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  • 1. Backlund, Per
    et al.
    Heldal, Ilona
    Söderström, Ewa
    Lundberg, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Pre-hospital training and simulation initiative2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The pre-hospital process is a complex one involving aspects such as medical skills as well as care taking, team performance, inter-organizational cooperation and communication. This calls for novel training methods and technology support. Our review of literature (covering the areas of pre-hospital care, training simulator technologies and methods and process modelling) indicates that the different aspects are typically trained in isolation, e.g. medical skills using patient simulators.Objective The pre-hospital training center project addresses the overall complexity of the pre-hospital process by taking all of the aspects into account when designing scenarios and technology support for training the complete prehospital process (covering alarm, on-scene activities, transportation and hand-over). This is indeed a challenging task as we need to develop both training methods and technology support for a very complex training situation.Methods The project will develop a prototype scenario along with technology support to enact it. The training scenario will involve many of the aspects listed above and will be tested in a field experiment with ambulance personnel. Results The expected outcome of the project is a platform for establishing a pre-hospital simulation and training center. The initial technologies, research results and experiences will be used to form a consortium for further work and development. Conclusions We have identified a need for a pre-hospital training center with the unique and ambitious idea of covering the entire pre-hospital process as well as its many interacting aspects. To the best of our knowledge this approach is not at all common and we expect the complexity to be so high that it is a challenging enough research area that can only be addressed if we have a well-designed simulation and training center in place with all the different areas of knowledge represented, i.e. pre-hospital medicine as well as simulation and visualization technology.

  • 2. Engström, Jonas
    et al.
    Hagström, Bengt
    Centrifugal spinning of nanofiber webs: A parameter study of a novel spinning process2009In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Engström, Jonas
    et al.
    Thorvaldsson, Anna
    Hagström, Bengt
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nanofibers: small fibers with big potential2009In: Nordic Textile Journal, ISSN 1404-2487Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Erdtman, E
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bushnell, EAC
    Eriksson, LA
    Computational studies on Schiff-base formation: Implications for the catalytic mechanism of porphobilinogen synthase2011In: Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, ISSN 2210-271X, E-ISSN 2210-2728, Vol. 963, no 2, p. 479-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schiff bases are common and important intermediates in many bioenzymatic systems. The mechanism by which they are formed, however, is dependent on the solvent, pH and other factors. In the present study we have used density functional theory methods in combination with appropriate chemical models to get a better understanding of the inherent chemistry of the formation of two Schiff bases that have been proposed to be involved in the catalytic mechanism of porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of porphyrins. More specifically, we have investigated the uncatalysed reaction of its substrate 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with a lysine residue for the formation of the P-site Schiff base, and as possibly catalysed by the second active site lysine, water or the 5-ALA itself. It is found that cooperatively both the second lysine and the amino group of the initial 5-ALA itself are capable of reducing the rate-limiting energy barrier to 14.0 kcal mol(-1). We therefore propose these to be likely routes involved in the P-site Schiff-base formation in PBGS.

  • 5.
    Lundberg, Lars
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Silverplats, Katarina
    The development of a military hybrid simulation model for the training of haemorrhage control in proximal extremity bleedings2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Exsanguination from extremity wounds is a major cause of potentially preventable deaths in the military environment. With the widespread use of different techniques to control this type of bleeding, such as tourniquets and haemostatic agents, it has now become possible to dramatically improve the survival rate for these casualties. Objective Varying techniques for pre-deployment training of haemorrhage control have been tested and used by the Swedish Armed Forces, for example different types of patient simulators. The recently developed military trauma patient simulators have for example become a major improvement for the training of standard tourniquet application. However, very proximal ‘junctional’ bleedings located in for example axillae and groins still represent a special training problem, since tourniquets cannot be used on these locations. Methods Based upon an idea presented by Moorhouse et al.*, we have developed a hybrid training model, consisting of a modified Laerdal® SimMan® 2G manikin, with a slab of meat with artificial ‘vessels’ running through the base of a series of wounds. Artificial blood under pressure is used to produce a bleeding effect. Results This hybrid model has been used for two years in the training of medics and combat life savers. It represents a realistic bleeding model, which can be used over and over again. Also, the cost for training is low compared to other alternatives. Conclusions Existing patient simulators are not suitable for training of haemorrhage control on proximal extremity locations. Live tissue training on anaesthetized animals is not a first alternative for this kind of training. We consider the proposed hybrid simulation model as the best training method so far.

  • 6.
    Pettersson, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    Moradian, Farzad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Comparison of ashes and deposits obtained by RDF combustion in a BR-boiler applying different bed temperatures2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical fractionation and SEM-EDX was used for characterisation of ashes and deposits from different combustion tests in a commercial 20 MW bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler. The fuel combusted was a mix of sorted MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) and industrial waste often referred to as RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) mostly containing combustible material as paper, plastics and wood. This fuel type often contains a lot of alkali and chlorine and is therefore considered as a risk fuel prone to cause bed agglomeration, deposit formation and corrosion. In order to investigate the impact of the bed temperature on the alkali and chlorine distribution in the boiler combustion tests were performed. The bed temperature for this boiler is designed to be in the range 850-900°C. In this investigation however the bed temperature was reduced to 700-750°C. Two deposit probes, each carrying two rings made of high alloy steel, were used for collection of deposits during combustion. In addition, samples taken on the bed ash, return sand, return shaft ash, cyclone ash and textile filter ash were analysed. By reducing the bed temperature the need for fresh bed sand was reduced and the fly ash flow decreased. In addition, the agglomerates found in the tests with the normal bed temperature disappeared totally when the bed temperature was reduced. The deposits formed on the bed ash and on the return sand particles were found to consist of compounds with melting temperatures between 675 and 801C, which could explain the difference in agglomeration tendency.

  • 7.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Superabsorbent Polymers from the Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis presents new renewable, antimicrobial and biodegradable superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), produced from the cell wall of zygomycetes fungi. The cell wall was characterized and chitosan, being one of the most important ingredients, was extracted, purified, and converted to SAP for use in disposable personal care products designed for absorption of different body fluids. The cell wall of zygomycetes fungi was characterized by subsequent hydrolysis with sulfuric and nitrous acids and analyses of the products. The main ingredients of the cell wall were found to be polyphosphates (4-20%) and copolymers of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine, i.e. chitin and chitosan (45-85%). The proportion of each of these components was significantly affected by the fungal strain and also the cultivation conditions. Moreover, dual functions of dilute sulfuric acid in relation to chitosan, i.e. dissolution at high temperatures and precipitation at lowered temperatures, were discovered and thus used as a basis for development of a new method for extraction and purification of the fungal chitosan. Treatment of the cell wall with dilute sulfuric acid at room temperature resulted in considerable dissolution of the cell wall polyphosphates, while chitosan and chitin remained intact in the cell wall residue. Further treatment of this cell wall residue, with fresh acid at 120°C, resulted in dissolution of chitosan and its separation from the remaining chitin/chitosan of the cell wall skeleton which was not soluble in hot acid. Finally, the purified fungal chitosan (0.34 g/g cell wall) was recovered by precipitation at lowered temperatures and pH 8-10. The purity and the yield of fungal chitosan in the new method were significantly higher than that were obtained in the traditional acetic acid extraction method. As a reference to pure chitosan, SAP from shellfish chitosan, was produced by conversion of this biopolymer into water soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), gelation of CMCS with glutaraldehyde in aqueous solutions (1-2%), and drying the resultant gel. Effects of carboxymethylation, gelation and drying conditions on the water binding capacity (WBC) of the final products, were investigated. Finally, choosing the best condition, a biological superabsorbent was produced from zygomycetes chitosan. The CMCS-based SAPs were able to absorb up to 200 g water/g SAP. The WBC of the best SAP in urine and saline solutions was 40 and 32 g/g respectively, which is comparable to the WBC of commercially acceptable SAPs under identical conditions (34-57 and 30-37 g/g respectively).

  • 8.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Jeihanipour, Azam
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Determination of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine in fungal cell walls2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 18, p. 8314-8318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed to determine glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) in materials containing chitin and chitosan, such as fungal cell walls. It is based on two steps of hydrolysis with (i) concentrated sulfuric acid at low temperature and (ii) dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature, followed by one-step degradation with nitrous acid. In this process, chitin and chitosan are converted into anhydromannose and acetic acid. Anhydromannose represents the sum of GlcN and GlcNAc, whereas acetic acid is a marker for GlcNAc only. The method showed recovery of 90.1% of chitin and 85.7-92.4% of chitosan from commercial preparations. Furthermore, alkali insoluble material (AIM) from biomass of three strains of zygomycetes, Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizomucor pusillus, was analyzed by this method. The glucosamine contents of AIM from R. oryzae and M. indicus were almost constant (41.7 +/- 2.2% and 42.0 +/- 1.7%, respectively), while in R. pusillus, it decreased from 40.0 to 30.0% during cultivation from 1 to 6 days. The GlcNAc content of AIM from R. oryzae and R. pusillus increased from 24.9 to 31.0% and from 36.3 to 50.8%, respectively, in 6 days, while it remained almost constant during the cultivation of M. indicus (23.5 +/- 0.8%).

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