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  • 1. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The effect of process variables on the properties of melt-spun poly(lactic acid) fibres for potential use as scaffold matrix materials2013In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 3055-3066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradable materials in the form of fibres and yarns have attracted increasing attention due to a large surface area and various geometric possibilities in three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In this study, poly(lactic acid) fibres were produced by melt spinning and subsequent solid-state drawing in order to serve as matrix materials for fibre-based scaffold architectures. The processing of both monofilament and multifilament fibres as well as draw ratios and temperatures were investigated to analyze the effect of process variables on the properties. Two different polylactides with different molecular weight were studied and characterized in terms of their tensile and thermal properties and morphology. The relevance of fibre formation, solid-state drawing and drawing temperatures was clearly supported by the results, and it was shown that the physical properties, such as crystallinity, mechanical strength and ductility can be controlled largely by the drawing process. The obtained fibres demonstrated great potential to be further processed into biotextiles (woven, knitted, or nonwoven scaffolds) using the textile technologies.

  • 2.
    Rawal, Amit
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi; Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM); Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Kumar, Vijay
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Saraswat, Harshvardhan
    MLV Textile & Engineering College.
    Weerasinghe, Dakshitha
    Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Hietel, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM).
    Dauner, Martin
    Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Creating three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations2017In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 2534-2548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior have been sporadically investigated. One of the major challenges is to design such materials with giant negative Poisson’s ratio over large deformations. Here in, we report a systematic investigation to create three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks in the form of needlepunched nonwoven materials with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations via theoretical modeling and extensive set of experiments. The experimental matrix has encapsulated the key parameters of the needlepunching nonwoven process. Under uniaxial tensile loading, the anisotropy coupled with local fiber densification in networks has yielded large negative Poisson’s ratio (up to −5.7) specifically in the preferential direction. The in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of fiber networks have been predicted and, subsequently, compared with the experimental results. Fiber orientation was found to be a core parameter that modulated the in-plane Poisson’s ratio of fiber networks. A parametric analysis has revealed the interplay between the anisotropy of the fiber network and the out-of-plane Poisson’s ratio based upon constant volume consideration.

  • 3.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Jit
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.
    Srivastava, Rajiv K
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.
    Nandan, Bhanu
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.
    Electrospun composite matrices from tenside-free poly(caprolactone)-grafted acrylic acid/hydroxyapatite oil-in-water emulsions2017In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 2254-2262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite matrices of poly(ε-caprolactone)-grafted acrylic acid (PCL-g-AA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared via electrospinning of oil-in-water emulsions. Grafting of varying amounts of AA on PCL was carried out in a twin-screw compounder using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator under inert atmosphere. A solution of PCL-g-AA in toluene, containing HA, comprised the oil phase of the emulsion, while the aqueous phase contained poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a template polymer. No emulsifier was used in making such emulsions which were found to be stable for more than a month at room temperature. Secondary interactions of AA group of PCL-g-AA with HA and PVA at the oil–water interface provided stability to the emulsion. Uniform composite fibrous matrices were produced from the resultant emulsions under controlled electrospinning conditions. The composite matrices, thus developed using minimal organic solvent, are free from emulsifiers and have high potential to be used in applications including tissue engineering

  • 4.
    Tadesse, Melkie Getnet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mengistie, Desalegn Alemu
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Chen, Yan
    Soochow University.
    Wang, Lichuan
    Soochow University.
    Loghin, Carmen
    GA Technical University of Iasi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electrically Conductive Highly Elastic Polyamide/Lycra Fabric Treated with PEDOT:PSS and Polyurethane2019In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 54, no 13, p. 9591-9602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive elastic fabrics are desirable in wearable electronics and related applications. Highly elastic conductive polyamide/lycra knitted fabric was prepared using intrinsically conductive polymer poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) blended with polyelectrolyte poly (styrene sulfonate) (PSS) using easily scalable coating and immersion methods. The effects of these two methods of treatments on uniformity, electromechanical property, stretchability, and durability were investigated. Different grades of waterborne polyurethanes (PU) were employed in different concentrations to improve the coating and adhesion of the PEDOT:PSS on the fabric. The immersion method gave better uniform treatment, high conductivity, and durability against stretching and cyclic tension than the coating process. The surface resistance increased from ~1.7 and ~6.4 Ω/square at 0% PU to ~3.7 and ~12.6 Ω/square at 50% PU for immersion and coating methods, respectively. The treatment methods as well as the acidic PEDOT:PSS did not affect the mechanical properties of the fabric and the fabric show high strain at break of ~650% and remain conductive until break. Finally, to assess the practical applicability of the treated fabric for wearable e-textiles, the change in surface resistance was assessed by cyclically stretching 10 times at 100% strain and washing in a domestic laundry for 10 cycles. The resistance increases only by a small amount when samples were stretched cyclically at 100% strain and the samples show good durability against washing.

  • 5. Wretfors, Christer
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Marttila, Salla
    Nimmermark, S.
    Johansson, Eva
    Effects of fiber blending and diamines on wheat gluten materials reinforced with hemp fiber2010In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 45, no 15, p. 4196-4205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat gluten (WG) is a promising base material for production of "green'' plastics, although reinforcement is needed in more demanding applications. Hemp fiber is a promising reinforcement source but difficulties exist in obtaining desired properties with a WG-based matrix. This study aimed at improving fiber dispersion and fiber-matrix interactions using a high speed blender and a diamine as a cross-linker. Samples were manufactured using compression molding, two types of blenders and addition of diamine. Mechanical properties were assessed with tensile testing. Tensile-fractured surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Protein polymerization and fiber-protein matrix interactions were examined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that a higher-speed grinding yielded a more even distribution of fibers and a more polymerized protein structure compared to a lower-speed grinding. However, these improvements did not result in increased strength, stiffness, and extensibility for the higher-speed grinding. The strength was increased when the grinding was combined with addition of a diamine (Jeffamine EDR-176). HPLC, SEM, and CLSM, indicated that diamine added samples showed a more "plastic'' appearance together with a stiffer and stronger structure with less cracking compared to samples without diamine. The use of the diamine also led to an increased polymerization of the proteins, although no effect on the fiber-protein matrix interactions was observed using microscopical techniques. Thus, for future successful use of hemp fibers to reinforce gluten materials, an appropriate method to increase the fiber-protein matrix interaction is needed.

  • 6.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digital inkjet functionalization of water-repellent textile for smart textile application2018In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital inkjet printing is a production technology with high potential in resource efficient processes, which features both flexibility and productivity. In this research, waterborne, fluorocarbon-free ink containing polysiloxane in the form of micro-emulsion is formulated for the application of water-repellent sports- and work wear. The physicochemical properties of the ink such as surface tension, rheological properties and particle size are characterized, and thereafter inkjet printed as solid square pattern (10 × 10 cm) on polyester and polyamide 66 fabrics. The water contact angle (WCA) of the functional surfaces is increased from < 90° to ca. 140° after 10 inkjet printing passes. Moreover, the functional surface shows resistance to wash and abrasion. The WCA of functional surfaces is between 130° and 140° after 10 wash cycles, and is ca. 140° after 20000 revolutions of rubbing. The differences in construction of the textile as well as ink–filament interaction attribute to the different transportation behaviors of the ink on the textile, reflected in the durability of the functional layer on the textile. The functionalized textile preserves its key textile feature such as softness and breathability. Inkjet printing shows large potential in high-end applications such as customized functionalization of textiles in the domain of smart textiles.

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