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  • 1.
    Arya, Mina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Malmek, Else-Marie
    Juteborg AB, 426 79 Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Ecoist, Thomas Koch
    Ecoist AB, 262 72 Ängelholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jocke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 431 53 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Enhancing Sustainability: Jute Fiber-Reinforced Bio-Based Sandwich Composites for Use in Battery Boxes2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 3842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising industrial demand for environmentally friendly and sustainable materials has shifted the attention from synthetic to natural fibers. Natural fibers provide advantages like affordability, lightweight nature, and renewability. Jute fibers’ substantial production potential and cost-efficiency have propelled current research in this field. In this study, the mechanical behavior (tensile, flexural, and interlaminar shear properties) of plasma-treated jute composite laminates and the flexural behavior of jute fabric-reinforced sandwich composites were investigated. Non-woven mat fiber (MFC), jute fiber (JFC), dried jute fiber (DJFC), and plasma-treated jute fiber (TJFC) composite laminates, as well as sandwich composites consisting of jute fabric bio-based unsaturated polyester (UPE) composite as facing material and polyethylene terephthalate (PET70 and PET100) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as core materials were fabricated to compare their functional properties. Plasma treatment of jute composite laminate had a positive effect on some of the mechanical properties, which led to an improvement in Young’s modulus (7.17 GPa) and tensile strength (53.61 MPa) of 14% and 8.5%, respectively, as well as, in flexural strength (93.71 MPa) and flexural modulus (5.20 GPa) of 24% and 35%, respectively, compared to those of JFC. In addition, the results demonstrated that the flexural properties of jute sandwich composites can be significantly enhanced by incorporating PET100 foams as core materials. 

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  • 2.
    Asadollahzadeh, Mohammadtaghi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Application of Fungal Biomass for the Development of New Polylactic Acid-Based Biocomposites2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungal biomass (FB), a by-product of the fermentation processes produced in large volumes, is a promising biomaterial that can be incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to develop enhanced biocomposites that fully comply with the biobased circular economy concept. The PLA/FB composites, with the addition of triethyl citrate (TEC) as a biobased plasticizer, were fabricated by a microcompounder at 150 °C followed by injection molding. The effects of FB (10 and 20 wt %) and TEC (5, 10, and 15 wt %) contents on the mechanical, thermal and surface properties of the biocomposites were analyzed by several techniques. The PLA/FB/TEC composites showed a rough surface in their fracture section. A progressive decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus was observed with increasing FB and TEC, while elongation at break and impact strength started to increase. The neat PLA and biocomposite containing 10% FB and 15% TEC exhibited the lowest (3.84%) and highest (224%) elongation at break, respectively. For all blends containing FB, the glass transition, crystallization and melting temperatures were shifted toward lower values compared to the neat PLA. The incorporation of FB to PLA thus offers the possibility to overcome one of the main drawbacks of PLA, which is brittleness.

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  • 3.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The effect of glycerol, sugar and maleic anhydride on pectin-cellulose biofilms prepared from orange waste2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to improve the properties of thin films prepared from orange waste by the solution casting method. The main focus was the elimination of holes in the film structure by establishing better cohesion between the major cellulosic and pectin fractions. For this, a previously developed method was improved first by the addition of sugar to promote pectin gelling, then by the addition of maleic anhydride. Principally, maleic anhydride was introduced to the films to induce cross-linking within the film structure. The effects of concentrations of sugar and glycerol as plasticizers and maleic anhydride as a cross-linking agent on the film characteristics were studied. Maleic anhydride improved the structure, resulting in a uniform film, and morphology studies showed better adhesion between components. However, it did not act as a cross-linking agent, but rather as a compatibilizer. The middle level (0.78%) of maleic anhydride content resulted in the highest tensile strength (26.65 ± 3.20 MPa) at low (7%) glycerol and high (14%) sugar levels and the highest elongation (28.48% ± 4.34%) at high sugar and glycerol levels. To achieve a uniform film surface with no holes present, only the lowest (0.39%) level of maleic anhydride was necessary. 

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  • 4.
    Cong, X.
    et al.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zhu, C.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Li, S.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Li, J.
    National Engineering Technology Research Centre of Flame Retardant Material, School of Materials, Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.
    Rudd, C.
    James Cook University, Singapore 387380, Singapore.
    Liu, X.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Investigation of fire protection performance and mechanical properties of thin-ply bio-epoxy composites2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1-13, article id 731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid composites composed of bio-based thin-ply carbon fibre prepreg and flame-retardant mats (E20MI) have been produced to investigate the effects of laminate design on their fire protection performance and mechanical properties. These flame-retardant mats rely primarily on expandable graphite, mineral wool and glass fibre to generate a thermal barrier that releases incom-bustible gasses and protects the underlying material. A flame retardant (FR) mat is incorporated into the carbon fibre bio-based polymeric laminate and the relationship between the fire protection properties and mechanical properties is investigated. Hybrid composite laminates containing FR mats either at the exterior surfaces or embedded 2-plies deep have been tested by the limited oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test and cone calorimetry. The addition of the surface or embedded E20MI flame retardant mats resulted in an improvement from a base line of 33.1% to 47.5% and 45.8%, respectively. All laminates passed the vertical burning test standard of FAR 25.853. Cone calorimeter data revealed an increase in the time to ignition (TTI) for the hybrid composites containing the FR mat, while the peak of heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (TTR) were greatly reduced. Furthermore, the maximum average rate of heat emission (MARHE) values indicated that both composites with flame retardant mats had achieved the requirements of EN 45545-2. However, the tensile strengths of laminates with surface or embedded flame-retardant mats were reduced from 1215.94 MPa to 885.92 MPa and 975.48 MPa, respectively. Similarly, the bending strength was reduced from 836.41 MPa to 767.03 MPa and 811.36 MPa, respectively. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 5.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of Flexible and Conductive ImmiscibleThermoplastic/Elastomer Monofilament for SmartTextiles Applications Using 3D Printing2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing utilized as a direct deposition of conductive polymeric materials onto textilesreveals to be an attractive technique in the development of functional textiles. However, the conductivefillers—filled thermoplastic polymers commonly used in the development of functional textiles through3D printing technology and most specifically through Fused DepositionModeling (FDM) process—arenot appropriate for textile applications as they are excessively brittle and fragile at room temperature.Indeed, a large amount of fillers is incorporated into the polymers to attain the percolation thresholdincreasing their viscosity and stiffness. For this reason, this study focuses on enhancing the flexibility,stress and strain at rupture and electrical conductivity of 3D-printed conductive polymer onto textiles bydeveloping various immiscible polymer blends. A phase is composed of a conductive polymer composite(CPC)made of a carbon nanotubes (CNT) and highly structured carbon black (KB)- filled low-densitypolyethylene (LDPE) and another one of propylene-based elastomer (PBE) blends. Two requirements areessential to create flexible and highly conductive monofilaments for 3D-printed polymers onto textilematerials applications. First, the co-continuity of both the thermoplastic and the elastomer phases and thelocation of the conductive fillers in the thermoplastic phase or at the interface of the two immisciblepolymers are necessary to preserve the flexibility of the elastomer while decreasing the global amountof charges in the blends. In the present work based on theoretical models, when using a two-stepmelt process, the KB and CNT particles are found to be both preferentially located at the LDPE/PBEinterface. Moreover, in the case of the two-step extrusion, SEM characterization showed that the KBparticles were located in the LDPE while the CNT were mainly at the LDPE/PBE interface and TEManalysis demonstrated that KB and CNT nanoparticles were in LDPE and at the interface. For one-stepextrusion, it was found that both KB and CNT are in the PBE and LDPE phases. These selectivelocations play a key role in extending the co-continuity of the LDPE and PBE phases over a much largercomposition range. Therefore, the melt flow index and the electrical conductivity of monofilament,the deformation under compression, the strain and stress and the electrical conductivity of the 3D-printedconducting polymer composite onto textiles were significantly improved with KB and CNT-filledLDPE/PBE blends compared to KB and CNT-filled LDPE separately. The two-step extrusion processed60%(LDPE16.7% KB + 4.2% CNT)/40 PBE blends presented the best properties and almost similar to theones of the textile materials and henceforth, could be a better material for functional textile developmentthrough 3D printing onto textiles.

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  • 6.
    Gomes Hastenreiter, Lara Lopes
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India.
    Yadav, Anilkumar
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Synthesis of Lactic Acid-Based Thermosetting Resins and Their Ageing and Biodegradability2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, no 12, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is focused on the synthesis of bio-based thermoset polymers and their thermo–oxidative ageing and biodegradability. Toward this aim, bio-based thermoset resins with different chemical architectures were synthesized from lactic acid by direct condensation with ethylene glycol, glycerol and pentaerythritol. The resulting branched molecules with chain lengths (n) of three were then end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride. The chemical structures of the synthesized lactic acid derivatives were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) before curing. To evaluate the effects of structure on their properties, the samples were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the tensile testing. The samples went through thermo-oxidative ageing and biodegradation; and their effects were investigated. FT-IR and 1H-NMR results showed that three different bio-based resins were synthesized using polycondensation and end-functionalization. Lactic acid derivatives showed great potential to be used as matrixes in polymer composites. The glass transition temperature of the cured resins ranged between 44 and 52 °C. Pentaerythritol/lactic acid cured resin had the highest tensile modulus and it was the most thermally stable among all three resins. Degradative processes during ageing of the samples lead to the changes in chemical structures and the variations in Young’s modulus. Microscopic images showed the macro-scale surface degradation on a soil burial test.

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  • 7. Gustafsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Landberg, Mikael
    Bátori, Veronika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. 

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  • 8.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. NSAIT, ULR 2461-GEMTEX-Génie et Matériaux Textiles, Université de Lille, F-59000 Lille, France; .College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China..
    Cayla, Aurélie
    ENSAIT, ULR 2461—GEMTEX—Génie et Matériaux Textiles, Université de Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.
    Guan, Jinping
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.
    Chen, Guoqiang
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT, ULR 2461—GEMTEX—Génie et Matériaux Textiles, Université de Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.
    Piezoresistive Properties of 3D-Printed Polylactic Acid (PLA) Nanocomposites2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 15, article id 2981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing interest is focused on the application of 3D printing for sensor manufacturing. Using 3D printing technology offers a new approach to the fabrication of sensors that are both geometrically and functionally complex. This work presents the analysis of the 3D-printed thermoplastic nanocomposites compress under the applied force. The response for the corresponding resistance changes versus applied load is obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of the printed layer as a pressure/force sensor. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and high-structured carbon black (Ketjenblack) (KB) in the polylactic acid (PLA) matrix were extruded to develop 3D-printable filaments. The electrical and piezoresistive behaviors of the created 3D-printed layers were investigated. The percolation threshold of MWNT and KB 3D-printed layers are 1 wt.% and 4 wt.%, respectively. The PLA/1 wt.% MWNT 3D-printed layers with 1 mm thickness exhibit a negative pressure coefficient (NPC) characterized by a decrease of about one decade in resistance with increasing compressive loadings up to 18 N with a maximum strain up to about 16%. In the cyclic mode with a 1 N/min force rate, the PLA/1 wt.% MWNT 3D-printed layers showed good performance with the piezoresistive coefficient or gauge factor (G) of 7.6 obtained with the amplitude of the piezoresistive response (Ar) of about -0.8. KB composites could not show stable piezoresistive responses in a cyclic mode. However, under high force rate compression, the PLA/4 wt.% KB 3D-printed layers led to responses of large sensitivity (Ar = −0.90) and were exempt from noise with a high value of G = 47.6 in the first cycle, which is a highly efficient piezoresistive behavior.

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  • 9.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Dhakal, Hom Nath
    Advanced Polymers and Composites (APC), School of Mechanical Design and Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ, UK.
    Dashatan, Saeid Hosseinpour
    Brunel Composite Centre, Brunel University London, London UB8 3PH, UK.
    Danielsson, Mikael
    Albany International AB, 302 41 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Gràcia, Alèxia Feiner
    Department of Textile Technology and Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-Barcelona Tech—UPC, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Sandwich Composites Containing Recycled Polymer Textiles2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 18, p. 1-14, article id 3815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, sandwich composites were produced by compression moulding techniques, and they consisted of regenerated cellulose fabric (rayon) and bio-based polypropylene (PP) to form facings, while virgin and recycled polyamide (PA) textiles were used as core materials. To compare the mechanical performance between sandwich composites and typical composite designs, a control composite was produced to deliver the same weight and fiber mass fraction from rayon and PP. To evaluate the influence of recycled textile on the mechanical properties of the composites, a series of flexural, low velocity impact (LVI) and tensile tests were performed. It was found that the incorporation of thicker PA textile enhanced the bending stiffness by two times and the peak flexural force by 70% as compared to those of control. Substitution of a layer of recycled textile for two layers of rayon provided a good level of impact energy absorption capacity (~28 J) and maximum force (~4893–5229 N). The tensile strength of the four sandwich composites was reported to be in the range of 34.20 MPa and 46.80 MPa. This value was 91.90 for the control composite. The 2D cross-section slices of the composite specimens did not show any evidence of fiber tow debonding, fiber bundle splitting, or delamination.

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  • 10.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Erturk, Semih Ertürk
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fabrication: Mechanical Testing and Structural Simulation of Regenerated Cellulose Fabric Elium(R) Thermoplastic Composite System2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regenerated cellulose fibres are an important part of the forest industry, and they can be used in the form of fabrics as reinforcement materials. Similar to the natural fibres (NFs), such as flax, hemp and jute, that are widely used in the automotive industry, these fibres possess good potential to be used for semi-structural applications. In this work, the mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fabric-reinforced poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Elium(R)) composite were investigated and compared with those of its natural fibre composite counterparts. The developed composite demonstrated higher tensile strength and ductility, as well as comparable flexural properties with those of NF-reinforced epoxy and Elium(R) composite systems, whereas the Young's modulus was lower. The glass transition temperature demonstrated a value competitive (107.7 degrees C) with that of other NF composites. Then, the behavior of the bio-composite under bending and loading was simulated, and a materials model was used to simulate the behavior of a car door panel in a flexural scenario. Modelling can contribute to predicting the structural behavior of the bio-based thermoplastic composite for secondary applications, which is the aim of this work. Finite element simulations were performed to assess the deflection and force transfer mechanism for the car door interior.

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  • 11.
    Mohammadkhani, Ghasem
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adolfsson, Karin H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    New Solvent and Coagulating Agent for Development of Chitosan Fibers by Wet Spinning2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 2121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipic acid was evaluated as a novel solvent for wet spinning of chitosan fibers. A solvent with two carboxyl groups could act as a physical crosslinker between the chitosan chains, resulting in improved properties of the fibers. The performance of adipic acid was compared with conventional solvents, i.e., lactic, citric, and acetic acids. Chitosan solutions were injected into a coagulation bath to form monofilaments. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and its mixture with ethanol (EtOH) were used as coagulation agents. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of uniform chitosan monofilaments with an even surface when using adipic acid as solvent. These monofilaments generally showed higher mechanical strength compared to that of monofilaments produced using conventional solvents. The highest Young’s modulus, 4.45 GPa, was recorded for adipic acid monofilaments coagulated in NaOH-EtOH. This monofilament also had a high tensile strength of 147.9 MPa. Furthermore, taking advantage of chitosan insolubility in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at room temperature, chitosan fibers were successfully formed upon coagulation in H2SO4-EtOH. The dewatering of fibers using EtOH before drying resulted in a larger fiber diameter and lower mechanical strength. Adipic acid fibers made without dehydration illustrated 18% (for NaOH), 46% (for NaOH-EtOH), and 91% (for H2SO4-EtOH) higher tensile strength compared to those made with dehydration.

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  • 12.
    Mousavi, Seyedeh Najmeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Wood and Paper Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari 4818168984, Iran.
    Nazarnezhad, N.
    Department of Wood and Paper Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari 4818168984, Iran.
    Asadpour, G.
    Department of Wood and Paper Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, P.O. Box 578, Sari 4818168984, Iran.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ultrafine friction grinding of lignin for development of starch biocomposite films2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 2024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work demonstrates the utilization of fractionalized lignin from the black liquor of soda pulping for the development of starch-lignin biocomposites. The effect of ultrafine friction grinding on lignin particle size and properties of the biocomposites was investigated. Microscopic analysis and membrane filtration confirmed the reduction of lignin particle sizes down to micro and nanoparticles during the grinding process. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed the compatibility between lignin particles and starch in the composites. The composite films were characterized for chemical structure, ultraviolet blocking, mechanical, and thermal properties. Additional grinding steps led to the reduction of large lignin particles and the produced particles were uniform. The formation of 7.7 to 11.3% lignin nanoparticles was confirmed in the two steps of membrane filtration. The highest tensile strain of the biocomposite films were 5.09 MPa, which displays a 40% improvement compared to starch films. Further, thermal stability of the composite films was better than that of starch films. The results from ultraviolet transmission showed that the composite films could act as an ultraviolet barrier in packaging applications. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 13. Sain, Sunanda
    et al.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Synthesis and Properties of Thermosets from Tung Oil and Furfuryl Methacrylate2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the development of cross-linked polymer from a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, tung oil (TO) and a bio-based acrylate, furfuryl methacrylate (FMA). The presence of a high degree of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonding in TO makes it a suitable precursor for polymer synthesis. Using this advantage of TO, in this work, we have synthesised a cross-linked polymer from TO and FMA through free radical polymerisation followed by Diels-Alder (DA) reaction. Successful incorporation of both of the raw materials and the two chemical reactions was shown using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The development of cross-linked structure was analysed through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

  • 14.
    Sain, Sunanda
    et al.
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, SE-501 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, SE-501 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, SE-501 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Roy, Souvik
    Joseph Bank Laboratories, School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7DL, UK.
    Hydrophobic Shape-Memory Biocomposites from Tung-Oil-Based Bioresin and Onion-Skin-Derived Nanocellulose Networks2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fabrication of smart biocomposites from sustainable resources that could replace today’s petroleum-derived polymer materials is a growing field of research. Here, we report preparation of novel biocomposites using nanocellulose networks extracted from food residue (onion skin) and a vegetable oil-based bioresin. The resin was synthesized via the Diels-Alder reaction between furfuryl methacrylate and tung oil at various ratios of the components. The onion-skin-extracted cellulose nanofiber and cellulose nanocrystal networks were then impregnated with the resins yielding biocomposites that exhibited improved mechanical strength and higher storage modulus values. The properties of the resins, as well as biocomposites, were affected by the resin compositions. A 190-240-fold increase in mechanical strength was observed in the cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-reinforced biocomposites with low furfuryl methacrylate content. The biocomposites exhibited interesting shape-memory behavior with 80-96% shape recovery being observed after 7 creep cycles.

  • 15.
    Syrén, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Drugge, Gabriella
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enhanced Knittability of Paper Yarn from the Swedish Forest by Using Textile Finishing Materials2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction between Swedish paper yarn and needles is a limiting factor that-together with the low yarn flexibility-is hindering the knitting and use of paper yarn as a sustainable textile material. To enhance the knittability, paper yarn was coated with textile finishing materials. The effect of six different textile finishing materials used for textiles processing (three different silicone-based, wax, glycerol, and soap) was evaluated. The treatment evaluation was done by determination of the friction coefficient, tensile testing, and knitting. The friction coefficient was determined by an adaption from the ASTM D3108-07 Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Friction, Yarn to Solid Material. The adaption meant using a specially designed rig, making it possible to simulate the yarn/needle friction during the knitting process and use a tensile testing machine to determine the friction coefficient. Through using the same angle for yarn movement during the knitting process in this adaptation, the effect of the flexibility of paper on the friction coefficient is integrated. Tensile testing was performed using a Tensolab 2512A/2512C electromechanical tensile tester, and knitting tests were performed using a Stoll CMS 822 HP knit and wear flat knitting machine with the E5.2 gauge. The results show that knittability is better for the yarns with lower coefficients of friction and can also be enhanced by spraying with regular water. The tensile properties of the yarn is degraded by the treatments. The wax- and soap-treated yarns were most challenging to knit. The silicone-based and glycerol-treated yarns showed enhanced knittability, where the glycerol treatment results in more protruding fibers compared to the other treatments. All treatments reduced the roughness in the feel of the knit. The results indicate that the Swedish paper yarn can be a future sustainable complement to polyester and cotton.</p>

  • 16.
    Uusi-Tarkka, Eija-Katriina
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Levanič, Jaka
    Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Heräjärvi, Henrik
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, FI-80130 Joensuu, Finland.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Haapala, Antti
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; FSCN Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    All-Cellulose Composite Laminates Made from Wood-Based Textiles: Effects of Process Conditions and the Addition of TEMPO-Oxidized Nanocellulose2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 19, article id 3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-cellulose composites (ACCs) are manufactured using only cellulose as a raw material. Biobased materials are more sustainable alternatives to the petroleum-based composites that are used in many technical and life-science applications. In this study, an aquatic NaOH-urea solvent system was used to produce sustainable ACCs from wood-based woven textiles with and without the addition of TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose (at 1 wt.-%). This study investigated the effects of dissolution time, temperature during hot press, and the addition of TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The results showed a significant change in the tensile properties of the layered textile composite at dissolution times of 30 s and 1 min, while ACC elongation was the highest after 2 and 5 min. Changes in hot press temperature from 70 °C to 150 °C had a significant effect: with an increase in hot press temperature, the tensile strength increased and the elongation at break decreased. Incorporating TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose into the interface of textile layers before partial dissolution improved tensile strength and, even more markedly, the elongation at break. According to thermal analyses, textile-based ACCs have a higher storage modulus (0.6 GPa) and thermal stabilization than ACCs with nanocellulose additives. This study highlights the important roles of process conditions and raw material characteristics on the structure and properties of ACCs. 

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  • 17.
    Uusi-Tarkka, Eija-Katriina
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Heräjärvi, Henrik
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Haapala, Antti
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland;FSCN Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Wood-Fiber-Based All-Cellulose Composites and Cellulose-Polypropylene Biocomposites2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores wood-fiber-based fabrics containing Lyocell yarn in the warp and Spinnova–Lyocell (60%/40%) yarn in the weft, which are used to form unidirectional all-cellulose composites (ACC) through partial dilution in a NaOH–urea solution. The aim is to investigate the role of the yarn orientation in composites, which was conducted by measuring the tensile properties in both the 0° and 90° directions. As a reference, thermoplastic biocomposites were prepared from the same fabrics, with biobased polypropylene (PP) as the matrix. We also compared the mechanical and thermal properties of the ACC and PP biocomposites. The following experiments were carried out: tensile test, TGA, DSC, DMA, water absorption test and SEM. The study found no significant difference in tensile strength regarding the Spinnova–Lyocell orientation between ACC and PP biocomposites, while the composite tensile strength was clearly higher in the warp (Lyocell) direction for both composite variants. Elongation at break doubled in ACC in the Lyocell direction compared with the other samples. Thermal analysis showed that mass reduction started at a lower temperature for ACC, but the thermal stability was higher compared with the PP biocomposites. Maximum thermal degradation temperature was measured as being 352 °C for ACC and 466 °C for neat PP, and the PP biocomposites had two peaks in the same temperature range (340–474 °C) as ACC and neat PP combined. ACCs absorbed 93% of their own dry weight in water in just one hour, whereas the PP biocomposites BC2 and BC4 absorbed only 10% and 6%, respectively. The study highlights the different properties of ACC and PP reference biocomposites that could lead to further development and research of commercial applications for ACC.

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