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  • 1. Hafskjold, Linda
    et al.
    Sundler J, Annelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Holmström, Inger K
    Sundling, Vibeke
    van Dulmen, Sandra
    Eide, Hilde
    A cross-sectional study on person-centred communication in the care of older people: the COMHOME study protocol.2015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents an international cross-sectional study on person-centred communication with older people receiving healthcare (COMHOME). Person-centred care relies on effective communication, but few studies have explored this with a specific focus on older people. The main aim of the COMHOME study is to generate knowledge on person-centred communication with older people (>65 years) in home healthcare services, radiographic and optometric practice.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will explore the communication between care providers and older persons in home care services. Home healthcare visits will be audiorecorded (n=500) in Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden. Analyses will be performed with the Verona Coding Definitions for Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES), the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) and qualitative methods. The content of the communication, communicative challenging situations as well as empathy, power distance, decision-making, preservation of dignity and respect will be explored. In Norway, an additional 100 encounters, 50 in optometric practice (video recorded) and 50 in radiographic practice (audiorecorded), will be analysed. Furthermore, healthcare providers' self-reported communication skills, empathy, mindfulness and emotional intelligence in relation to observed person-centred communication skills will be assessed using well-established standardised instruments.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Depending on national legislation, approval of either the central ethical committees (eg, nation or university), the national data protection officials or the local ethical committees (eg, units of home healthcare) was obtained. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The research findings will add knowledge to improve services provided to this vulnerable group of patients. Additionally, the findings will underpin a training programme for healthcare students and care providers focusing on communication with older people.

  • 2.
    Nord, Anette
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Hult, Håkan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kreitz-Sandberg, Susanne
    Linköping University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Svensson, Leif
    Karolinska.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University.
    Effect of two additional interventions, test and reflection, added to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation training on seventh grade students' practical skills and willingness to act: a cluster randomised trial.2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 6, article id e014230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research is to investigate if two additional interventions, test and reflection, after standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training facilitate learning by comparing 13-year-old students' practical skills and willingness to act.

    SETTINGS: Seventh grade students in council schools of two municipalities in south-east Sweden.

    DESIGN: School classes were randomised to CPR training only (O), CPR training with a practical test including feedback (T) or CPR training with reflection and a practical test including feedback (RT). Measures of practical skills and willingness to act in a potential life-threatening situation were studied directly after training and at 6 months using a digital reporting system and a survey. A modified Cardiff test was used to register the practical skills, where scores in each of 12 items resulted in a total score of 12-48 points. The study was conducted in accordance with current European Resuscitation Council guidelines during December 2013 to October 2014.

    PARTICIPANTS: 29 classes for a total of 587 seventh grade students were included in the study.

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The total score of the modified Cardiff test at 6 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were the total score directly after training, the 12 individual items of the modified Cardiff test and willingness to act.

    RESULTS: At 6 months, the T and O groups scored 32 (3.9) and 30 (4.0) points, respectively (p<0.001), while the RT group scored 32 (4.2) points (not significant when compared with T). There were no significant differences in willingness to act between the groups after 6 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: A practical test including feedback directly after training improved the students' acquisition of practical CPR skills. Reflection did not increase further CPR skills. At 6-month follow-up, no intervention effect was found regarding willingness to make a life-saving effort.

  • 3. Persson Waye, K
    et al.
    van Kamp, I
    Dellve, L
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Validation of a questionnaire measuring preschool children's reactions to and coping with noise in a repeated measurement design2013In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure preschool children's reactions to and coping with indoor noise at preschools or day care centres. DESIGN: Data were derived from an acoustical before and after intervention study providing repeated measurements. SETTING: The study was performed at seven preschools in Mölndal, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Children were recruited from these preschools and the final sample comprised 61 and 59 preschool children aged 4-5 years, with a response rate of 98% and 48% girls and 52% boys. Two children were excluded from analysis because they fell outside the age range. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The instrument was developed based on a qualitative study performed in Swedish preschools. Questions pertained to preschool children's perception of noise when at school, their bodily and emotional reactions to it, non-specific symptoms and the coping strategies used by them to diminish the detrimental effects of the noise. RESULTS: Confirmative factor analysis yielded a three-factor model fitted to 10 items pertaining to angry reactions, symptoms and coping. The model fit was moderate to good (standardised root mean square residual=0.08, 0.12; adjusted goodness of fit=0.97/0.91) in the before and after conditions, respectively. The scales showed moderate to good reliability in terms of internal consistency, with an α ranging between 0.52 and 0.67, and was stronger in the before condition. Concurrent validity was strongest for symptoms by comparing groups based on bodily reaction (general and sound specific). CONCLUSIONS: Young children's emotional and bodily reactions to coping with noise can be reliably measured with this instrument. Like adults and older children, young children are able to distinguish between emotional reactions, bodily reactions, coping and unwell-being. Future research on larger groups of preschool children is needed to further refine the questions, in particular the questions pertaining to well-being.

  • 4.
    Viktorisson, Adam
    et al.
    1 Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Åsa B
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Well-being among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a cross-sectional retrospective study in Sweden.2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e021729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The psychological outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been studied more extensively in recent years. Still, not much is known about the well-being among OHCA survivors. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we aim to investigate post-OHCA well-being among patients with a good neurological outcome, 3 months after the cardiac event. To assess well-being, we analyse the frequency of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and health within this group. Further, we aim to evaluate the importance of five prognostic factors for post-OHCA well-being.

    METHODS: Data collection took place between 2008 and 2012, and every OHCA survivor within one region of Sweden, with a cerebral performance category (CPC) score of ≤2 at discharge, was asked to participate. Survivors were identified through the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Registry, and postal questionnaires were sent out 3 months after the OHCA. The survey included Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C) and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 level (EQ-5D-3L).

    RESULTS: Of 298 survivors, 150 were eligible for this study and 94 responded. The mean time from OHCA to follow-up was 88 days. There was no significant difference between respondents and non-respondents in terms of sex, age, cardiac arrest circumstances or in-hospital interventions. 48 participants reported reduced well-being, and young age was the only factor significantly correlated to this outcome (p=0.02). Women reported significantly higher scores in HADS (p=0.001) and PCL-C (p<0.001). Women also reported significantly lower EQ-5D index values (p=0.002) and EQ-visual analogue scale scores (p=0.002) compared with men.

    CONCLUSION: Reduced well-being is experienced by half of OHCA survivors with a CPC score ≤2, and young age is negatively correlated to this outcome. The frequency of anxiety and PTSD is higher among women, who also report worse health.

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