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  • 1.
    Arya, Mina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Malmek, Else-Marie
    Juteborg AB, 426 79 Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Ecoist, Thomas Koch
    Ecoist AB, 262 72 Ängelholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jocke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 431 53 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Enhancing Sustainability: Jute Fiber-Reinforced Bio-Based Sandwich Composites for Use in Battery Boxes2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 3842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising industrial demand for environmentally friendly and sustainable materials has shifted the attention from synthetic to natural fibers. Natural fibers provide advantages like affordability, lightweight nature, and renewability. Jute fibers’ substantial production potential and cost-efficiency have propelled current research in this field. In this study, the mechanical behavior (tensile, flexural, and interlaminar shear properties) of plasma-treated jute composite laminates and the flexural behavior of jute fabric-reinforced sandwich composites were investigated. Non-woven mat fiber (MFC), jute fiber (JFC), dried jute fiber (DJFC), and plasma-treated jute fiber (TJFC) composite laminates, as well as sandwich composites consisting of jute fabric bio-based unsaturated polyester (UPE) composite as facing material and polyethylene terephthalate (PET70 and PET100) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as core materials were fabricated to compare their functional properties. Plasma treatment of jute composite laminate had a positive effect on some of the mechanical properties, which led to an improvement in Young’s modulus (7.17 GPa) and tensile strength (53.61 MPa) of 14% and 8.5%, respectively, as well as, in flexural strength (93.71 MPa) and flexural modulus (5.20 GPa) of 24% and 35%, respectively, compared to those of JFC. In addition, the results demonstrated that the flexural properties of jute sandwich composites can be significantly enhanced by incorporating PET100 foams as core materials. 

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  • 2.
    Asadollahzadeh, Mohammadtaghi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Application of Fungal Biomass for the Development of New Polylactic Acid-Based Biocomposites2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungal biomass (FB), a by-product of the fermentation processes produced in large volumes, is a promising biomaterial that can be incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to develop enhanced biocomposites that fully comply with the biobased circular economy concept. The PLA/FB composites, with the addition of triethyl citrate (TEC) as a biobased plasticizer, were fabricated by a microcompounder at 150 °C followed by injection molding. The effects of FB (10 and 20 wt %) and TEC (5, 10, and 15 wt %) contents on the mechanical, thermal and surface properties of the biocomposites were analyzed by several techniques. The PLA/FB/TEC composites showed a rough surface in their fracture section. A progressive decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus was observed with increasing FB and TEC, while elongation at break and impact strength started to increase. The neat PLA and biocomposite containing 10% FB and 15% TEC exhibited the lowest (3.84%) and highest (224%) elongation at break, respectively. For all blends containing FB, the glass transition, crystallization and melting temperatures were shifted toward lower values compared to the neat PLA. The incorporation of FB to PLA thus offers the possibility to overcome one of the main drawbacks of PLA, which is brittleness.

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  • 3. Benedikt Maria Köhnlein, M.
    et al.
    Abitbol, T.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Materials and Surfaces, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osório Oliveira, A.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, M. S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, K. H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Sofie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, M.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioconversion of food waste to biocompatible wet-laid fungal films2022In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 216, article id 110534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Rhizopus delemar was grown on bread waste in a submerged cultivation process and wet-laid into films. Alkali or enzyme treatments were used to isolate the fungal cell wall. A heat treatment was also applied to deactivate biological activity of the fungus. Homogenization of fungal biomass was done by an iterative ultrafine grinding process. Finally, the biomass was cast into films by a wet-laid process. Ultrafine grinding resulted in densification of the films. Fungal films showed tensile strengths of up to 18.1 MPa, a Young's modulus of 2.3 GPa and a strain at break of 1.4%. Highest tensile strength was achieved using alkali treatment, with SEM analysis showing a dense and highly organized structure. In contrast, less organized structures were obtained using enzymatic or heat treatments. A cell viability assay and fluorescent staining confirmed the biocompatibility of the films. A promising route for food waste valorization to sustainable fungal wet-laid films was established. © 2022 The Authors

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  • 4.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kooroshnia, Marjan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Syed, Samira
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Orange Waste Films as a Raw Material for Designing Bio-Based Textiles: A Hybrid Research Method2022In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 1063, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based textiles are an emerging area of cross-disciplinary research, involving material science and design and contributing to textile sustainability. An example of a bio-based textile is an orange-waste film, which is plant-based and biodegradable and possesses mechanical properties which are comparable to some commodity plastics. The research project presented in this article aimed to explore orange-waste film as a new material for textile and fashion design and highlights how experimental co-design processes and innovation involving orange waste film as a textile material adds a new layer of material understanding to both textile design and technology-driven material research. Material-development methods were used to develop the orange-waste film, as were textile design methods with a focus on surface design. The results show that material variables such as tensile strength and elongation are dependent on the grinding process and drying temperature used for the raw material, as these determined the quality and durability of the orange-waste film and its applicability to the field of textile design. The use of orange waste in the creation of textiles opens up more ways of thinking about and working with materials, and orange waste could become a desirable raw material for textile design on the basis that it introduces certain aesthetic and functional possibilities through its visual and tactile expression and material behaviour, in addition to defining methods of producing textiles.

  • 5.
    Iyer, Sweta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT, GEMTEX.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bio-inspired approaches to design bio-luminescent textiles2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luminescent textiles are being increasingly used in apparel and sportswear aswell as in buildings, agriculture and automotives, for safety alert or forillumination or as a design feature[1]. Till now these luminescent textiles havebeen based on technologies such as LED, luminescent particles (rare earthmetals and metal oxides), which are not so eco‐friendly[2].Bio‐inspired strategies can provide efficient methods to achieve eco friendlybioluminescent textiles. Research projects have explored ways which aremainly based on culture of bioluminescent algae[3] or bacteria on textiles.Here we present another approach to achieve bioluminesence using biobasedproducts from various living organisms such as fireflies, fungi, earthwormsthat are found in land and in jelly fishes, shrimps, dinoflagellates, corals inmarine environment [4]. In order to mimic the luminescence effect seen innature, reaction mechanisms in various bioluminescent living organisms arestudied and the components or molecules responsible for luminescence areidentified [5‐10]. Most of the time, these involve enzymatic reactions.However the main challenge is to reproduce the bioluminescent mechanismand to adapt it to new materials which can yield some eco efficient bioinspired luminescent textiles.

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  • 6.
    Iyer, Sweta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nemeshwaree, Behary
    ENSAIT-GEMTEX.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Measurement of luminescence intensity on textiles using Luminous bacterial biocatalytic system2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature is the most exquisite thing around us with the existence of living organisms exhibiting different phenomena such as water repel/ency, touch sensitive plant and chameleon skin. Some of these phenomena inspired scientists to explore and design smart fabrics biomimicking the behaviour or pattern in living organisms. Bioluminescence is one such phenomenon where-in different living organisms such as firefly, jelly fish and crustaceans have the ability to impart visible light of specific wavelength, by enzyme catalysed reactions. Existence and study of such light emitting living organisms have been carried out, and harnessing these reactions has already transformed significant areas of medical field and clinical diagnosis, but research work on transforming this into living light is limited. In the present study, luminous bacterial system was investigated to assess and detect the bioluminescence behaviour onto the textile material. In the Luminous bacterial system, in vivo biochemical mecha­nism involves two different enzymes as well as different substrate components. Emission of light due to in vivo luminous bacterial reaction mechanism is seen in visible region. For in vitro reaction mechanism study, physical adsorption technique was used to graft both enzymes on plasma activated PET nonwoven textile and when substrates were introduced manually during the analysis, the biochemical reaction leading to light production occured. A Luminometer equipment was used to determine the light intensity in terms of Relative light units (RLU). The measurement results were obtained for nonwoven plasma treated PET with enzyme and substrate addition at different concentration and RLU value was obtained. The analysis data revealed that light intensity in RLU could be recorded by introducing both the enzymes and substrates on textile material, however intensive research is required in order to observe emitted light through the naked eye. The research study will help to attain

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  • 7.
    Karimi-Avargani, Mina
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biria, D.
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The promiscuous potential of cellulase in degradation of polylactic acid and its jute composite2021In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 278, article id 130443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that cellulolytic enzymes can be effective on the degradation of PLA samples. The idea was investigated by examining the impact of cellulase on degradation of PLA and PLA-jute (64/36) composite in an aqueous medium. The obtained results demonstrated 55% and 61% thickness reduction in PLA and PLA-jute specimens after four months of treatment, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed significant decline in the number average molecular weight (Mn) approximately equal to 85% and 80% for PLA and PLA-jute in comparison with their control. The poly dispersity index (PDI) of PLA and PLA-jute declined 41% and 49% that disclosed more homogenous distribution in molecular weight of the polymer after treatment with cellulase. The cellulase promiscuity effect on PLA degradation was further revealed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis where substantial decrease in the peak intensities of the polymer related functional groups were observed. In addition, PLA biodegradation was studied in more detail by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) of control and cellulase treated specimens. The obtained results confirmed the promiscuous function of cellulase in the presence or the absence of jute as the specific substrate of cellulase. This can be considered as a major breakthrough to develop effective biodegradation processes for PLA products at the end of their life cycle.

  • 8.
    Mohammadkhani, Ghasem
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Evaluation of Wet Spinning of Fungal and Shellfish Chitosan for Medical Applications2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to address the food waste problem, particularly bread waste, to some extent by producing monofilaments obtained from wet spinning of fungal hydrogel through the cultivation of Rhizopus delemar on bread waste. The project had two phases. Firstly, the possibility of production of chitosan fiber with wet spinning (using different acids) was evaluated, the process was optimized, and then applied to the production of fungal fiber. Regarding first stage of the project, adipic acid, a non-toxic solvent with two carboxyl groups, was used as acting physical crosslinker between the chitosan chains, resulting in improving properties of the monofilaments. Adipic acid performance was compared with conventional solvents, such as citric, lactic, and acetic acids. By injecting chitosan solutions into a coagulation bath (EtOH or NaOH 1M or EtOH-NaOH or H2SO4-EtOH), monofilaments were formed. Scanning electron microscopy showed that uniform chitosan monofilaments with smooth surface were formed using adipic and lactic acids. In general, fibers obtained from adipic acid displayed higher mechanical strength (Young’s modulus of 4.45 GPa and tensile strength of 147.9 MPa) than that of monofilaments produced using conventional solvents. Fiber dewatering with EtOH before drying led to greater fiber diameter and lower mechanical strength. As the second stage of this study, Rhizopus delemar was cultivated on bread waste in shake flasks and 1.3 M3 bioreactor. While different combinations of ground bread and K2HPO4 was used as the substrate for shake flask cultivations, white bread waste without K2HPO4 was utilized for scaling up the process, mostly due to the Glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) content in the fungal cell wall. GlcN and GlcNA content obtained from ground bread was remarkably higher than that of obtained from combinations of ground bread and K2HPO4 as the substrate. Cultivation in 1.3 M3 bioreactor resulted in about 36 kg wet biomass with a mean of 14.88% dry weight, indicating 5.95 g biomass/L. The biomass yield of 0.15 g dry biomass/g dry bread was achieved. Alkali insoluble material (AIM) was obtained by alkali treatment of biomass. Fungal hydrogel was prepared by adding adipic and lactic acid to AIM, followed by grinding treatment. While hydrogels treated with lactic acid showed better spinnability and gelling ability, the one from adipic acid was not uniform to be wet spun. Considering hydrogels treated with lactic acid, the optimum grinding cycle for more spinnable hydrogel was 6 negative cycles, contributing to the fibers with the tensile strength of around 82 MPa. Such fibers showed antibacterial property against Escherichia coli, making them as a good option for suture applications. However, further in vitro and in vivo trials are essential to test the fungal fiber for such applications.

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    Evaluation of Wet Spinning of Fungal and Shellfish Chitosan for Medical Applications
  • 9.
    Mohammadkhani, Ghasem
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adolfsson, Karin H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    New Solvent and Coagulating Agent for Development of Chitosan Fibers by Wet Spinning2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 2121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipic acid was evaluated as a novel solvent for wet spinning of chitosan fibers. A solvent with two carboxyl groups could act as a physical crosslinker between the chitosan chains, resulting in improved properties of the fibers. The performance of adipic acid was compared with conventional solvents, i.e., lactic, citric, and acetic acids. Chitosan solutions were injected into a coagulation bath to form monofilaments. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and its mixture with ethanol (EtOH) were used as coagulation agents. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of uniform chitosan monofilaments with an even surface when using adipic acid as solvent. These monofilaments generally showed higher mechanical strength compared to that of monofilaments produced using conventional solvents. The highest Young’s modulus, 4.45 GPa, was recorded for adipic acid monofilaments coagulated in NaOH-EtOH. This monofilament also had a high tensile strength of 147.9 MPa. Furthermore, taking advantage of chitosan insolubility in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at room temperature, chitosan fibers were successfully formed upon coagulation in H2SO4-EtOH. The dewatering of fibers using EtOH before drying resulted in a larger fiber diameter and lower mechanical strength. Adipic acid fibers made without dehydration illustrated 18% (for NaOH), 46% (for NaOH-EtOH), and 91% (for H2SO4-EtOH) higher tensile strength compared to those made with dehydration.

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  • 10.
    Salehinik, F.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Behzad, T.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bahrami, B.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Extraction and characterization of fungal chitin nanofibers from Mucor indicus cultured in optimized medium conditions2021In: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN 0141-8130, E-ISSN 1879-0003, Vol. 167, p. 1126-1134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitin nanofibers (ChNFs) were extracted from Mucor indicus by a purification method followed by a mechanical treatment, cultivated under obtained optimum culture medium conditions to improve fungal chitin production rate. A semi synthetic media containing 50 g/l glucose was used for cultivation of the fungus in shake flasks. The cell wall analysis showed that N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) content, which is an indication of chitin content, was maximum in presence of 2.5 g/l H3PO4, 2.5 g/l of NaOH, 1 g/l of yeast extract, 1 mg/l of plant hormones, and 1 ml/l of trace metals. The chemical characterizations demonstrated that the isolated fibers had a degree of deacetylation lower than of 10%, and were phosphate free. The FTIR results revealed successful removal of different materials during the purification step. The FE-SEM of fibrillated chitin illustrated an average diameter of 28 nm. Finally, X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallinity index of nanofibers was 82%.

  • 11.
    Uusi-Tarkka, Eija-Katriina
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Haapala, Antti
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Fabricating sustainable all-cellulose composites2021In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, no 21, article id 10069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, waste disposal challenges, and emissions generated by the manufacture of non-renewable materials are driving forces behind the production of more sustainable composite materials. All-cellulose composites (ACCs) originate from renewable biomass, such as trees and other plants, and are considered fully biodegradable. Dissolving cellulose is a common part of manufacturing ACCs, and currently there is a lot of research focused on effective, but also more environmentally friendly cellulose solvents. There are several beneficial properties of ACC materials that make them competitive: light weight, recyclability, low toxicity, good optical, mechanical, and gas barrier properties, and abundance of renewable plant-based raw material. The most prominent ACC applications are currently found in the food packing, medical, technical and vehicle industries. All-cellulose nanocomposites (ACNCs) expand the current research field and can offer a variety of more specific and functional applications. This review provides an overview of the manufacture of sustainable ACCs from lignocellulose, purified cellulose, and cellulosic textiles. There is an introduction of the cellulose dissolution practices of creating ACCs that are currently researched, the structure of cellulose during complete or partial dissolution is discussed, and a brief overview of factors which influence composite properties is presented. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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