated phosphoric acid prior to the hydrolysis improved ethanol production from the textiles up to 66% of the theoretical yield. However, the best results obtained from alkali pretreatment of the materials by NaOH. The alkaline pretreatment of cotton fibers were carried out with 0-20% NaOH at 0 degrees C, 23 degrees C and 100 degrees C, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis up to 4 days. In general, higher concentration of NaOH resulted in a better yield of the hydrolysis, whereas temperature had a reverse effect and better results were obtained at lower temperature. The best conditions for the alkali pretreatment of the cotton were obtained in this study at 12% NaOH and 0 degrees C and 3 h. In this condition, the materials with 3% solid content were enzymatically hydrolyzed at 85.1% of the theoretical yield in 24 h and 99.1% in 4 days. The alkali pretreatment of the waste textiles at these conditions and subsequent SSF resulted in 0.48 g ethanol/g pretreated textiles used. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Kabir, Maryam M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Rajendran, K.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sárvári Horváth, I.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Experimental and economical evaluation of bioconversion of forest residues to biogas using organosolv pretreatment2015Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 178, s. 201-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The methane potential of forest residues was compared after applying organic solvent, i.e., acetic acid, ethanol, and methanol pretreatments using batch anaerobic digestion (AD). The pretreatments were performed at 190 °C with 50% (V/V) organic solvent for 60 min. The accumulated methane yields after 40 days of AD from pretreated forest residues were between 0.23 and 0.34 m3 CH4/kg VS, which shows a significant improvement compared to 0.05 m3 CH4/kg VS, from untreated forest residues. These improvements count up to 50% increase in the methane yields from the pretreated substrates based on expected theoretical yield from carbohydrates. Among the organic solvents, pretreatments with acetic acid and ethanol led to highest methane yields, i.e., over 0.30 m3 CH4/kg VS. However, techno-economical evaluation showed, pretreatment with methanol was more viable financially. The capital investments of the plant operating 20,000 tons of forest residues varied between 56 and 60 million USD, which could be recovered in less than 8 years of operation.

  • 12.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    A critical review of analytical methods in pretreatment of lignocelluloses: Composition, imaging, and crystallinity.2016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocelluloses are widely investigated as renewable substrates to produce biofuels, e.g., ethanol, methane, hydrogen, and butanol, as well as chemicals such as citric acid, lactic acid, and xanthan gum. However, lignocelluloses have a recalcitrance structure to resist microbial and enzymatic attacks; therefore, many physical, thermal, chemical, and biological pretreatment methods have been developed to open up their structure. The efficiency of these pretreatments was studied using a variety of analytical methods that address their image, composition, crystallinity, degree of polymerization, enzyme adsorption/desorption, and accessibility. This paper presents a critical review of the first three categories of these methods as well as their constraints in various applications. The advantages, drawbacks, approaches, practical details, and some points that should be considered in the experimental methods to reach reliable and promising conclusions are also discussed.

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  • 13. Karimi, Keikhosro
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    A critical review on analysis in pretreatment of lignocelluloses: Degree of polymerization, adsorption/desorption, and accessibility2016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 203, s. 348-356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pretreatment of lignocelluloses results in changes in the different properties of these materials. In a recent review (Karimi and Taherzadeh, 2016), the details of compositional, imaging, and crystallinity analyses of lignocelluloses were reviewed and critically discussed. Changes in the cellulose degree of polymerization, accessibility, and enzyme adsorption/desorption by pretreatments are also among the effective parameters. This paper deals with the measurement techniques, modifications, and relation to bioconversions, as well as the challenges of these three properties. These analyses are very helpful to investigate the pretreatment processes; however, the pretreatments are very complicated and challenging processes. It is not easily possible to study the effects of only one of these parameters and even to find which one is the dominant one. Moreover, it is not possible to accurately predict the changes in the bioconversion yield using these methods.[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 14.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Erlandsson, Per
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Integration of the first and second generation bioethanol processes and the importance of by-products2014Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 165, s. 3-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has obstacles in the investment costs and uncertainties in the process. One solution is to integrate it with the running dry mills of ethanol from grains. However, the economy of these mills, which dominate the world market, are dependent on their by-products DDGS (Distiller’s Dried Grains and Solubles), sold as animal feed. The quality of DDGS therefore must not be negatively influenced by the integration. This puts restraints on the choice of pretreatment of lignocelluloses and utilizing the pentose sugars by food-grade microorganisms. The proposed solution is to use food related filamentous Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes fungi, and to produce fungal biomass as a high-grade animal feed from the residues after the distillation (stillage). This also has the potential to improve the first generation process by increasing the amount of the thin stillage directly sent back into the process, and by decreasing the evaporator based problems.

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  • 15.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    A pilot study on lignocelluloses to ethanol and fish feed using NMMO pretreatment and cultivation with Zygomycetes in an airlift reactor2011Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, nr 6, s. 4425-4432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A complete process for the production of bioethanol and fungal biomass from spruce and birch was investigated. The process included milling, pretreatment with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), washing of the pretreated wood, enzymatic hydrolysis, and cultivation of the zygomycetes fungi Mucor indicus. Investigated factors included wood chip size (0.5-16 mm), pretreatment time (1-5 h), and scale of the process from bench-scale to 2 m high airlift reactor. Best hydrolysis yields were achieved from wood chips below 2 mm after 5 h of pretreatment. Ethanol yields (mg/g wood) of 195 and 128 for spruce, and 175 and 136 for birch were achieved from bench-scale and airlift, respectively. Fungal biomass yields (mg/g wood) of 103 and 70 for spruce, and 86 and 66 for birch from bench scale and airlift respectively were simultaneously achieved. NMMO pretreatment and cultivation with M. indicus appear to be a good alternative for ethanol production from birch and spruce.

  • 16. Lohrasbi, M.
    et al.
    Pourbafrani, M.
    Niklasson, C.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Process design and economic analysis of a citrus waste biorefinery with biofuels and limonene as products2010Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, nr 19, s. 7382-7388Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Process design and economic analysis of a biorefinery for the treatment of citrus wastes (CW) at different capacities was carried out. The CW is hydrolyzed using dilute sulfuric acid and then further processed to produce limonene, ethanol and biogas. The total cost of ethanol for base case process with 100,000 tons/year CW capacity was calculated as 0.91 USD/L, assuming 10 USD/ton handling and transportation cost of CW to the plant. However, this price is sensitive to the plant capacity. With constant price of methane and limonene, changing the plant capacity from 25,000 to 400,000 tons CW per year results in reducing ethanol costs from 2.55 to 0.46 USD/L in an economically feasible process. In addition, the ethanol production cost is sensitive to the transportation cost of CW. Increasing this cost from 10 to 30 USD/ton for the base case results in increasing the ethanol costs from 0.91 to 1.42 USD/L.

  • 17.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Uwineza, C
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Doyen, W
    Mixed Matrix Material Innovations BVBA.
    De Wever, H
    Flemish Institute for Technological Research.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Intensification of lignocellulosic bioethanol production process using continuous double-staged immersed membrane bioreactors2020Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing complexities associated with different lignocellulosic bioethanol production stages have hindered reaching full commercial capacity. Therefore, in this study efforts were made to remediate some issues associated with hydrolysis and fermentation, by the integration of immersed membrane bioreactors (iMBRs) into lignocellulosic bioethanol production process. In this regards, double-staged continuous saccharification-filtration and co-fermentation-filtration of wheat straw slurry was conducted using iMBRs at filtration fluxes up to 51.0 l.m-2.h-1 (LMH). The results showed a stable long-term (264 h) continuous hydrolysis-filtration and fermentation-filtration with effective separation of lignin-rich solids (up to 70% lignin) from hydrolyzed sugars, and separation of yeast cells from bioethanol stream at an exceptional filtration performance at 21.9 LMH. Moreover, the effect of factors such as filtration flux, medium quality and backwashing on fouling and cake-layer formation was studied. The results confirmed the process intensification potentials of iMBRs in tackling commonly faced technical obstacles in lignocellulosic bioethanol production.

  • 18.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. Biotechnology.
    Ylitervo, Paeivi
    Doyen, Wim
    De Wever, Heleen
    Molenberghs, Bart
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Continuous bioethanol fermentation from wheat straw hydrolysate with high suspended solid content using an immersed flat sheet membrane bioreactor.2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 241, s. 296-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding a technol. approach that eases the prodn. of lignocellulosic bioethanol has long been considered as a great industrial challenge. In the current study a membrane bioreactor (MBR) set-up using integrated permeate channel (IPC) membrane panels was used to simultaneously ferment pentose and hexose sugars to ethanol in continuous fermn. of high suspended solid wheat straw hydrolyzate. The MBR was optimized to flawlessly operated at high SS concns. of up to 20% without any significant changes in the permeate flux and transmembrane pressure. By the help of the retained high cell concn., the yeast cells were capable of tolerating and detoxifying the inhibitory medium and succeeded to co-consume all glucose and up to 83% of xylose in a continuous fermn. mode leading to up to 83% of the theor. ethanol yield. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 19.
    Mahmoodi, P.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Karimi, K.
    Industrial Biotechnology Group, Research Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Hydrothermal processing as pretreatment for efficient production of ethanol and biogas from municipal solid waste2018Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 261, s. 166-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is dominated by carbohydrates, including starch-based and lignocellulosic materials. The OFMSW was hydrothermally pretreated at 100–160 °C for 0–60 min, and then assessed for enzymatic ethanol production, followed by biogas production from the stillage. The highest glucose yield of 520 g/Kg of dry OFMSW, corresponding to 131% increase compared to that of the untreated OFMSW, was obtained after the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Through ethanolic fermentation by an inhibitory tolerant fungus, Mucor indicus, 191.10 g ethanol/Kg of dry OFMSW was obtained, which was a 140.9% improvement in the ethanol yield compared to that from the untreated one. Methane production from the stillage (waste residues) resulted in 156 L/Kg OFMSW. In other words, a total of 10,774 KJ energy/Kg of dry OFMSW was generated at the best conditions. 

  • 20. Mohseni Kabir, M.
    et al.
    Niklasson, C.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Sárvári Horváth, I.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Biogas production from lignocelluloses by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment: Effects of recovery and reuse of NMMO2014Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 161, s. 446-450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment on barley straw and forest residues were investigated for biogas production. The pretreatments were performed at 90 °C with 85% NMMO for 3–30 h. The best pretreatment conditions resulted in 100% improvement in methane yield during the subsequent digestion compared to that of the untreated lignocelluloses. Methane yields of 0.23 and 0.15 Nm3 CH4/kg VS were obtained from barley straw and forest residues, respectively, corresponding to 88% and 83% of the theoretical yields. In addition, the effects of the pretreatment with recovered and reused NMMO was also studied over the course of five cycles. Pretreatment with recycled NMMO showed the same performance as the fresh NMMO on barley straw. However, pretreatment of forest residues with recycled NMMO resulted in 55% reduction in methane yield.

  • 21.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kalif, Mahdi
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, s. 145-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of hot-water (100 °C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100 °C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191–344% and 115–300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol.

  • 22.
    Nair, Ramkumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Valorization of sugar-to-ethanol process waste vinasse: A novel biorefinery approach using edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi2016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 221, s. 469-476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work was to study the integration of edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi into the existing sugar- or molasses-to-ethanol processes, to grow on vinasse or stillage and produce ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass. Two fungal strains, Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae were examined in shake flasks and airlift-bioreactors, resulting in reduction of vinasse COD by 34% and viscosity by 21%. Utilization of glycerol and sugars were observed, yielding 202.4 or 222.8g dry fungal biomass of N. intermedia or A. oryzae respectively, per liter of vinasse. Integration of the current process at an existing ethanol facility producing about 100,000m(3) of ethanol per year could produce around 200,000-250,000tons of dry fungal biomass (40-45% protein) together with about 8800-12,600m(3) extra ethanol (8.8-12.6% of production-rate improvement).[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 23.
    Oechsner, Hans
    et al.
    University of Hohenheim.
    Khanal, Samir Kumar
    University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Advances in biogas research and application.2015Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 178, nr February 2015, s. 177-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Oluoti, Kehinde
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Richards, Tobias
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Doddapaneni, Tharaka
    Kanagasabapathi, DhipanKumar
    Evaluation of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Tropical Wood Biomass2014Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 2179-2190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two tropical biomass species, teak (Tectona grandis) and obobo (Guarea thompsonii), were obtained in the form of sawmill waste from Nigeria and evaluated to determine their potential for gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification kinetics of the samples were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) at temperatures of 900 oC and 1,000 oC. Four iso-conversional methods, one peak temperature method, and two model-fitting methods were employed to determine the kinetic parameters, i.e. the apparent activation energy Ea, and pre-exponential factor A. Values of the gasification kinetic rate constant K were determined using two gas-solid reaction models: the volumetric reaction model (VRM) and the shrinking core model (SCM). The values obtained for all three kinetic parameters showed good agreement with values derived for samples of non-tropical wood.

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  • 25.
    Oluoti, Kehinde
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. Lagos State University.
    Richards, Tobias
    Pettersson, Anita
    Investigating the morphology and reactivity of chars from Triplochiton scleroxylon pyrolysed under varied conditionsInvestigating the morphology and reactivity of chars from Triplochiton scleroxylon pyrolysed under varied conditions2016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 208, nr 0, s. 94-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A gasifier may be optimised via a good understanding of the char formation, morphology and reactivity. The effects of varying the pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the morphology of the char were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micrograph spot analyser. The gasified chars were produced at heating rates of 5, 10 and 20 C/min and pressures of 0.1, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa. All the chars have different degrees of apparent gasification reactivity. The random pore model (RPM) provided a better description of the experiment, with low average error values, h, in all of the cases considered. The alkaline and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in the tropical wood biomass Arere (Triplochiton scleroxylon) consist predominantly of calcium and could altogether be partly responsible for the noticeably high reactivity nature of the tropical Arere chars

  • 26.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Effect of media rheology and bioreactor hydrodynamics on filamentous fungi fermentation of lignocellulosic and starch-based substrates under pseudoplastic flow conditions2018Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 263, s. 250-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study how media rheology and bioreactor hydrodynamics would influence fermentation of lignocellulosic and starch-based substrates under pseudoplastic flow conditions. This was investigated using hydrolyzed wheat straw, wheat-based thin stillage and filamentous fungi as inoculum in bubble column, airlift and horizontal hybrid tubular/bubble column (textile bioreactor) bioreactors. The rheological models showed that the consistency index was dependent on biomass growth (R2 0.99) while the flow behavior index depended on biomass growth and suspended solid (R2 0.99). Oxygen transfer rate above 0.356 mmol-O2/L/h was needed for growing fungi with a cube-root growth rate constant of 0.03 g1/3/L1/3/h. At 1.4 VVM aeration the textile bioreactor performed better than others with minimal foaming, yields of 0.22 ± 0.01 g/g and 0.47 ± 0.01 g/g for ethanol and biomass, substrate consumption rate of 0.38 g/L/h. Operating the bioreactors with air-flowrate to cross-sectional area ratio of 8.75 × 10−3 (m3/s/m2) or more led to sustained foaming.

  • 27.
    Pagés Díaz, Jhosané
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Pereda Reyes, Ileana
    Lundin, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Co-digestion of different waste mixtures from agro-industrial activities: Kinetic evaluation and synergetic effects2011Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, nr 23, s. 10834-10840Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several wastes from agro-industrial activities were mixed in different ratios to evaluate the co-digestion process. Methane yield (YCH4), specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and a kinetic parameter (k0) were determined. A second feeding was also performed to examine the recovery of bacterial activity after exhaustion. Mixture ratios of 1:1:1:1 and 1:3:4:0.5 (w/w) showed the best performance, with YCH4 of 664; 582 NmL CH4/gVSsubstrate, as well as SMA of 0.12; 0.13 gCODNmLCH4/gVSinoculum/d, respectively, during the digestion of the first feed. It was possible to relate synergetic effects with enhancement in YCH4 by up to 43%, compared with values calculated from YCH4 of the individual substrates. All batches started up the biogas production after an exhaustion period, when a second feed was added. However, long lag phases (up to 21 days) were observed due to stressed conditions caused by the substrate limitation prior to the second feed.

  • 28.
    Patinvoh, Regina J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sarvari, Horvath Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 224, s. 197-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH4/gVSadded/d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation.[on SciFinder (R)]

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  • 29.
    Patinvoh, Regina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Cost effective dry anaerobic digestion in textile bioreactors: Experimental and economic evaluation2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, nr Pt A, s. 549-555Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study dry anaerobic digestion (dry-AD) of manure bedded with straw using textile-based bioreactor in repeated batches. The 90-L reactor filled with the feedstocks (22-30% total solid) and inoculum without any further treatment, while the biogas produced were collected and analyzed. The digestate residue was also analyzed to check its suitability as bio-fertilizer. Methane yield after acclimatization increased from 183 to 290NmlCH4/gVS, degradation time decreased from 136 to 92days and the digestate composition point to suitable bio-fertilizer. The results then used to carry out economical evaluation, which shows dry-AD in textile bioreactors is a profitable method of handling the waste with maximum payback period of 5years, net present value from $7,000 to $9,800,000 (small to large bioreactors) with internal rate of return from 56.6 to 19.3%.

  • 30.
    Patinvoh, Regina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Osalie, Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Innovative Pretreatment Strategies for Biogas Production2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 224, s. 13-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently bythermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes viasyngas (CO and H2) fermentation. However, many of the substrates feedstocks haverecalcitrant structure and difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or theyhave toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestibleat all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhancedand economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. Thestrategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression,autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose)pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well ascombined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and

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  • 31.
    Pietrzak, Witold
    et al.
    Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna
    Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Krol, Barbara
    Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process2016Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 216, s. 69-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery.[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 32. Pourbafrani, Mohammad
    et al.
    Forgács, Gergely
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Production of biofuels, limonene and pectin from citrus wastes2010Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, nr 11, s. 4246-4250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of ethanol, biogas, pectin and limonene from citrus wastes (CWs) by an integrated process was investigated. CWs were hydrolyzed by dilute-acid process in a pilot plant reactor equipped with an explosive drainage. Hydrolysis variables including temperature and residence time were optimized by applying a central composite rotatable experimental design (CCRD). The best sugar yield (0.41 g/g of the total dry CWs) was obtained by dilute-acid hydrolysis at 150 degrees C and 6 min residence time. At this condition, high solubilization of pectin present in the CWs was obtained, and 77.6% of total pectin content of CWs could be recovered by solvent recovery. Degree of esterification and ash content of produced pectin were 63.7% and 4.23%, respectively. In addition, the limonene of the CWs was effectively removed through flashing of the hydrolyzates into an expansion tank. The sugars present in the hydrolyzates were converted to ethanol using baker's yeast, while an ethanol yield of 0.43 g/g of the fermentable sugars was obtained. Then, the stillage and the remaining solid materials of the hydrolyzed CWs were anaerobically digested to obtain biogas. In summary, one ton of CWs with 20% dry weight resulted in 39.641 ethanol, 45 m(3) methane, 8.91 limonene, and 38.8 kg pectin. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Purwadi, Ronny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    The performance of serial bioreactors in rapid continuous production of ethanol from dilute-acid hydrolyzates using immobilized cells2008Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, nr 7, s. 2226-2233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34. Purwandari, F. A.
    et al.
    Sanjaya, A. P.
    Millati, R.
    Cahyanto, M.N.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Niklasson, C.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) for biogas production: Structural changes and digestion improvement2013Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 128, nr 1, s. 461-466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment of OPEFB (oil palm empty fruit bunch) by NMMO (N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide) on its subsequent digestions was investigated. The pretreatments were carried out at 90 and 120 °C for 1, 3, and 5 h in three different modes of dissolution (by 85% NMMO solution), ballooning (79% NMMO solution), and swelling (73% NMMO solution). The total solid recovery after the pretreatment was 89–94%. The pretreatment process did not have a major impact on the composition of OPEFB, other than a reduction of ash from 5.4% up to 1.3%. The best improvement in biogas production was achieved by a dissolution mode pretreatment of OPEFB, using conditions of 85% NMMO, 3 h, and 120 °C. It resulted in 0.408 Nm3/kg VS methane yield and 0.032 Nm3 CH4/kg VS/day initial methane production rate, which correspond in improving by 48% and 167% compared to the untreated OPEFB, respectively.

  • 35. Shafiei, M.
    et al.
    Karimi, K.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Pretreatment of spruce and oak by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) for efficient conversion of their cellulose to ethanol2010Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, nr 13, s. 4914-4918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment of softwood spruce and hardwood oak with an industrial cellulose solvent, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), was investigated prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. The pretreatments were carried out at 90, 110 and 130 °C for 1–3 h with 85% NMMO solution, followed by non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (NSSF). This NSSF included hydrolysis with cellulase and β-glucosidase for 24 h at 45 °C, followed by continuous saccharification and fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37 °C for 3 days. The NSSF of untreated oak and spruce resulted in 18.6% and 6.8% ethanol compared to the maximum theoretical yield. However, the pretreatment of oak and spruce at 130 °C resulted in almost total conversion of cellulose to ethanol and improved ethanol yield up to 85.4% and 89%, respectively. These numbers are comparable with ethanol from pure glucose with the same strain, which yielded between 84% and 90% of the theoretical ethanol yield.

  • 36. Shafiei, Marzieh
    et al.
    Kabir, Maryam M.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Zilouei, Hamid
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Techno-economical study of biogas production improved by steam explosion pretreatment2013Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 148, s. 53-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic feasibility of steam explosion pretreatment for improvement of biogas production from wheat straw and paper tube residuals was investigated. The process was simulated by Aspen plus®, and the economical feasibility of five different plant capacities was studied by Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Total project investment of a plant using paper tube residuals or wheat straw was 63.9 or 61.8 million Euros, respectively. The manufacturing cost of raw biogas for these two feedstocks was calculated to 0.36 or 0.48 €/m3 of methane, respectively. Applying steam explosion pretreatment resulted in 13% higher total capital investment while significantly improved the economy of the biogas plant and decreased the manufacturing cost of methane by 36%. The sensitivity analysis showed that 5% improvement in the methane yield and 20% decrease in the raw material price resulted in 5.5% and 8% decrease in the manufacturing cost of methane, respectively.

  • 37. Shafiei, Marzieh
    et al.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Techno-economical study of ethanol and biogas from spruce wood by NMMO-pretreatment and rapid fermentation and digestion2011Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, nr 17, s. 7879-7886Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is a promising alternative for the pretreatment of lignocelluloses, a novel process for ethanol and biogas production from wood was developed. The solvent, NMMO, is concentrated by multistage evaporation, and the wood is pretreated with the concentrated NMMO. Thereafter, ethanol is produced by the non-isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (NSSF) method, which is a rapid and efficient process. The wastewater is treated by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) digester for rapid production of biogas. The process was simulated by Aspen plus®. Using mechanical vapor recompression for evaporators in the pretreatment and multi-pressure distillation columns, the energy requirements for the process were minimized. The economical feasibility of the developed biorefinery for five different plant capacities was studied by Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator. The base case was designed to utilize 200,000 tons of spruce wood per year and required M€ 58.3 as the total capital investment, while the production cost of ethanol is calculated to be €/l 0.44.

  • 38.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    et al.
    Dept. of Chem. Reaction Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fox, M.
    Dept. of Chem. Reaction Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hjorth, H.
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Edebo, L.
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Göteborg University.
    Production of mycelium biomass and ethanol from paper pulp sulfite liquor by Rhizopus oryzae2003Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 88, nr 3, s. 167-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation conditions for Rhizopus oryzae grown in synthetic medium and paper pulp spent sulfite liquor (SSL) were investigated to achieve high biomass and ethanol yields using shake flasks and bioreactors. The fungus assimilated the hexoses glucose, mannose and galactose, and the pentoses xylose and arabinose as well as acetic acid which are present in SSL. The assimilation of hexoses was faster than pentoses during cultivation in a synthetic medium. However, all sugars were assimilated concomitantly during growth in SSL supplemented with ammonium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, sulfate and trace amounts of some other metal ions (SSL-S). The medium composition had an important influence on biomass yield. The highest biomass yields, viz. 0.18 and 0.43 g biomass/g sugar were obtained, when the cells were cultivated in shake flasks with a synthetic medium containing glucose as carbon and energy source and SSL-S, respectively. The corresponding yields in a bioreactor with more efficient aeration were 0.22 and 0.55 g/g. In addition to the biomass, ethanol, lactic acid, and glycerol were important extracellular metabolites of the cultivation with maximum yields of 0.37, 0.30 and 0.09 g/g, respectively. When the source of sugars in the medium was exhausted, the fungus consumed the metabolites produced, such that the liquid medium was depleted of potential oxidizable nutrients. In general, there was a direct competition between lactic acid and ethanol among the metabolites. Poor medium compositions and cultivation conditions resulted in higher yields of lactic acid, whereas the ethanol and biomass yields were higher in rich media. SSL-S supported good growth of mycelium and a high ethanol yield.

  • 39.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Niklasson, C.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lidén, G.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Conversion of dilute-acid hydrolyzates of spruce and birch to ethanol by fed-batch fermentation1999Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 59-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fermentation techniques for conversion of dilute acid hydrolyzates were examined. Batch and fed-batch fermentations of hydrolyzates from spruce and birch woods were made in a lab-scale (3.31) anaerobic bioreactor using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The spruce and birch hydrolyzates contained high initial concentrations of furfural (2.2 and 5.7 g/l) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, 7.3 and 2.4 g/l), and were found to be strongly inhibiting to the yeast strain used in this study. Fermentation of the hydrolyzates was not possible using a batch mode of operation. However, using a fed-batch technique with a suitably adjusted feed rate, it was found possible to completely ferment the glucose and mannose sugars in both hydrolyzates. Most of the furfural (90%), and part of the HMF (40-70%), present in the hydrolyzates was converted during the fed-batch operation. It is suggested that the success of the fed-batch operation is related to the conversion of furfural and HMF.Fermentation techniques for conversion of dilute acid hydrolyzates were examined. Batch and fed-batch fermentations of hydrolyzates from spruce and birch woods were made in a lab-scale (3.31) anaerobic bioreactor using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The spruce and birch hydrolyzates contained high initial concentrations of furfural (2.2 and 5.7 g/l) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, 7.3 and 2.4 g/l), and were found to be strongly inhibiting to the yeast strain used in this study. Fermentation of the hydrolyzates was not possible using a batch mode of operation. However, using a fed-batch technique with a suitably adjusted feed rate, it was found possible to completely ferment the glucose and mannose sugars in both hydrolyzates. Most of the furfural (90%), and part of the HMF (40-70%), present in the hydrolyzates was converted during the fed-batch operation. It is suggested that the success of the fed-batch operation is related to the conversion of furfural and HMF.

  • 40.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wong, JW
    Nelles, M
    He, P
    Special Issue on Bioconversion of Food Wastes2018Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 248Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Teghammar, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Yngvesson, J.
    Lundin, M.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Pretreatment of paper tube residuals for improved biogas production2010Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, nr 4, s. 1206-1212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper tube residuals, which are lignocellulosic wastes, have been studied as substrate for biogas (methane) production. Steam explosion and nonexplosive hydrothermal pretreatment, in combination with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrogen peroxide, have been used to improve the biogas production. The treatment conditions of temperature, time and addition of NaOH and H2O2 were statistically evaluated for methane production. Explosive pretreatment was more successful than the nonexplosive method, and gave the best results at 220 °C, 10 min, with addition of both 2% NaOH and 2% H2O2. Digestion of the pretreated materials at these conditions yielded 493 N ml/g VS methane which was 107% more than the untreated materials. In addition, the initial digestion rate was improved by 132% compared to the untreated samples. The addition of NaOH was, besides the explosion effect, the most important factor to improve the biogas production.

  • 42. Trad, Zaineb
    et al.
    Akimbomi, Julius
    Vial, Christophe
    Larroche, Christian
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Fontaine, Jean-Pierre
    Development of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for concurrent extraction of volatile fatty acids and biohydrogen production.2015Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 196, nr November 2015, s. 290-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study an externally-submerged membrane bioreactor for the cyclic extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) during anaerobic fermentation, combining the advantages of submerged and external technologies for enhancing biohydrogen (BioH2) production from agrowaste. Mixing and transmembrane pressure (TMP) across a hollow fiber membrane placed in a recirculation loop coupled to a stirred tank were investigated, so that the loop did not significantly modify the hydrodynamic properties in the tank. The fouling mechanism, due to cake layer formation, was reversible. A cleaning procedure based on gas scouring and backwashing with the substrate was defined. Low TMP, 10(4)Pa, was required to achieve a 3Lh(-1)m(-2) critical flux. During fermentation, BioH2 production was shown to restart after removing VFAs with the permeate, so as to enhance simultaneously BioH2 production and the recovery of VFAs as platform molecules.

  • 43.
    Vu, Hoang Danh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Recycling strategies for polyhydroxyalkanoate-based waste materials: An overview.2020Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 298, artikel-id 122393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastics market is dominated by fossil-based polymers, but their gradual replacement by bioplastics (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) is occurring. However, recycling strategies need to be developed to truly unveil the impact of bioplastics on waste accumulation. This review provides a state of the art of recycling strategies investigated for polyhydroxyalkanoate-based polymers and proposes future research avenues. Research on mechanical and chemical recycling is dominated by the use of extrusion and pyrolysis, respectively, while that on biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates is related to soil and aquatic samples, and to anaerobic digestion towards biogas production. Research gaps exist in the relationships between polymer composition and ease of use of all recycling strategies investigated. This is of utmost importance since it will influence the need for separation at the source. Therefore, research emphasis needs to be given to the area to follow the continuous improvement of the process economics towards widespread commercial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

  • 44.
    Wainaina, Steven
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kisworini, Afrilia Dwi
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Fanani, Marizal
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Millati, Ria
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Utilization of food waste-derived volatile fatty acids for production of edible Rhizopus oligosporus fungal biomass2020Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhizopus oligosporus is an edible filamentous fungus that can contribute to meet the growing demand for single-cell protein. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are favorable potential substrates for producing R. oligosporus biomass due to their capacity to be synthesized from a wide range of low-value organic solid wastes via anaerobic digestion. The goal of this work was to cultivate R. oligosporus using food waste-derived VFAs as the sole carbon source. To maintain the requisite low substrate concentrations, the fed-batch cultivation technique was applied. This resulted in a four-fold improvement in biomass production relative to standard batch cultivation. Maximum biomass yield of 0.21 ± 0.01 g dry biomass/g VFAs COD eq. consumed, containing 39.28 ± 1.54% crude protein, was obtained. In the bubble-column bioreactors, the complete uptake of acetic acid was observed, while the consumptions of caproic and butyric acids reached up to 97.64% and 26.13%, respectively.

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  • 45.
    Wainaina, Steven
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mohsen, Parchami
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Food waste-derived volatile fatty acids platform using an immersed membrane bioreactor2018Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, artikel-id S0960-8524(18)31650-XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are the key intermediates from anaerobic digestion (AD) process that can be a platform to synthesize products of higher value than biogas. However, some obstacles still exist that prevent large-scale production and application of VFAs, key among them being the difficulty in recovering the acids from the fermentation medium and low product yields. In this study, a novel anaerobic immersed membrane bioreactor (iMBR) with robust cleaning capabilities, which incorporated frequent backwashing to withstand the complex AD medium, was designed and applied for production and in situ recovery of VFAs. The iMBR was fed with food waste and operated without pH control, achieving a high yield of 0.54 g VFA/g VSadded. The continuous VFA recovery process was investigated for 40 days at OLRs of 2 gVS/L/d and 4 gVS/L/d without significant change in the permeate flux at a maximum suspended solids concentration of 31 g/L.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-12-01 13:14
  • 46. Wainaina, Steven
    et al.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sarsaiya, Surendra
    Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology and Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, PR China.
    Chen, Hongyu
    Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin Altensteinstr. 6, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Singh, Ekta
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020, Maharashtra, India.
    Kumar, Aman
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020, Maharashtra, India.
    Ravindran, B.
    Department of Environmental Energy and Engineering, Kyonggi University Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16227, South Korea.
    Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
    Tao, Liu
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
    Duan, Yumin
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
    Kumar, Sunil
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020, Maharashtra, India.
    Zhang, Zengqiang
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Resource recovery and circular economy from organic solid waste using aerobic and anaerobic digestion technologies2020Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the inevitable rise in human population, resource recovery from waste stream is becoming important for a sustainable economy, conservation of the ecosystem as well as for reducing the dependence on the finite natural resources. In this regard, a bio-based circular economy considers organic wastes and residues as potential resources that can be utilized to supply chemicals, nutrients, and fuels needed by mankind. This review explored the role of aerobic and anaerobic digestion technologies for the advancement of a bio-based circular society. The developed routes within the anaerobic digestion domain, such as the production of biogas and other high-value chemicals (volatile fatty acids) were discussed. The potential to recover important nutrients, such as nitrogen through composting, was also addressed. An emphasis was made on the innovative models for improved economics and process performance, which include co-digestion of various organic solid wastes, recovery of multiple bio-products, and integrated bioprocesses.

  • 47. Wainaina, Steven
    et al.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Biochemicals from food waste and recalcitrant biomass via syngas fermentation: A review2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An effective method for the production of value-added chemicals from food waste and lignocellulosic materials is a hybrid thermal-biological process, which involves gasification of the solid materials to syngas (primarily CO and H2) followed by fermentation. This paper reviews the recent advances in this process. The special focus is on the cultivation methods that involve the use of single strains, defined mixed cultures and undefined mixed cultures for production of carboxylic acids and higher alcohols. A rate limiting step in these processes is the low mass transfer between the gas and the liquid phases. Therefore, novel techniques that can enhance the gas-liquid mass transfer including membrane- and trickle-bed bioreactors were discussed. Such bioreactors have shown promising results in increasing the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). High gas pressure also influences the mass transfer in certain batch processes, although the presence of impurities in the gas would impede the process.[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 48.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Gudipudi, S.
    Pandiyan, I.
    Millati, R.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Inhibitory Effect of Fruit Flavors on Methane Production During Anaerobic Digestion2013Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 145, nr IFIBiop, s. 188-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve biogas production from fruit wastes, the inhibitory effects of fruit flavors on anaerobic digestion were investigated. Batch anaerobic digestion was performed for 30 days using synthetic medium and thermophilic sludge. Three groups of flavor compounds i.e. aldehydes (hexanal, nonanal, and E-2-hexenal), terpenes (car-3-ene, α-pinene, and myrcene), and alcohol (octanol) at concentration of 0.005%, 0.05%, and 0.5% were examined. All the flavor compounds showed inhibitory effect on methane production. The highest methane reduction was obtained at addition of 0.5% of flavor compounds. For terpenoids, the presence of 0.5% of car-3-ene, myrcene, and α-pinene reduced 95%, 75%, and 77% of methane production, respectively. For aldehydes, addition of 0.5% concentration resulted in more than 99% methane reduction for hexanal and E-2-hexenal, and 84% methane reduction for nonanal. For alcohol, the presence of 0.5% octanol decreased 99% methane production.

  • 49.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Youngsukkasem, S.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Millati, R.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Performance of semi-continuous membrane bioreactor in biogas production from toxic feedstock containing D-limonene2014Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 170, s. 350-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel membrane bioreactor configuration containing both free and encased cells in a single reactor was proposed in this work. The reactor consisted of 120 g/L of free cells and 120 g/L of encased cells in a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and d-Limonene were used as the models of substrate and inhibitor for biogas production, respectively. Different concentrations of d-Limonene i.e., 1, 5, and 10 g/L were tested, and an experiment without the addition of d-Limonene was prepared as control. The digestion was performed in a semi-continuous thermophilic reactor for 75 days. The result showed that daily methane production in the reactor with the addition of 1 g/L d-Limonene was similar to that of control. A lag phase was observed in the presence of 5 g/L d-Limonene; however, after 10 days, the methane production increased and reached a similar production to that of the control after 15 days.

  • 50. Yazdani, Parviz
    et al.
    Zamani, Akram
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Characterization of Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae biomass composition and its potential for biofuel production.2015Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 176, s. 196-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nizimuddinia zanardini macroalgae, harvested from Persian Gulf, was chem. characterized and employed for the prodn. of ethanol, seaweed ext., alginic acid, and biogas. In order to improve the products yields, the biomass was pretreated with dil. sulfuric acid and hot water. The pretreated and untreated biomasses were subjected to enzymic hydrolysis by cellulase (15 FPU/g) and β-glucosidase (30 IU/g). Hydrolysis yield of glucan was 29.8, 82.5, and 72.7 g/kg for the untreated, hot-water pretreated, and acid pretreated biomass, resp. Anaerobic fermn. of hydrolyzates by Saccharomycescerevisiae resulted in the max. ethanol yield of 34.6 g/kg of the dried biomass. A seaweed ext. contg. mannitol and a solid residue contg. alginic acid were recovered as the main byproducts of the ethanol prodn. On the other hand, the biogas yield from the biomass was increased from 170 to 200 m3 per ton of dried algae biomass by hot water pretreatment. [on SciFinder(R)]

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