Change search
Refine search result
1 - 3 of 3
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. [external].
    Conceptualising Participatory Action Research: Three Different Practices2004In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, ISSN 1477-7029, E-ISSN 1477-7029, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 47-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Experiences from sequential use of mixed methods2011In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, ISSN 1477-7029, E-ISSN 1477-7029, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lantz, B.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Equidistance of Likert-type scales and validation of inferential methods using experiments and simulations2013In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, ISSN 1477-7029, E-ISSN 1477-7029, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Likert-type data are often assumed to be equidistant by applied researchers so that they can use parametric methods to analyse the data. Since the equidistance assumption rarely is tested, the validity of parametric analyses of Likert-type data is often unclear. This paper consists of two parts where we deal with this validity problem in two different respects. In the first part, we use an experimental design to show that the perceived distance between scale points on a regular five-point Likert-type scale depends on how the verbal anchors are used. Anchors only at the end points create a relatively larger perceived distance between points near the ends of the scale than in the middle (end-of-scale effect), while anchors at all points create a larger perceived distance between points in the middle of the scale (middle-of-scale effect). Hence, Likert-type scales are generally not perceived as equidistant by subjects. In the second part of the paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to explore how parametric methods commonly used to compare means between several groups perform in terms of actual significance and power when data are assumed to be equidistant even though they are not. The results show that the preferred statistical method to analyse Likert-type data depends on the nature of their nonequidistance as well as their skewness. Under middle-of-scale effect, the omnibus one-way ANOVA works best when data are relatively symmetric. However, the Kruskal-Wallis test works better when data are skewed except when sample sizes are unequal, in which case the Brown-Forsythe test is better. Under end-of-scale effect, on the other hand, the Kruskal- Wallis test should be preferred in most cases when data are at most moderately skewed. When data are heavily skewed, ANOVA works best unless when sample sizes are unequal, in which case the Brown-Forsythe test should be preferred.

1 - 3 of 3
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf