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  • 1.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Patinvoh, Regina J.
    Lagos State Univ, Nigeria.
    Horvath, Ilona Sarvari
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Food and Paper Industry Wastes at Different Solid Contents2019In: Fermentation - Basel, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-10, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large volume of food is being wasted every year, while the pulp and paper industry also generate a large amount of solid wastes on a daily basis, causing environmental challenges around the world. Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of these solid wastes is a cost-effective method for proper management. However, dry digestion of these waste streams has been restricted due to their complex structure, the presence of possible inhibitors and inappropriate operating conditions. In light of this fact, dry digestion of food waste (FW) and paper wastes (PW) was conducted at different total solid (TS) concentrations of reactor mixtures of 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% TS, corresponding to substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio of 0.5 and 1; investigating the optimum operating conditions for effective dry digestion of these complex wastes. The highest methane yields of 402 NmlCH(4)/gVS and 229 NmlCH(4)/gVS were obtained from digestion of FW and PW, respectively at 14%TS corresponding to an S/I ratio of 0.5. Increasing the S/I ratio from 0.5 to 1 and thereby having a TS content of 20% in the reactor mixtures was unfavorable to the digestion of both substrates.

  • 2. Jeihanipour, A
    et al.
    Aslanzadeh, S
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rajendran, K
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Balasubramanian, G
    Taherzadeh, M. J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    High-rate biogas production from waste textiles using a two-stage process2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 52, p. 128-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficacy of a two-stage Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), modified as Stirred Batch Reactor (SBR), and Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Bed (UASB) process in producing biogas from waste textiles was investigated under batch and semi-continuous conditions. Single-stage and two-stage digestions were compared in batch reactors, where 20 g/L cellulose loading, as either viscose/polyester or cotton/polyester textiles, was used. The results disclosed that the total gas production from viscose/polyester in a two-stage process was comparable to the production in a single-stage SBR, and in less than two weeks, more than 80% of the theoretical yield of methane was acquired. However, for cotton/polyester, the two-stage batch process was significantly superior to the single-stage; the maximum rate of methane production was increased to 80%, and the lag phase decreased from 15 days to 4 days. In the two-stage semi-continuous process, where the substrate consisted of jeans textiles, the effect of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment was studied. In this experiment, digestion of untreated and NMMO-treated jeans textiles resulted in 200 and 400 ml (respectively) methane/g volatile solids/day (ml/g VS/day), with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g VS/L reactor volume/day (g VS/L/day); under these conditions, the NMMO pretreatment doubled the biogas yield, a significant improvement. The OLR could successfully be increased to 2.7 g VS/L/day, but at a loading rate of 4 g VS/L/day, the rate of methane production declined. By arranging a serial interconnection of the two reactors and their liquids in the two-stage process, a closed system was obtained that converted waste textiles into biogas.

  • 3.
    Kashi, Sima
    et al.
    Deakin University.
    Satari, Behzad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Othman, Maazuza
    Deakin University.
    Application of a mixture design to identify effects of susbtrates ratios and intractions on anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge, grease trapwaste, and meat processing waste2017In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 6156-6164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of two municipal sludge wastes (A and C), grease trap waste (B), and meat processing waste (D) were investigated under mesophilic temperature conditions by biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays and kinetic modeling. Wastes ratios in the mixtures were systematically selected based on Simplex Lattice mixture design, and statistical analyses were performed to elucidate possible synergetic and antagonistic effects of wastes interactions on the kinetics and ultimate methane potentials of wastes co-digestion. The mixture of 1/8A + 1/8B + 1/8C + 5/8D (VS basis) showed the highest COD and VS removals of 35.0% and 33.8%, respectively. Substrates B and D with 980 and 641 mL/g-VS methane yields, respectively, had the highest BMP. However, with reaction rate constants of 0.047 and 0.070 d−1, their methane production was very slow. It was observed that diluting these organic-rich but complex substrates with readily soluble wastes (A and C) enhanced their biogas production rate markedly. Statistical analysis showed that the interactions among the substrates in co-digestion did not have a significant impact on the ultimate cumulative methane yields. Nevertheless, these interactions proved to have synergic and antagonistic effects on the reaction rates, leading to accelerated or hindered methane production rates. As a result, while the methane yield of wastes co-digestion could be predicted by proportional summation of methane yields obtained in mono-digestions of these waste fractions, such linear regressions were unable to provide a good estimation of the rate constants. Quadratic equations, however, were found to estimate the rate constants of the co-digestion process with good accuracy

  • 4.
    Momayez, Forough
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Isfahan University of Technology.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Isfahan University of Technology.
    Karimi, Shiva
    Isfahan University of Technology.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Efficient hydrolysis and ethanol production from rice straw by pretreatment with organic acids and effluent of biogas plant2017In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, no 80, p. 50537-50545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effluent of biogas production plant was used for the pretreatment of rice straw for the improvement of ethanol production. In addition, the organic active ingredients of the effluent, i.e., acetic, butyric, lactic and propionic acids (1-4%), as well as water were employed for the pretreatment at 100 and 140 °C. The results indicated that pretreatment at 100 °C had no significant effect on the performance of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Among different types of organic acids presented in the effluent, lactic acid showed a better performance. The highest concentration of glucose and ethanol were achieved after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF from the straw pretreated at 140 °C with 4% lactic acid. Applying the effluent for the straw pretreatment at 140 °C resulted in an increase in glucose and ethanol concentrations by 42.4 and 47.5%, respectively, compared to those from untreated samples. SEM, FTIR, BET, BJH, and compositional analyses were used to characterize the changes in the structure and composition of rice straw by the pretreatment. Changes in the straw swelling, cellulose crystallinity, pore size distribution, and composition were responsible for the acquired improvements.

  • 5.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Eh-Hser Nay, Theimya
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Biotechnology.
    Waste Bread Valorization Using Edible Filamentous Fungi2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is the first of its kind to use industrial waste bread for ethanol and food-grade filamentous fungal biomass production, with an ‘integrated-biorefinery’ approach for the existing wheat-based ethanol facilities. Four different food-grade fungi such as Neurospora intermedia, Aspergillus oryzae, belonging to ascomycetes and Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, belonging to zygomycetes, were screened. Initial screening for fungal cultures (without external enzyme saccharification) showed an ethanol yield maximum of 47.8 ±1.1 to 67.3 ±2.1, and 38.7 ±1.1 to 67.7±1.8 mg per g dry substrate loading from whole-grain bread and white-bread respectively, post the enzymatic liquefaction. Scale-up of the N. intermedia fermentation achieved using bench scale airlift reactor showed an ethanol yield maximum of 91.6 ±2.1 and 87.5 ±1.9 mg per g dry substrate loading for whole-grain bread and white-bread respectively.

  • 6.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kalif, Mahdi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of hot-water (100 °C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100 °C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191–344% and 115–300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol.

  • 7.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ravula, Vamsikrishna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Neurospora intermedia pellets for enhanced ethanol and fungal biomass production from wheat straw2017In: Proceedings of 39th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies at our research group have described an ‘integrated-biorefinery’ model for the existing 1st generation wheat-based ethanol facilities, by using edible filamentous fungus, Neurospora intermedia. The process focuses on the production of 2nd generation ethanol together with fungal biomass (for animal or aquaculture feed applications) from wheat straw. A final ethanol yield of 94% (theoretical maximum based on substrate glucan content) was obtained with N. intermedia fermentation in dilute phosphoric acid pretreated (0.7%w/v acid, 7min at 201±4°C) and enzymatically hydrolyzed (10FPU cellulase/g substrate) straw. Fungal cultivation in liquid straw hydrolysate resulted in a maximum of 3.71±0.11g/L dry fungal biomass. Considering the industrial significance of the fungal process, attempts were made to manipulate N. intermedia to grow as pellet forms in the straw hydrolysate, for the first time. Of the various culture conditions screened, stable pellet morphology was obtained at pH 3.0 to 5.5, resulting in uniform pellets with size ranging from 2.5 to 4.25mm. Fermentation using N. intermedia pellets in the liquid straw hydrolysate, resulted in about 31% increase in the ethanol yield, with an improved glucose assimilation by the pellets (82% reduction) as opposed to filamentous forms (51% reduction), at similar culture conditions. The growth of fungal pellets in presence of inhibitors (at different concentrations of acetic acid and furfural) resulted in about 11% to 45% increase in ethanol production as compared to filamentous forms, at similar growth conditions in the liquid straw hydrolysate. Detailed results on N. intermedia pelletization in liquid straw hydrolysate will be discussed in this presentation.

  • 8.
    Pagés Díaz, Jhosané
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Technical University of Havana “José A. Echeverría”.
    Pereda Reyes, Ileana
    Technical University of Havana “José A. Echeverría”.
    Sanz, Jose Luise
    Autonomous University of Madrid.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A comparison of process performance during the anaerobic mono-and co-digestion of slaughter house waste through different operational modes2017In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of consecutive feeding was applied to investigate the response of the microbial biomass to a second addition of substrates in terms of biodegradation using batch tests as a promising alternative to predict the behavior of the process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the slaughterhouse waste (SB) and its co-digestion with manure (M), various crops (VC), and municipal solid waste were evaluated. The results were then correlated to previous findings obtained by the authors for similar mixtures in batch and semi-continuous operation modes. AD of the SB failed showing total inhibition after a second feeding. Co-digestion of the SB + M showed a significant improvement for all of the response variables investigated after the second feeding, while co-digestion of the SB + VC resulted in a decline in all of these response variables. Similar patterns were previously detected, during both the batch and the semi-continuous modes.

  • 9.
    Patinvoh, Regina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biological pretreatment of chicken feather and biogas production from total broth2016In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 180, no 7, p. 1401-1415Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Patinvoh, Regina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cost effective dry anaerobic digestion in textile bioreactors: Experimental and economic evaluation2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, no Pt A, p. 549-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study dry anaerobic digestion (dry-AD) of manure bedded with straw using textile-based bioreactor in repeated batches. The 90-L reactor filled with the feedstocks (22-30% total solid) and inoculum without any further treatment, while the biogas produced were collected and analyzed. The digestate residue was also analyzed to check its suitability as bio-fertilizer. Methane yield after acclimatization increased from 183 to 290NmlCH4/gVS, degradation time decreased from 136 to 92days and the digestate composition point to suitable bio-fertilizer. The results then used to carry out economical evaluation, which shows dry-AD in textile bioreactors is a profitable method of handling the waste with maximum payback period of 5years, net present value from $7,000 to $9,800,000 (small to large bioreactors) with internal rate of return from 56.6 to 19.3%.

  • 11.
    Rocha-Meneses, Lisandra
    et al.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Fernandes Bergamo, Thaísa
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Kikas, Timo
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Potential of cereal-based agricultural residues available for bioenergy production2019In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 23, p. 10382-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This data article ranks 294 countries worldwide with more potential available, of cereal based agricultural residues for bioenergy production. Nine different cereal-based agricultural waste products (barley, wheat, millet, oat, rice, and rye straw, sorghum straw/stalk, and maize cob) are used. The tables and figures are grouped by the most prevalent Köppen-Geiger climate classification (tropical/megathermal, dry (desert and semi-arid), temperate/mesothermal, continental/microthermal), continent and region. The data was collected by the authors from FAO bioenergy and food security rapid appraisal tool (excel-based tools) that uses crop yields and production with 10 years (2005–2014) average annual production to estimate the residue yield (t/ha), by feedstock.

  • 12.
    Rocha-Meneses, Lisandra
    et al.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Ivanova, Anastasia
    Tallinn University of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Atouguia, Guilherme
    University of the Azores.
    Ávila, Isaac
    University of the Azores.
    Raud, Merlin
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Orupõld, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Kikas, Timo
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    The effect of flue gas explosive decompression pretreatment on methane recovery from bioethanol production waste2019In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 127, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock for the production of liquid (eg. biofuel) or gaseous (eg. methane) fuels for the transportation sector. The bioethanol production process still produces a large quantity of production waste following the distillation process. Stillage consists mostly of lignin, hemicellulose, extractives, and yeast and therefore does not have any commercial value. The conversion of bioethanol production waste into gaseous biofuels like biogas or biomethane is a promising solution when it comes to transforming stillage into value-added products, enhancing the value of the biomass, and as a strategy for achieving zero-waste societies. This study aims to investigate the potential of bioethanol production waste for biomethane production. The results are compared with samples from different stages of the bioethanol production process. Milled barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) was used as a feedstock to produce energy in the form of methane, and the flue gas pre-treatment method (with and without bubbling) was applied. The results show that the methane production yield of bioethanol production waste, which has been pretreated with flue gas without bubbling is 5% higher than that of untreated substrate, and can achieve 94% of the methane production of fermented samples. Bioethanol production waste from substrates, which have been pretreated with flue gas with bubbling have a methane production level that is 29% higher than that of untreated materials. The results suggest that methane yields are influenced by the bubbling process. It is reasonable to use bioethanol production waste for the production of energy in the form of methane and to increase the energy output from the biomass.

  • 13.
    Rocha-Meneses, Lisandra
    et al.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Raud, Merlin
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Orupõld, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Kikas, Timo
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Potential of bioethanol production waste for methane recovery2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 173, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as an important feedstock for biofuel production. Bioethanol is one of the most common liquid biofuels in the transportation sector. However, its production process is still inefficient due to the large quantity of production waste that is left unused after the distillation process. In this paper, the biomethane potential of bioethanol production waste is analysed. The results are compared with the biomethane potential of samples from different stages of the bioethanol production process (pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation), and that of untreated biomass. In this study, barley straw is used as a biomass crop and N 2 explosive decompression (NED) is applied as a pretreatment method. The results show that bioethanol production waste has higher methane yields (1.17 mol CH 4 /100 g) than raw barley straw (1.04 mol CH 4 /100 g). Production waste also has a higher degradation rate (0.252) than untreated material (0.138), and achieves 95% of the maximum methane yield much faster (7.8 days) than untreated samples (22 days). This shows that production waste can be used for further anaerobic digestion (AD) to add value to the bioethanol production chain. NED pretreatment is an effective method of pretreatment. 

  • 14.
    Rocha-Meneses, Lisandra
    et al.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Raud, Merlin
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Orupõld, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Kikas, Timo
    Estonian University of Life Sciences.
    Second-generation bioethanol production: A review of strategies for waste valorisation2017In: Agronomy Research, ISSN 1406-894X, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 830-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews second-generation biofuel production chain and focuses on its energetic, economic and environmental impacts. The biggest challenge in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic material refers to the biomass waste that is left over after the separation of bioethanol in the distillation process. This waste still has high energetic value and could be further utilised to add value to the production chain. Furthermore, the environmental impact of untreated waste from bioethanol production is very high, which also requires attention. Anaerobic digestion of bioethanol production waste has been proposed as a possible solution to utilise the energetic potential of this waste and lower its environmental impact. 

  • 15.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    del Pilar Castillo, Maria
    RISE-Process and Environmental Engineering.
    Schnürer, Anna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE- Process and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilization of Straw Pellets and Briquettes as Co-Substrates at Biogas Plants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas reactors can be utilized more efficiently when straw and food waste are digested together instead of separately. In the present study, straw in the form of pellets and briquettes has been used in experiments and calculations. Co-digestion of different substrates can give a more optimal substrate composition and a more efficient utilization of available digester volume. The pelleting and briquetting process has been shown to be an adequate pretreatment method of the straw. Digesting food waste and straw together showed synergistic effects with improved degradation of the food waste as well as a higher total volumetric methane production as compared to when food waste was used as the sole substrate. Energy produced through increased biogas production was higher than the energy needed for the pelleting and briquetting process. The positive effect in regard to gas production was mainly seen for the straw pellets, results supported by both chemical and microbiological analysis. These effects were observed in both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. In conclusion, this study illustrates that straw is a suitable co-digestion substrate to food waste and can be used to improve gas yields as well as for more efficient utilization of the digester volume. These results show the biogas potential of straw, today not yet used as a substrate to a large extent.

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