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  • 1.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    Johansson, Eva
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Injection-molded nanocomposites and materials based on wheat gluten2011In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 146-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is, to our knowledge, the first study of the injection molding of materials where wheat gluten (WG) is the main component. In addition to a plasticizer (glycerol), 5 wt.% natural montmorillonite clay was added. X-ray indicated intercalated clay and transmission electron microscopy indicated locally good clay platelet dispersion. Prior to feeding into the injection molder, the material was first compression molded into plates and pelletized. The filling of the circular mold via the central gate was characterized by a divergent flow yielding, in general, a stronger and stiffer material in the circumferential direction. It was observed that 20–30 wt.% glycerol yielded the best combination of processability and mechanical properties. The clay yielded improved processability, plate homogeneity and tensile stiffness. IR spectroscopy and protein solubility indicated that the injection molding process yielded a highly aggregated structure. The overall conclusion was that injection molding is a very promising method for producing WG objects.

  • 2.
    Kharrazi, S. M.
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Soleimani, M.
    Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Jokar, M.
    Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mirghaffari, N.
    Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste as a precursor for synthesis of high porous activated carbon and its application for Pb (II) and Cr (VI) adsorption from aqueous solutions2021In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 180, p. 299-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of Elm tree sawdust pretreatments using alkali and alkaline earth metals (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 and Elm tree ash) and deashing solutions (water, HCl, HNO3 and aqua regia) before the carbonization process on the porosity of produced activated carbons and Pb (II) and Cr (VI) adsorption were studied. The activated carbons were characterized by pore size distribution, surface area, FTIR, and SEM-EDX analysies. Based on the results, HCl leaching pretreatment of the biomass increased the activated carbon adsorption capacity of Cr (VI) from 114 to 190 mg g−1. The treatment of biomass with alkali and alkali earth metal salts, especially MgCl2, remarkably increased the activated carbon adsorption capacity of Pb (II) from 233 to 1430 mg g−1. The results indicated that Pb (II) adsorption was attributed to both the mesoporous structure of activated carbon and the abundance of Mg on the activated carbon's surface. On the other hand, the micropores played a major role in Cr (VI) adsorption capacity. The development of the micro- or mesoporous structure of activated carbons through pretreatment of lignocellulosic precursor could be an approach for providing high performance activated carbons for Pb (II) and Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solutions.

  • 3.
    Salehinik, F.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Behzad, T.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bahrami, B.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Extraction and characterization of fungal chitin nanofibers from Mucor indicus cultured in optimized medium conditions2021In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 167, p. 1126-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitin nanofibers (ChNFs) were extracted from Mucor indicus by a purification method followed by a mechanical treatment, cultivated under obtained optimum culture medium conditions to improve fungal chitin production rate. A semi synthetic media containing 50 g/l glucose was used for cultivation of the fungus in shake flasks. The cell wall analysis showed that N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) content, which is an indication of chitin content, was maximum in presence of 2.5 g/l H3PO4, 2.5 g/l of NaOH, 1 g/l of yeast extract, 1 mg/l of plant hormones, and 1 ml/l of trace metals. The chemical characterizations demonstrated that the isolated fibers had a degree of deacetylation lower than of 10%, and were phosphate free. The FTIR results revealed successful removal of different materials during the purification step. The FE-SEM of fibrillated chitin illustrated an average diameter of 28 nm. Finally, X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallinity index of nanofibers was 82%.

  • 4.
    Svensson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oliveira, A. O.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, K. H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinmaa, I.
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Root, A.
    MagSol, Tuhkanummenkuja 2, 00970 Helsinki, Finland.
    Kondori, N.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institution of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 413 46 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, M.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Turning food waste to antibacterial and biocompatible fungal chitin/chitosan monofilaments2022In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 209, p. 618-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, cell wall of a zygomycete fungus, Rhizopus delemar, grown on bread waste was wet spun into monofilaments. Using the whole cell wall material omits the common chitosan isolation and purification steps and leads to higher material utilization. The fungal cell wall contained 36.9% and 19.7% chitosan and chitin, respectively. Solid state NMR of the fungal cell wall material confirmed the presence of chitosan, chitin, and other carbohydrates. Hydrogels were prepared by ultrafine grinding of the cell wall, followed by addition of lactic acid to protonate the amino groups of chitosan, and subsequently wet spun into monofilaments. The monofilament inhibited the growth of Bacillus megaterium (Gram+ bacterium) and Escherichia coli (Gram- bacterium) significantly (92.2% and 99.7% respectively). Cytotoxicity was evaluated using an in vitro assay with human dermal fibroblasts, indicating no toxic inducement from exposure of the monofilaments. The antimicrobial and biocompatible fungal monofilaments, open new avenues for sustainable biomedical textiles from abundant food waste. © 2022 The Authors

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