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  • 1.
    Buendia, Ruben
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Seoane Martínez, Fernando
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Gil-Pita, R.
    Experimental Validation of a Method for Removing the Capacitive Leakage Artifact from Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Measurements2010In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 115802-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often when performing electrical bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements, the obtained EBI data present a hook-like deviation, which is most noticeable at high frequencies in the impedance plane. The deviation is due to a capacitive leakage effect caused by the presence of stray capacitances. In addition to the data deviation being remarkably noticeable at high frequencies in the phase and the reactance spectra, the measured EBI is also altered in the resistance and the modulus. If this EBI data deviation is not properly removed, it interferes with subsequent data analysis processes, especially with Cole model-based analyses. In other words, to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the hook deviation must be properly removed. Td compensation is a method used to compensate the hook deviation present in EBI data; it consists of multiplying the obtained spectrum, Zmeas(ω), by a complex exponential in the form of exp(–jωTd). Although the method is well known and accepted, Td compensation cannot entirely correct the hook-like deviation; moreover, it lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work, the Td compensation method is revisited, and it is shown that it should not be used to correct the effect of a capacitive leakage; furthermore, a more developed approach for correcting the hook deviation caused by the capacitive leakage is proposed. The method includes a novel correcting expression and a process for selecting the proper values of expressions that are complex and frequency dependent. The correctness of the novel method is validated with the experimental data obtained from measurements from three different EBI applications. The obtained results confirm the sufficiency and feasibility of the correcting method.

  • 2.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Macias, Raul
    Bragos, Ramon
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Simple Voltage-Controlled Current Source for Wideband Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy: Circuit Dependences2011In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 115801-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the single Op-Amp with load-in-the-loop topology as a current source is revisited. This circuit topology was already used as a voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) in the 1960s but was left unused when the requirements for higher frequency arose among the applications of electrical bioimpedance (EBI). The aim of the authors is not only limited to show that with the currently available electronic devices it is perfectly viable to use this simple VCCS topology as a working current source for wideband spectroscopy applications of EBI, but also to identify the limitations and the role of each of the circuit components in the most important parameter of a current for wideband applications: the output impedance. The study includes the eventual presence of a stray capacitance and also an original enhancement, driving with current the VCCS. Based on the theoretical analysis and experimental measurements, an accurate model of the output impedance is provided, explaining the role of the main constitutive elements of the circuit in the source's output impedance. Using the topologies presented in this work and the proposed model, any electronic designer can easily implement a simple and efficient current source for wideband EBI spectroscopy applications, e.g. in this study, values above 150 kΩ at 1 MHz have been obtained, which to the knowledge of the authors are the largest values experimentally measured and reported for a current source in EBI at this frequency

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