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  • 1.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Berglin, Lena
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Manufacture and characterisation of thermoplastic composites made from PLA/hemp co-wrapped hybrid yarn prepregs2013Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 50, s. 93-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PLA/hemp co-wrapped hybrid yarns were produced by wrapping PLA filaments around a core composed of a 400 twists/m and 25 tex hemp yarn (Cannabis Sativa L) and 18 tex PLA filaments. The hemp content varied between 10 and 45 mass%, and the PLA wrapping density around the core was 150 and 250 turns/metre. Composites were fabricated by compression moulding of 0/90 bidirectional prepregs, and characterised regarding porosity, mechanical strength and thermal properties by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mechanical tests showed that the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites markedly increased with the fibre content, reaching 59.3 and 124.2 MPa when reinforced with 45 mass% fibre, which is approximately 2 and 3.3 times higher compared to neat PLA. Impact strength of the composites decreased initially up to 10 mass% fibre; while higher fibre loading (up to 45 mass%) caused an increase in impact strength up to 26.3 KJ/m2, an improvement of about 2 times higher compared to neat PLA. The composites made from the hybrid yarn with a wrapping density of 250 turns/metre showed improvements in mechanical properties, due to the lower porosity. The fractured surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to study the fibre/matrix interface.

  • 2.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Salehi, Masoud
    Bashir, Tariq
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Rissanen, Marja
    Nousiainen, Pertti
    Novel aligned hemp fibre reinforcement for structural biocomposites: Porosity, water absorption, mechanical performances and viscoelastic behaviour2014Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 61, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the thermal and mechanical behaviour as well as moisture absorption of aligned hemp composites using hemp/PLA wrap spun yarns. Uniaxial composites were fabricated with 30 mass% hemp using compression moulding. The properties of composites in terms of hemp fibre orientation (aligned and random), off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated. It was found that the testing direction influenced the mechanical properties of the composites. Compared with all the fabricated composites, the aligned alkali hemp/PLA yarn composite possessed the best mechanical properties, including tensile, flexural and impact strengths, lower porosity and water absorption. The water absorption for all composites was higher than for neat PLA, both at room temperature and 80 C. The PLA in its treated composites had higher crystallinity, which was attributed to effective heterogeneous nucleation induced by hemp. Based on SEM observation and theoretical analysis of DMTA data, there was a favourable interfacial adhesion in all composites.

  • 3.
    Bakare, Fatimat O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Thermomechanical properties of bio-based composites made from a lactic acid thermoset resin and flax and flax/basalt fibre reinforcements2016Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 83, s. 176-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low viscosity thermoset bio-based resin was synthesised from lactic acid, allyl alcohol and pentaerythritol. The resin was impregnated into cellulosic fibre reinforcement from flax and basalt and then compression moulded at elevated temperature to produce thermoset composites. The mechanical properties of composites were characterised by flexural, tensile and Charpy impact testing whereas the thermal properties were analysed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a decrease in mechanical properties with increase in fibre load after 40 wt.% for the neat flax composite due to insufficient fibre wetting and an increase in mechanical properties with increase fibre load up to 60 wt.% for the flax/basalt composite. The results of the ageing test showed that the mechanical properties of the composites deteriorate with ageing; however, the flax/basalt composite had better mechanical properties after ageing than the flax composite before ageing.

  • 4. George, G.
    et al.
    Jose, E.T.
    Jayanarayanan, K.
    Nagarajan, E.R.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Joseph, K.
    Novel bio-commingled composites based on jute/polypylene yarns: Effect of chemical treatment on the mechanical properties2012Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 219-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper mainly investigates the fabrication process of jute yarn reinforced, bidirectional thermoplastic commingled composites (both untreated and treated). Commingling method was used to prepare the composites wherein the Polypropylene yarn (PP yarn) and jute yarn were wound together onto a metal plate in a particular configuration and then compression moulded. The mechanical properties of the composites prepared from chemically treated jute yarn were found to increase substantially compared to those of untreated ones. The surface morphologies of the fracture surfaces of the composites were recorded using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between the treated jute yarn and the matrix has improved significantly by chemical treatments. The various chemical treatment mechanisms have been supported by FT-IR spectra. Theoretical modelling was used to predict the tensile properties and was found to be in accordance with the experimental results.

  • 5. George, Gejo
    et al.
    Joseph, Kuruvilla
    Nagarajan, E R
    Jose, E Tomlal
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Thermal, calorimetric and crystallisation behaviour of polypropylene/jute yarn bio-composites fabricated by commingling technique2013Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 48, s. 110-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commingled biocomposites based on polypropylene/jute yarns were prepared using commingling technique. The thermal and calorimetric behaviour of these commingled composites were studied with respect to fibre content and various chemical treatments. The thermal stability of the composites was found to be in between that of jute fibre and neat polypropylene (PP). Different chemical treatments increased the thermal stability of the composites due to increased interfacial adhesion between the matrix and reinforcement. Jute yarn acts as nucleating agents and favours the process of crystallisation thereby increasing the crystallisation temperature. Chemical treatments further increased the crystallisation temperature as a result of better interfacial adhesion between jute yarn and PP matrix. The close proximity of jute yarns weakens the mechanical bonds between PP molecules resulting in marginal lowering of melting temperatures. Polarized optical microscopic studies revealed the formation of transcrystalline layer around the jute fibre after 6 h.

  • 6. George, Gejo
    et al.
    Tomlal Jose, E.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Nagarajan, E.R.
    Kuruvilla, Joseph
    Viscoelastic behaviour of novel commingled biocomposites based on polypropylene/jute yarns2012Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 893-902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Jute yarn reinforced polypropylene commingled composites were prepared by an environmentally benign technique called commingling method in which the matrix fibres and reinforcing fibres are intermingled together with good alignment. The dynamic mechanical properties or viscoelastic behaviour of these commingled composites were studied with reference to fibre content and various chemical treatments. The storage and loss modulus increased with fibre content where as tan δ decreased. KMnO4 and MAPP treated composites showed much higher storage and loss modulus values at all temperatures compared to untreated one. The glass transition temperature showed a marginal increasing tendency with fibre content and chemical treatments. The surface treatment mechanisms were supported by FT-IR spectra and the increase in interfacial adhesion after chemical treatments were supported by SEM images. Theoretical modelling was used to predict the values of storage modulus and tan δ and was found to be comparable with that of experimentally obtained results.

  • 7.
    Temmink, Robin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Development of biocomposites from denim waste and thermoset bio-resins2018Inngår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 106, s. 59-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the use of post-consumer denim fabric in combination with thermoset bio-resins in composite manufacturing for structural applications. Bio-epoxy and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil resin (AESO) were used as bio-resins with four different manufacturing techniques in order to create a wide scope of possibilities for research. The four techniques are: compression moulding (COM), vacuum infusion (VAC), resin transfer moulding (RTM) and hand lay-up (HND). The bio-resins were compared to a conventional polyester resin, as this is highly used for structural applications. To determine suitability for structural applications, the biocomposites were tested for their mechanical and thermal properties. Fabricated composites were characterised regarding porosity, water absorption and analysed through microscopic images of the composite. Results show both bio-epoxy and AESO are suitable for use in structural applications over a range of manufacturing techniques. Furthermore, biocomposites from bio-epoxy are superior to those from AESO resin. The conventional polyester has shown to be unsuitable for structural applications.

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