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  • 1.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Finnström, Berit
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    Forsner, Maria
    The facial affective scale as a predictor for pain unpleasantness when children undergo immunizations2014In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, no 628198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Needle fear is a common problem in children undergoing immunization. To ensure that the individual child’s needs are met during a painful procedure it would be beneficial to be able to predict whether there is a need for extra support. The self-reporting instrument facial affective scale (FAS) could have potential for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the FAS can predict pain unpleasantness in girls undergoing immunization. Girls, aged 11-12 years, reported their expected pain unpleasantness on the FAS at least two weeks before and then experienced pain unpleasantness immediately before each vaccination. The experienced pain unpleasantness during the vaccination was also reported immediately after each immunization. The level of anxiety was similarly assessed during each vaccination and supplemented with stress measures in relation to the procedure in order to assess and evaluate concurrent validity. The results show that the FAS is valid to predict pain unpleasantness in 11-12-year-old girls who undergo immunizations and that it has the potential to be a feasible instrument to identify children who are in need of extra support to cope with immunization. In conclusion, the FAS measurement can facilitate caring interventions.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Stefan R
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Buchholz, Margret
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Assessing children’s anxiety using the modified short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Talking Mats: A pilot study2012In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Preoperative anxiety complicates treatment and requires assessment by nurses in children. Children, with or without disability, are helped when pictures are used to support communication. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of the modified short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) using a modified Talking Mats method in children undergoing day surgeries. Method. A modified short STAI with pictorial support along the lines of the Talking Mats method was pre- and postoperatively administered to 42 typically developing children aged three to nine years. The parents assessed the children's anxiety, simultaneously and independently, by scoring the short STAI by proxy. Results. The modified short STAI showed moderate internal consistency and good construct validity in the age group seven to nine years. Conclusions. The results of this study support the use of the instrument for self-reports in children aged seven to nine years. Future research will explore the possibilities of also using this instrument for children with cognitive and communicative difficulties.

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