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  • 1.
    Kurniawan, T.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Lukitawesa, Lukitawesa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hanifah, I.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Wikandari, R.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Millati, R.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Niklasson, C.
    Chalmers.
    Semi-continuous reverse membrane bioreactor in two-stage anaerobic digestion of citruswaste2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 1341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The presence of an antimicrobial compound called D-Limonene in citrus waste inhibits methane production from such waste in anaerobic digestion. In this work, a two-stage anaerobic digestion method is developed using reverse membrane bioreactors (rMBRs) containing cells encased in hydrophilic membranes. The purpose of encasement is to retain a high cell concentration inside the bioreactor. The effectiveness of rMBRs in reducing cell washout is evaluated. Three different system configurations, comprising rMBRs, freely suspended cells (FCs), and a combination of both (abbreviated to rMBR–FCs), are incubated at three different organic loading rates (OLRs) each, namely 0.6, 1.2, and 3.6 g COD/(L cycle). Incubation lasts for eight feeding cycles at 55 °C. Methane yield and biogas composition results show that rMBRs perform better than rMBR–FCs and FCs at all three OLRs. Volatile fatty acid profiles and H2 production show that the reactors are working properly and no upset occurs. Additionally, a short digestion time of 4 days can be achieved using the rMBR configuration in this study.

  • 2. Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterisation of Electrical and Stiffness Properties of Conductive Textile Coatings with Metal Flake-shaped Fillers2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 21, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two conductive formulations containing different types of micron-sized metal flakes (silver-coated copper (Cu) and pure silver (Ag)) were characterised and used to form highly electrically conductive coatings (conductors) on plain and base-coated woven fabrics, the latter in an encapsulated construction. With e-textiles as the intended application, the fabric stiffness, in terms of flexural stiffness and sheet resistance (Rsh), after durability testing (laundering and abrasion) was investigated and related to user friendliness and long-term performance. Bare and encapsulated conductors with increasing amounts of deposited solids were fabricated by adjusting the knife coating parameters, such as the coating gap height (5, 20, 50, and 200 μm), which reduced the Rsh, as determined by four-point probe (4PP) measurements; however, this improvement was at the expense of increased flexural stiffness of the coated fabrics. The addition of a melamine derivative (MF) as a cross-linker to the Cu formulation and the encapsulation of both conductor types gave the best trade-off between durability and Rsh, as confirmed by 4PP measurements. However, the infrared camera images revealed the formation of hotspots within the bare conductor matrix, although low resistances (determined by 4PP) and no microstructural defects (determined by SEM) were detected. These results stress the importance of thorough investigation to assure the design of reliable conductors applied on textiles requiring this type of maintenance.

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