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  • 1.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Antagonistic threats against supply chain activities2012In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 123-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analysis and present that antagonistic threats against supply chain activities are wicked problems. The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is deductive desk research. This research is mainly theoretical, and the findings are contributions to the development of theoretical models and understanding in order to further move the scientific understanding about antagonistic threats against supply chain activities. The main reason behind this is the relationship between threats and countermeasures that are complex and contextual depended. There are several types of crime that can be linked to the logistics function and processes. This paper does not address the problems from a legal viewpoint. This paper presented descriptions of four different antagonistic threats, namely theft, terrorism, smuggling and piracy. The nature of these four different antagonistic threats is then analyzed with regards to the wicked problem description, which leads to the conclusion that antagonistic threats are better described as wicked problems.

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  • 2.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brüls, Helmut
    FreightWatch International, Head of EMEA Intelligence.
    Wyer, Daniel
    Freightwatch International, EMEA Intelligence Analyst.
    Theft of pharmaceuticals during transport in Europe2015In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the scale of cargo theft in

    the European pharmaceutical supply chain in 2014. The study is based on a systemtheoretical

    approach which emphasises a holistic rather than atomistic view. The

    research in this paper is deductive and descriptive in its nature and aims to present a

    current description of theft of pharmaceuticals in a European perspective. This paper’s

    hypotheses on cargo theft have been developed from theories of criminology, for

    applicable use, to strengthen the scientific field of logistics. A survey was conducted

    in autumn 2014 whereby the respondents were asked to provide their opinions in

    relation to eleven questions. The survey was sent out to all major players in the

    European pharmaceutical sector – manufacturers and logistics providers specializing

    in pharmaceuticals. The survey captured more or less 80 % of the European pharmaceutical

    manufacturers' market share.We found that the current threats against European

    pharmaceutical transport are small in relative occurrence terms (relatively few attacks on

    a yearly basis compared to other product categories) but on an impact basis thefts of

    pharmaceuticals place as one of the top targets (value wise) for criminals. This research

    supports other sources that the current geographical hot spot for these thefts in Europe is

    in Italy. The top risks are rated as either robbery or theft from vehicle at unsecure parking

    areas. These two different modi operandi can be divided into one frequency related

    threat (theft from unsecure parking) and one impact related risk (robbery).

  • 3.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The use of violence in cargo theft – a supply chain disruption case2018In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of reported cargo thefts involving violence in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region with regard to the value of stolen goods, incident frequency, transport chain location, and incident category. The research method is deductive and is based on analyses of secondary data obtained from the Incident Information Service by the Transported Asset Protection Association. The results are discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and supply chain disruption literature. We found that perpetrators who use violence seem to cause greater losses per theft than those who use other types of modus operandi. Further, the most common type of violent cargo theft occurs on Mondays in January when cargo vehicles are robbed on the road and consumer electronics are stolen. In terms of supply chain disruption, violent cargo thefts can be seen as externally-caused disruptions, which can indirectly cause major problems for the supply chain.

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  • 4.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    Security aspects on corporate culture in a logistics terminal setting2013In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the security aspects on corporate culture among terminal workers in a transport network. This is done against a background of increasing numbers of international supply chain security programmes that all more or less advocate security awareness among the employees as a cornerstone in security. A semi-structured interview guide was designed, in order to facilitate both a theoretical focus and flexible conversations. Fifteen interviews were done altogether at three different goods/freight terminals, and each interview took approximately 30–45 min. The nature of this study is explorative and therefore it focuses on the similarities rather than the differences within the interviews. This research utilizes theories and viewpoints from both social sciences and logistics in order to fill the gap between the ideas from supply chain security programs and the real situation in the transport network. The research are limited by the difficultness in establish clear and evident causal relationships between all the different factors that together compose the corporate security culture. The management wants the terminal workers to perform their planed and scheduled operational tasks according to the written procedures. The security awareness idea advocates that, if needed, shall the employee perform security tasks instead of the planed operations. This means that the employees may be forced to choose between fulfilling their normal tasks or performing security duties. This duality in management signals influences the security aspect of corporate culture.

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  • 5.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Risk trade-off linked to temporary storage function in road transports2011In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s demand on high supply chain performance requires higher awareness about supply chain risks and uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of temporary storage in the transport network in a supply chain perspective. The primary research question concerns the purpose or role of temporary storage and whether management of temporary storage can contribute to reducing risks and uncertainty in the supply chain. The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is abductive. Existing theories are used to formulate a framework which leads to a conceptual model description of the temporary storage function. This model is then supported and verified by two case studies. The temporary storage function will act as a supply chain disturbance neutralizer, thereby reducing risks and uncertainty within the supply chain. The use of temporary storage also means exposing the transport more for antagonistic threats, i.e. primarily a larger theft risk. To avoid both supply chain disturbance and increased theft risk there are three types of solutions; improved and more exact scheduling of delivery time, availability of secure parking spaces whenever a resource needs to make a temporary stop, and utilizing tracking and tracing systems. This paper illuminates the purpose and the drawbacks of temporary stops in the flow of goods within the transport network. The conditions for temporary storage in transit, related to controlling different types of risk and uncertainty in the supply chain, have been scarcely analyzed in previous research.

  • 6.
    Urciuoli, Luca
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Achieving harmonized port security training in Europe: a critical review of EU legislative frameworks2013In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Ports are complex, multiple-stakeholder environments representing the entrance point of intercontinental sea shipments into a country. Because ports are areas where large amounts of goods converge, they play a strategic role in a country’s security and economic sustenance. Consequently different stakeholders interact to ensure that cargo handling operations are optimized and cost-effective, e.g. international shipping, logistics companies, trading communities, and regulatory bodies. In this context security threats assume a special relevance, since ports could be exploited by criminal organizations to smuggle illicit goods into a country or by terrorists planning an attack. To eliminate or mitigate these risks human resources need to be correctly trained and educated. In addition, the competent authorities need to ensure that the same level and quality of training is delivered to all port facilities providing access to a country or a continent. Unfortunately, experts believe that in the EU there is a lack of harmonization of courses and quality assurance systems. Hence, the aim of this study is to review existing regulatory frameworks and assess whether guidance is provided to harmonize security training and education in port facilities. Thereafter, based on the experience developed within other sectors, where harmonization of training and education courses in the EU has been successfully achieved, we make recommendations for improvement of the existing frameworks. The article concludes by summarizing the findings and indicating implications for managers and researchers.

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  • 7. Zhang, Dafang
    et al.
    Dadkhah, Payam
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    How robustness and resilience support security business2011In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain disruptions may derive from various sources but the antagonistic threats are centered in supply chain disruption. Antagonistic threats are dynamic due to the spiral input, processes and feedbacks which create a very complex situation to analyze, assess and making decision. Beside risks, vulnerability derived from supply chain characteristics is the other issue which should be measured. Antagonistic threats are magnified in such vulnerable supply chains. After 9/11, 2001, the Security and Efficiency of the global supply chain has become an important issue in global transportation. This leads firms to consider Supply chain security as part and parcel of a company’s comprehensive risk-management program. In a security business, it is essential to understand different type risks and evaluate transportation assets, do risk based prioritization, and protect customers through cost effective actions. This could be occurred corresponding to risk management methods. Providing security may occur internally by firms or they outsource it to security providers which could be performed in higher quality or more cost effectively. In this article, we focus on managing the risks and securing the supply chain business with the security theory and strategies in the supply chain and transportation network. In order to discover risks throughout the supply chain, security provider needs to find risk hot spots where the likelihood of risk is higher. We propose two approaches (geographical and elements/process) to seek probable risks. The next step is to take strategies for risk prevention and risk mitigation. Consequently, we connect the security strategies from the literature review and collected information from security business to suggest a suitable model of how to handle the risks and achieve security in a systemic and scientific way.

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