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  • 1. Iglebekk, Wenche
    et al.
    Tjell, Carsten
    Borenstein, Peter
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Pain and other symptoms in patients with chronic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim A diagnosis of chronic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is based on brief attacks of rotatory vertigo and concomitant nystagmus elicited by rapid changes in head position relative to gravity. However, the clinical course of BPPV may vary considerably from a self-limiting to a persisting and/or recurrent disabling problem. The authors’ experience is that the most common complaints of patients with chronic BPPV are nautical vertigo or dizziness with other symptoms including neck pain, headache, widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and visual disturbances. Trauma is believed to be the major cause of BPPV in individuals younger than fifty years. Chronic BPPV is associated with high morbidity. Since these patients often suffer from pain and do not have rotatory vertigo, their symptoms are often attributed to other conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between these symptoms and chronic BPPV. Methods During 2010 a consecutive prospective cohort observational study was performed. Diagnostic criteria: (A) BPPV diagnosis confirmed by the following: (1) a specific history of vertigo/dizziness evoked by acceleration/deceleration, (2) nystagmus in the first position of otolith repositioning maneuvers, and (3) appearing and disappearing nystagmus during the repositioning maneuvers; (B) the disorder has persisted for at least six months. (C) Normal MRI of the cerebrum. Exclusion criteria: (A) Any disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), (B) migraine, (C) active Ménière's disease, and (D) severe eye disorders. Symptom questionnaire (‘yes or no’ answers during a personal interview) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) were used. Results We included 69 patients (20 males and 49 females) with a median age of 45 years (range 21–68 years). The median duration of the disease was five years and three months. The video-oculography confirmed BPPV in more than one semicircular canal in all patients. In 15% there was a latency of more than 1 min before nystagmus occurred. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) median score was 55.5 (score >60 indicates a risk of fall). Seventy-five percent were on 50–100% sick leave. Eighty-one percent had a history of head or neck trauma. Nineteen percent could not recall any history of trauma. In our cohort, nautical vertigo and dizziness (81%) was far more common than rotatory vertigo (20%). The majority of patients (87%) reported pain as a major symptom: neck pain (87%), headache (75%) and widespread pain (40%). Fatigue (85%), visual disturbances (84%), and decreased concentration ability (81%) were the most frequently reported symptoms. In addition, unexpected findings such as involuntary movements of the extremities, face, neck or torso were found during otolith repositioning maneuvers (12%). We describe one case, as an example, how treatment of his BPPV also resolved his chronic, severe pain condition. Conclusion This observational study demonstrates a likely connection between chronic BPPV and the following symptoms: nautical vertigo/dizziness, neck pain, headache, widespread pain, fatigue, visual disturbances, cognitive dysfunctions, nausea, and tinnitus. Implications Patients with complex pain conditions associated with nautical vertigo and dizziness should be evaluated with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI)-questionnaire which can identify treatable balance disorders in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  • 2. Rubertsson, S
    et al.
    Lindgren, E
    Smekal, E
    Östlund, O
    Silverstolpe, J
    Lichtveld, RA
    Boomars, R
    Ahlstedt, B
    Skoog, B
    Kastberg, R
    Halliwell, D
    Box, M
    Herlitz, J
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlsten, R
    Mechanical Chest Compressions and Simultanous Defibrillation vs Conventional Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest:the LINC Randomized Trial2014In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 311, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance A strategy using mechanical chest compressions might improve the poor outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but such a strategy has not been tested in large clinical trials. Objective To determine whether administering mechanical chest compressions with defibrillation during ongoing compressions (mechanical CPR), compared with manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (manual CPR), according to guidelines, would improve 4-hour survival. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter randomized clinical trial of 2589 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest conducted between January 2008 and February 2013 in 4 Swedish, 1 British, and 1 Dutch ambulance services and their referring hospitals. Duration of follow-up was 6 months. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive either mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS Chest Compression System, Physio-Control/Jolife AB) combined with defibrillation during ongoing compressions (n = 1300) or to manual CPR according to guidelines (n = 1289). Main Outcomes and Measures Four-hour survival, with secondary end points of survival up to 6 months with good neurological outcome using the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score. A CPC score of 1 or 2 was classified as a good outcome. Results Four-hour survival was achieved in 307 patients (23.6%) with mechanical CPR and 305 (23.7%) with manual CPR (risk difference, –0.05%; 95% CI, –3.3% to 3.2%; P > .99). Survival with a CPC score of 1 or 2 occurred in 98 (7.5%) vs 82 (6.4%) (risk difference, 1.18%; 95% CI, –0.78% to 3.1%) at intensive care unit discharge, in 108 (8.3%) vs 100 (7.8%) (risk difference, 0.55%; 95% CI, –1.5% to 2.6%) at hospital discharge, in 105 (8.1%) vs 94 (7.3%) (risk difference, 0.78%; 95% CI, –1.3% to 2.8%) at 1 month, and in 110 (8.5%) vs 98 (7.6%) (risk difference, 0.86%; 95% CI, –1.2% to 3.0%) at 6 months with mechanical CPR and manual CPR, respectively. Among patients surviving at 6 months, 99% in the mechanical CPR group and 94% in the manual CPR group had CPC scores of 1 or 2. Conclusions and Relevance Among adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, there was no significant difference in 4-hour survival between patients treated with the mechanical CPR algorithm or those treated with guideline-adherent manual CPR. The vast majority of survivors in both groups had good neurological outcomes by 6 months. In clinical practice, mechanical CPR using the presented algorithm did not result in improved effectiveness compared with manual CPR.

  • 3. Scheiman, JM
    et al.
    Herlitz, J
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Veldhyuzen van Zanten, SJ
    Lanas, A
    Agewall, S
    Naucler, EC
    Svedberg, LE
    Nagy, P
    Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.2013In: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, ISSN 0160-2446, E-ISSN 1533-4023, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 250-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ≥1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in those treated with esomeprazole versus in those treated with placebo. Treatment with esomeprazole (P < 0.0001), age >70 years (P < 0.01), and the absence of upper GI symptoms at baseline (P < 0.0001) were all factors associated with prevention/resolution of upper GI symptoms. Together, these analyses demonstrate that esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk.

  • 4.
    Wallengren Gustafsson, Catarina
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    De kan, de vill och de orkar, men...: studier av närstående till personer drabbade av stroke samt granskning av informationsmaterial från svenska strokeenheter2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling var att öka förståelsen för närstående i deras föränderliga livssituation under de sex första månaderna efter en persons strokeinsjuknande, med särskild fokus på lärande. Vidare var syftet att utvärdera de skriftliga informationsmaterial som erbjuds närstående vid svenska strokeenheter. Metod: I delstudie I, intervjuades 16 närstående om vad det innebar att bli närstående till en person drabbad av stroke. I delstudie II, återintervjuades 9 närstående om vad det innebar att vara närstående till en person drabbad av stroke. Intervjuerna skedde sex månader efter den drabbades strokeinsjuknande. Data från de båda studierna analyserades med hjälp av Lindseth och Norbergs fenomenologiska hermeneutiska analysmetod som är inspirerad av Ricoeur. I delstudie III, intervjuades 16 respektive 9 närstående om vad de ville veta och förstå under de sex första månaderna efter den drabbades strokeinsjuknande. Krippendorffs metod för kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för att analysera data. I delstudie IV, granskades 42 skriftliga informationsmaterial från 21 svenska strokeenheter. Data analyserades med hjälp av beskrivande statistik och Krippendorffs metod för kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Att bli närstående till en person drabbad av stroke innebar att uppleva kaos men också att nå en vändpunkt. Den var startskottet för en febril aktivitet som visade att närstående hade en beredskap att söka ordning i kaoset (I). Att vara närstående till en person drabbad av stroke innebar en kamp för frihet. Närstående ville inte anpassa sig till den drabbades ohälsa eller dess konsekvenser. De ville välja sitt eget levnadssätt och skriva sin egen historia och därför integrerade de ohälsan och dess konsekvenser i sina liv (II). Den information som närstående ville ha handlade om den strokedrabbade, de professionella och om sig själva. Dessutom visade resultatet att deras sökande efter information var relaterat till personlig involvering, situationella faktorer, olika kunskapsbehov och sätt att skaffa sig information (III). De skriftliga informationsmaterialen höll adekvat kvalitet gällande inre och yttre struktur. Dessutom höll de samma nivå när det gällde läsbarhet. Däremot varierade informationsinnehållet mellan de olika strokeenheterna (IV). Konklusion: Att bli närstående till en person som drabbats av stroke innebär att hamna i kaos men också att ganska snart nå en vändpunkt (I). Vid denna är personen beredd att ordna livet utifrån de nya förutsättningarna och därför behöver sjuksköterskor lära sig att identifiera vändpunkter och inkludera stöd till närstå8 ende i de nya och ovana livssituationerna. Att vara närstående under de sex första månaderna efter den drabbades insjuknande innebär att kämpa för frihet, dock utan att överge den drabbade (II). I denna process är det viktigt att den närstående får stöd i att hitta balansen mellan frihet och ansvar, mellan eget liv och omsorg om den drabbade och i relation till andra anhöriga. Närstående är kapabla att hantera sin föränderliga livssituation då de är aktiva, engagerade och framåtriktade personer (I, II, III). Därför behöver alternativa pedagogiska metoder och förhållningssätt utvecklas och testas. Sjuksköterskor behöver tränas i att använda sådana alternativa metoder. Innehållet i de skriftliga informationsmaterial som erbjuds närstående vid svenska strokeenheter varierar stort mellan olika enheter (IV). Därför vore det värdefullt att etablera ett elektroniskt informationscentrum på nationell nivå. Den svenska Hälso- och sjukvårdslagen värnar enbart om den drabbade och berör inte alls de närståendes behov eller situation. Med ett ökande antal äldre, och därmed ökat tryck på familjen, är det kanske hög tid att se över lagen för att undvika att närstående blir ”den andra patienten i familjen”.

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