Change search
Refine search result
1 - 4 of 4
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Elled, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åmand, Lars-Erik
    Leckner, Bo
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The fate of trace elements in fluidised bed combustion of sewage sludge and wood2006In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 86, no 5-6, p. 843-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion tests have been carried out in a fluidised bed boiler to investigate the fate of trace elements during co-combustion of wood and municipal sewage sludge. The approach was to collect fuel and ash samples and to perform thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for gasification (reducing) and combustion (oxidising) conditions. Trace elements are found in the ash. Even most of the highly volatile Hg is captured in the bag filter ash. The bag filter ash offers higher surface area than the secondary cyclone ash and enhances the capture of Hg. There is no obvious correlation between capture and parameters investigated (sludge precipitation agent and lime addition). As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Sb and Tl are predicted by equilibrium calculations to be volatile in the combustion chamber under oxidising conditions and Hg even at the filter temperature (150°C). Reducing conditions promote, in some case more than others, the volatility of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl and Zn. The opposite effect was observed for Cu and Ni. Data points to the necessity of including bag-filter in the gas cleaning system in order to achieve good removal of toxic trace elements.

  • 2.
    Elled, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åmand, L.-E.
    Leckner, B.
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Influence of phosphorus on sulphur capture during co-firing of sewage sludge with wood or bark in a fluidised bed2006In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 85, no 12, p. 1671-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interference from phosphorus on sulphur capture during co-firing of sludge with wood has been investigated in a circulating fluidised bed boiler. Chemical equilibrium analyses were performed on the combustion system to complement the experimental results. It was found that the relatively high content of phosphorus in municipal sewage sludge interferes with the sulphur capture by occupying calcium, which otherwise would be available for reaction with sulphur. This fact must be taken into account when sulphur capture strategies are decided for reduction of sulphur dioxide emissions from sewage sludge as an additional fuel.

  • 3.
    Pettersson, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Zevenhoven, Maria
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Åmand, Lars-Erik
    Application of chemical fractionation methods for characterisation of biofuels, waste derived fuels and CFB co-combustion fly ashes2008In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 87, no 15-16, p. 3183-3193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the important efforts to decrease the net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, new, alternative fuels are being included in the fuel mixes used in utility boilers. However, these fuels have ash properties that are different from those of the traditionally used fuels and in some cases technical problems, such as ash fouling and corrosion occur due to this. Therefore, diagnostic and predictive methods are developed and used to avoid such problems. Determination of the chemical association forms of important elements, such as potassium and sodium, in the fuel by chemical fractionation is a method well defined for coal and biofuels, such as wood pellets, bark and forest residues. Chemical fractionation is a step by step leaching method extracting water soluble salts in the first step, ion exchangeable elements, such as organically associated sodium, calcium and magnesium in the second step and acid soluble compounds such as carbonates and sulfates in the third step. The solid residue fraction consists of silicates, oxides, sulfides and other minerals. The compound extracted in the two first steps is considered reactive in the combustion with a few exceptions. In this work, it has been applied to some waste fuels, i.e. sewage sludge, straw and refuse derived fuel (RDF), as well as to coal and wood. The present work also includes results from combustion tests in a fluidised bed boiler where three blends of the investigated fuels were used. The fractionation results for the fuel blends are weighted results of the fractionations of the pure fuels discussed above which are compared with fractionations of their corresponding fly ashes. The co-combustion strategy gave very good results in reducing ash problems. Possible chemical mechanisms involved are discussed in the article.

  • 4.
    Pettersson, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åmand, Lars-Erik
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chemical fractionation for the characterisation of fly ashes from co-combustion of biofuels using different methods for alkali reduction2009In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 88, no 9, p. 1758-1772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD was used for characterisation of fly ashes from different co-combustion tests in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuels combusted were wood pellets as base fuel and straw pellets as co-fuel in order to reach a fuel blend with high alkali and chlorine concentrations. This fuel blend causes severe problems with both agglomeration of bed material if silica sand is used and with deposits in the convection section of the boiler. Counter measures to handle this situation and avoiding expensive shut downs, tests with alternative bed materials and additives were performed. Three different bed materials were used; silica sand, Olivine sand and blast furnace slag (BFS) and different additives were introduced to the furnace of the boiler; Kaolin, Zeolites and Sulphur with silica sand as bed material. The results of the study are that BFS gives the lowest alkali load in the convection pass compared with Silica and Olivine sand. in addition less alkali and chlorine was found in the fly ashes in the BFS case. The Olivine sand however gave a higher alkali load in the convection section and the chemical fractionation showed that the main part of the alkali in the fly ashes was soluble, thus found as KCl which was confirmed by the SEM-EDX and XRD. The comparison of the different additives gave that addition of Kaolin and Zeolites containing aluminium-silicates captured 80% of the alkali in the fly ash as insoluble alkali-aluminium-silikates and reduced the KCl load on the convection section. Addition of sulphur reduced the KCl load in the flue gas even more but the K2SO4 concentration was increased and KCl was found in the fly ashes anyhow. The chemical fractionation showed that 65% of the alkali in the fly ashes of the Sulphur case was soluble. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1 - 4 of 4
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf