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  • 1.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yin, D M
    Institute of Urban and Rural Mining, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sapmaz, Tugba
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varjani, S
    Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, India.
    Qiao, W
    Institute of Urban and Rural Mining, Changzhou University, Changzhou, China.
    Koseoglu-Imer, D Y
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Glimpse of the World of Volatile Fatty Acids Production and Application: A review2022In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1249-1275Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable provision of chemicals and materials is undoubtedly a defining factor in guaranteeing economic, environmental, and social stability of future societies. Among the most sought-after chemical building blocks are volatile fatty acids (VFAs). VFAs such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids have numerous industrial applications supporting from food and pharmaceuticals industries to wastewater treatment. The fact that VFAs can be produced synthetically from petrochemical derivatives and also through biological routes, for example, anaerobic digestion of organic mixed waste highlights their provision flexibility and sustainability. In this regard, this review presents a detailed overview of the applications associated with petrochemically and biologically generated VFAs, individually or in mixture, in industrial and laboratory scale, conventional and novel applications.

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  • 2.
    Akinbomi, J G
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lagos State University, Lagos, 100268, Nigeria.
    Patinvoh, R J
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Lagos State University, Lagos, 100268, Nigeria.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Current challenges of high-solid anaerobic digestion and possible measures for its effective applications: a review2022In: Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, E-ISSN 2731-3654, Vol. 15, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The attention that high solids anaerobic digestion process (HS-AD) has received over the years, as a waste management and energy recovery process when compared to low solids anaerobic digestion process, can be attributed to its associated benefits including water conservation and smaller digester foot print. However, high solid content of the feedstock involved in the digestion process poses a barrier to the process stability and performance if it is not well managed. In this review, various limitations to effective performance of the HS-AD process, as well as, the possible measures highlighted in various research studies were garnered to serve as a guide for effective industrial application of this technology. A proposed design concept for overcoming substrate and product inhibition thereby improving methane yield and process stability was recommended for optimum performance of the HS-AD process.

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  • 3.
    Aremu, Mujidat Omolara
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ishola, M. M.
    Göteborg Energi AB, Göteborg.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (Phas) production from volatile fatty acids (vfas) from organic wastes by pseudomonas oleovorans2021In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a biodegradable polymer from organic wastes by Pseudomonas oleovorans. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from acidogenic fermentations of chicken manure (VFAs-CM) and potato peels (VFAs-PP), rich in organic matter majorly acetic (49.9%), butyric (15%) and propionic acids (11.1%) were utilized as substrates for microbial processes. During 72 h of cultivations, samples were withdrawn at intervals and analyzed for cell growth parameters, PHAs accumulation and polymeric properties. The highest biopolymer accumulation (0.39 g PHAs/g DCW) was achieved at 48 h of cultivation from medium containing VFAs-PP as the sole source of carbon. On characterization, the produced biopolymers were shown to be semi-crystalline of carbonyl C=O group. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the produced biopolymers demonstrated the capability to withstand thermal degradation above prescribed temperatures at which cross-linking isomerization reaction occurs, which is a vital property denoting the thermal stability of biopolymer. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 4.
    Beach, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Using biological conversion to increase the value of short-chain fatty acids by mixed cultures2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of anaerobic digestion processes has gained recognition for its potential for producing volatile fatty acids alongside bio-alcohols. In addition, the fermentation process and the products produced from biological fermentation have the possibility to overcome the abundance of organic waste in our society, which is potentially immensely rich in untapped valuable potential products. The current project aims at producing medium chained volatile fatty acids and alcohols from short-chain volatile fatty acids using hydrogen as an electron donor. For efficient conversion, inhibition of methanogenic microorganisms was performed by thermally pre-treating the microorganisms at 90 °C for 15 min. The highest observed concentrations of volatile fatty acid were 6.42 ± 0.09 g/L and the concentration of ethanol was 0.33±0.03 g/L. These concentrations were obtained with the addition of 4 g/L of liquid substrate and gas co-substrate (H2:CO2). Moreover, the predominant product from the present experiment was valeric acid and it reached its highest concentration of 1.41 g/L after 37 days. Interestingly, the addition of H2:CO2 co-substrate showed that this fermentation can be used for carbon capture and utilisation alongside hydrogen consumption in a ratio of 1:1 to increase the value of short-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, this can contribute to decreased CO2 emissions and reduced use of fossil resources for alcohol production which is in line with the global environmental goals.

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  • 5.
    Bulkan, Gülru
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Valorization Of Whole Stillage With Filamentous Fungi Cultivation Using Membrane Bioreactors2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A significant by-product of bioethanol plants is whole stillage, commonly used to produce animal feed due to its nutritious value, has a potential to be used to produce various value-added products while eliminating a costly process step is an alternative approach. In this study, production and separation of additional ethanol, fungal biomass and enzyme were successfully achieved with the cultivation in membrane bioreactors in batch process condition. Process optimization studies regarding fermentation and filtration conditions were carried out. Up to 10.4 g/l ethanol per litre of used whole stillage can be produced in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) condition without any pH adjustment and additional pretreatment step. Also, 50% diluted whole stillage provided 87% higher ethanol production comparing to non-diluted medium. Moreover, 71 % higher biomass production was obtained with the filtrate of 50% diluted whole stillage comparing to 25% diluted one. Considering the achieved results, a two-stage cultivation using SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) strategy in membrane bioreactors for separation of ethanol, lignin-rich stream, protein-rich fungal biomass and enzymes was proposed. The present thesis showed that the integration of filamentous fungi with membrane bioreactors can increase the range of products that can be produced from whole stillage.

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  • 6.
    Duan, Y.
    et al.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Mehariya, S.
    Department of Engineering, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Aversa (CE), Italy.
    Kumar, A.
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur Maharashtra, India.
    Singh, E.
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur Maharashtra, India.
    Yang, J.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Kumar, S.
    CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur Maharashtra, India.
    Li, H.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province China.
    Apple orchard waste recycling and valorization of valuable product-A review2021In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 476-495Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Huge quantities of apple orchard waste (AOW) generated could be regarded as a promising alternative energy source for fuel and material production. Conventional and traditional processes for disposal of these wastes are neither economical nor environment friendly. Hence, sustainable technologies are required to be developed to solve this long-term existence and continuous growing problem. In light of these issues, this review pays attention towards sustainable and renewable systems, various value-added products from an economic and environmental perspective. Refined bio-product derived from AOW contributes to resource and energy demand comprising of biomethane, bioethanol, biofuels, bio-fertilizers, biochar, and biochemicals, such as organic acid, and enzymes. However, the market implementation of biological recovery requires reliable process technology integrated with an eco-friendly and economic production chain, classified management. 

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  • 7.
    Harirchi, Sharareh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wainaina, Steven
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sar, Taner
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nojoumi, S. A.
    Pasteur Institute of Iran.
    Parchami, Mohsen
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varjani, S.
    Gujarat Pollution Control Board.
    Khanal, S. K.
    University of Hawaii.
    Wong, J.
    Awasthi, M. K.
    Hong Kong Baptist University.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Microbiological insights into anaerobic digestion for biogas, hydrogen or volatile fatty acids (VFAs): a review2022In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 6521-6557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades, considerable attention has been directed toward anaerobic digestion (AD), which is an effective biological process for converting diverse organic wastes into biogas, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biohydrogen, etc. The microbial bioprocessing takes part during AD is of substantial significance, and one of the crucial approaches for the deep and adequate understanding and manipulating it toward different products is process microbiology. Due to highly complexity of AD microbiome, it is critically important to study the involved microorganisms in AD. In recent years, in addition to traditional methods, novel molecular techniques and meta-omics approaches have been developed which provide accurate details about microbial communities involved AD. Better understanding of process microbiomes could guide us in identifying and controlling various factors in both improving the AD process and diverting metabolic pathway toward production of selective bio-products. This review covers various platforms of AD process that results in different final products from microbiological point of view. The review also highlights distinctive interactions occurring among microbial communities. Furthermore, assessment of these communities existing in the anaerobic digesters is discussed to provide more insights into their structure, dynamics, and metabolic pathways. Moreover, the important factors affecting microbial communities in each platform of AD are highlighted. Finally, the review provides some recent applications of AD for the production of novel bio-products and deals with challenges and future perspectives of AD. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 8.
    Haykir, N. I.
    et al.
    Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Nizan Shikh Zahari, S. M. S.
    Industrial Chemical Technology Programme, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan 71800, Malaysia; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW72AZ, United Kingdom.
    Harirchi, Sharareh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sar, Taner
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Awasthi, M. K.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Applications of ionic liquids for the biochemical transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and biochemicals: A critical review2023In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 193, article id 108850Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic materials are valuable resources in today's bioprocess technologies; however, their recalcitrance is a major barrier in industry regarding their conversion to microbial products. For this purpose, in this study, the synthesis of ionic liquids (ILs), its function in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, its biochemistry and possible toxic effects were investigated. In addition, the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials pretreated with ionic liquids to biofuels (bioethanol, biobutanol, biogas and hydrogen) and various biochemicals is discussed in detail. For this, the focus is on the potential of ILs for industrial integration and use in large-scale reactors. ILs offer significant advantages due to their potential for ease of use and their features such as recovery and reuse after pretreatment. However, there are economic and technical problems that need to be solved to expand ILs in industrial systems and increase their use potential. To overcome these problems and the usability of ILs technologies in industry, techno-economic analyses has been examined and compared with traditional processes.

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  • 9.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Patinvoh, Regina J.
    Lagos State Univ, Nigeria.
    Horvath, Ilona Sarvari
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Food and Paper Industry Wastes at Different Solid Contents2019In: Fermentation - Basel, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-10, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large volume of food is being wasted every year, while the pulp and paper industry also generate a large amount of solid wastes on a daily basis, causing environmental challenges around the world. Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of these solid wastes is a cost-effective method for proper management. However, dry digestion of these waste streams has been restricted due to their complex structure, the presence of possible inhibitors and inappropriate operating conditions. In light of this fact, dry digestion of food waste (FW) and paper wastes (PW) was conducted at different total solid (TS) concentrations of reactor mixtures of 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% TS, corresponding to substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio of 0.5 and 1; investigating the optimum operating conditions for effective dry digestion of these complex wastes. The highest methane yields of 402 NmlCH(4)/gVS and 229 NmlCH(4)/gVS were obtained from digestion of FW and PW, respectively at 14%TS corresponding to an S/I ratio of 0.5. Increasing the S/I ratio from 0.5 to 1 and thereby having a TS content of 20% in the reactor mixtures was unfavorable to the digestion of both substrates.

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  • 10.
    Liu, C.
    et al.
    College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, PR China.
    Ren, L.
    College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, PR China.
    Yan, B.
    College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, PR China.
    Luo, L.
    College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, PR China.
    Zhang, J.
    College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, PR China.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Electron transfer and mechanism of energy production among syntrophic bacteria during acidogenic fermentation: A review2021In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 323, article id 124637Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production plays an important role in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD), which is often the critical factor determining the metabolic pathways and energy recovery efficiency. Fermenting bacteria and acetogenic bacteria are in syntrophic relations during AD. Thus, clear elucidation of the interspecies electron transfer and energetic mechanisms among syntrophic bacteria is essential for optimization of acidogenic. This review aims to discuss the electron transfer and energetic mechanism in syntrophic processes between fermenting bacteria and acetogenic bacteria during VFAs production. Homoacetogenesis also plays a role in the syntrophic system by converting H2 and CO2 to acetate. Potential applications of these syntrophic activities in bioelectrochemical system and value-added product recovery from AD of organic wastes are also discussed. The study of acidogenic syntrophic relations is in its early stages, and additional investigation is required to better understand the mechanism of syntrophic relations. 

  • 11.
    Luo, Hongzhen
    et al.
    Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China.
    Gao, Lei
    Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China.
    Liu, Zheng
    Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China.
    Shi, Yongjiang
    Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China.
    Xie, Fang
    Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China.
    Bilal, Muhammad
    Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China.
    Yang, Rongling
    Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Prediction of phenolic compounds and glucose content from dilute inorganic acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using artificial neural network modeling2021In: Bioresources and Bioprocessing, ISSN 2197-4365, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dilute inorganic acids hydrolysis is one of the most promising pretreatment strategies with high recovery of fermentable sugars and low cost for sustainable production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The diverse phenolics derived from lignin degradation during pretreatment are the main inhibitors for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. However, the content features of derived phenolics and produced glucose under different conditions are still unclear due to the highly non-linear characteristic of biomass pretreatment. Here, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for simultaneous prediction of the derived phenolic contents (CPhe) and glucose yield (CGlc) in corn stover hydrolysate before microbial fermentation by integrating dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Six processing parameters including inorganic acid concentration (CIA), pretreatment temperature (T), residence time (t), solid-to-liquid ratio (RSL), kinds of inorganic acids (kIA), and enzyme loading dosage (E) were used as input variables. The CPhe and CGlc were set as the two output variables. An optimized topology structure of 6–12-2 in the ANN model was determined by comparing root means square errors, which has a better prediction efficiency for CPhe (R2 = 0.904) and CGlc (R2 = 0.906). Additionally, the relative importance of six input variables on CPhe and CGlc was firstly calculated by the Garson equation with net weight matrixes. The results indicated that CIA had strong effects (22%-23%) on CPhe or CGlc, then followed by E and T. In conclusion, the findings provide new insights into the sustainable development and inverse optimization of biorefinery process from ANN modeling perspectives. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 12.
    Millati, R.
    et al.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Wikandari, R.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Ariyanto, T.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika No 2, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Hasniah, N.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Anaerobic digestion biorefinery for circular bioeconomy development2023In: Bioresource Technology Reports, ISSN 2589-014X, Vol. 21, article id 101315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the concept of biorefinery based on anaerobic digestion (AD) process that converts various wastes from easily degradable to challenging materials as well as carbon dioxide into many valuable products. Anaerobic digestion produces volatile fatty acids, biohydrogen, biogas, and biosludge. Factors that affect the production process, the reactor system, and the downstream process to obtain the desired product are discussed. Future applications of the AD products and their derivatives as biofuels, biochemicals, biomaterials, and biofertilizer as well as the market size are presented. Implementation of AD biorefinery is potentially accelerate the achievement of sustainable development goals, especially in the areas of clean water and sanitation, affordable and clean energy, and climate change. 

  • 13.
    Mondylaksita, Kinanthi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Budhijanto, Wiratni
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Millati, Ria
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Enhanced volatile fatty acid production from oil palm empty fruit bunch through acidogenic fermentation—A novel resource recovery strategy for oil palm empty fruit bunch2021In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The glucan-rich fraction, hemicellulosic compounds-rich fraction, and a mixture of both fractions obtained from organosolv pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) were used as substrates to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in acidogenic fermentation. In this study, the effects of medium adjustment (carbon to nitrogen ratio and trace elements supplementation) and methanogenesis inhibition (through the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate or by heat shock) to enhance VFAs yield were investigated. The highest VFA yield was 0.50 ± 0.00 g VFAs/g volatile solid (VS), which was obtained when methanogens were inhibited by heat shock and cultivated in a mixture of glucan-rich and hemicellulosic compounds-rich fractions. Under these conditions, the fermentation produced acetic acid as the only VFA. Based on the results, the mass balance of the whole process (from pretreatment and fermentation) showed the possibility to obtain 30.4 kg acetic acid and 20.3 kg lignin with a 70% purity from 100 kg OPEFB. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 14. Mousavi, Najmeh
    et al.
    Parchami, Mohsen
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioconversion of Carrot Pomace to Value-Added Products: Rhizopus delemar Fungal Biomass and Cellulose2023In: Fermentation, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carrot pomace (CP) which is generated in a large volume in the juice production process, is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, sugars, pectin, and minerals. However, in many previous investigations, only cellulose was purified and utilized while other components of CP were discarded as waste. Here, CP was valorized into fungal biomass and cellulose with the aim of utilizing all the CP components. Enzymatic pretreatments were applied to solubilize the digestible fraction of CP including hemicellulose, pectin, sucrose, and other sugars for fungal cultivation, while cellulose remained intact in the solid fraction. The dissolved fraction was utilized as a substrate for the cultivation of an edible fungus (Rhizopus delemar). Fungal cultivation was performed in shake flasks and bench-scale bioreactors. The highest fungal biomass concentration was obtained after pretreatment with invertase (5.01 g/L) after 72 h of cultivation (36 and 42% higher than the concentrations obtained after hemicellulase and pectinase treatments, respectively). Invertase pretreatment resulted in the hydrolysis of sucrose, which could then be taken up by the fungus. Carbohydrate analysis showed 28–33% glucan, 4.1–4.9% other polysaccharides, 0.01% lignin, and 2.7–7% ash in the CP residues after enzymatic pretreatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also confirmed the presence of cellulose in this fraction. The obtained fungal biomass has a high potential for food or feed applications, or as a raw material for the development of biomaterials. Cellulose could be purified from the solid fraction and used for applications such as biobased-textiles or membranes for wastewater treatment, where pure cellulose is needed.

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  • 15.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sirohi, R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Sarsaiya, S.
    Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology and Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, China.
    Khoshnevisan, B.
    Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 100081, Beijing, PR China.
    Baladi, S.
    Department of biosystem engineering, Faculty of agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Khouzestan, Iran.
    Sindhu, R.
    Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR- NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695 019, India.
    Binod, P.
    Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR- NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695 019, India.
    Pandey, A.
    Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, 226 001, India.
    Juneja, A.
    Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 1304 W. Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.
    Kumar, D.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 402 Walters Hall, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA.
    Zhang, Z.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, PR China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A critical review on the development stage of biorefinery systems towards the management of apple processing-derived waste2021In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 143, article id 110972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apple is among the most consumed fruits in the world and the expansion of their processing is increasing the generation of waste such as apple pomace. It finds some applications in food and feed systems, anaerobic digestion, and composting; however it most ends in landfills or in informal disposal. Therefore, waste management strategies that address this waste accumulation need to be explored. This review provides a state-of-art of valorization strategies adopted for recovery of value added products from apple processing-derived waste and discusses on their development stage. The research community has laid most of its efforts on incorporation of apple pomace into feed and food systems and in the development of pectin- and phenolics-extraction methods. Incorporation of apple pomace in feed and food systems is still negligible due to its low protein and high fiber contents. Therefore, coupling apple pomace with microbial conversion for nutritional upgrade could change this scenario. Some environmentally-friendly techniques have been developed for extraction of pectin and phenolics, but major developments are needed on their integration to attain tailored extraction of several compounds. Recovery of value added routes of apple pomace towards production of bio-chemicals are characterized by lack of deep research studies and of a holistic approach. Integrated approach with techno-economic analysis, life-cycle assessment, and inter-sectorial initiatives will possibly reveal the most promising valorization routes. 

  • 16.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
    Lukitawesa, Lukitawesa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Duan, Y M
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zhang, Z Q
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China.
    Bacterial dynamics during the anaerobic digestion of toxic citrus fruit waste and semi-continues volatile fatty acids production in membrane bioreactors2022In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 319, article id 123812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citrus wastes (CW) are normally toxic to anaerobic digestion (AD) because of flavors such as D-limonene. In this study, bacterial community was evaluated during volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from CW inoculated by sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using semi-continuous AD with different organic loading rates (OLR). Four treatments including untreated CW filled with 4 and 8 g center dot VS center dot L(-1)d(-1) OLR (UOLR4 and UOLR8), pretreated Dlimonene-free CW filled with 4 and 8 g center dot VS center dot L(-1)d(-1) OLR (POLR4 and POLR8). The initial inoculum and the CW mixture (DAY0) was used as control for comparison. There was an obviously higher bacterial diversity in raw material (66848 sequences in DAY0), while decreased after AD and higher in POLR4 and POLR8 (65239 and 63916) than UOLR4 and UOLR8 (49158 and 51936). The key bacterial associated with VFAs production mainly affiliated to Firmicutes (37.35-84.73%), Bacteroidetes (0.48-36.87%), and Actinobacteria (0.35-29.38%), and the key genus composed of Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Bacillus, Bacteroides and Olsenella which contributed in VFA generation by degradable complex organic compounds. Noticeably, methanogen completely suppressed after MBR-AD and UOLR4 has greater acid utilizing bacteria (70.09%).

  • 17.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Eh-Hser Nay, Theimya
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Biotechnology.
    Waste Bread Valorization Using Edible Filamentous Fungi2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is the first of its kind to use industrial waste bread for ethanol and food-grade filamentous fungal biomass production, with an ‘integrated-biorefinery’ approach for the existing wheat-based ethanol facilities. Four different food-grade fungi such as Neurospora intermedia, Aspergillus oryzae, belonging to ascomycetes and Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, belonging to zygomycetes, were screened. Initial screening for fungal cultures (without external enzyme saccharification) showed an ethanol yield maximum of 47.8 ±1.1 to 67.3 ±2.1, and 38.7 ±1.1 to 67.7±1.8 mg per g dry substrate loading from whole-grain bread and white-bread respectively, post the enzymatic liquefaction. Scale-up of the N. intermedia fermentation achieved using bench scale airlift reactor showed an ethanol yield maximum of 91.6 ±2.1 and 87.5 ±1.9 mg per g dry substrate loading for whole-grain bread and white-bread respectively.

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    Bread waste valorization
  • 18.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kalif, Mahdi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of hot-water (100 °C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100 °C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191–344% and 115–300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol.

  • 19.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ravula, Vamsikrishna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Neurospora intermedia pellets for enhanced ethanol and fungal biomass production from wheat straw2017In: Proceedings of 39th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies at our research group have described an ‘integrated-biorefinery’ model for the existing 1st generation wheat-based ethanol facilities, by using edible filamentous fungus, Neurospora intermedia. The process focuses on the production of 2nd generation ethanol together with fungal biomass (for animal or aquaculture feed applications) from wheat straw. A final ethanol yield of 94% (theoretical maximum based on substrate glucan content) was obtained with N. intermedia fermentation in dilute phosphoric acid pretreated (0.7%w/v acid, 7min at 201±4°C) and enzymatically hydrolyzed (10FPU cellulase/g substrate) straw. Fungal cultivation in liquid straw hydrolysate resulted in a maximum of 3.71±0.11g/L dry fungal biomass. Considering the industrial significance of the fungal process, attempts were made to manipulate N. intermedia to grow as pellet forms in the straw hydrolysate, for the first time. Of the various culture conditions screened, stable pellet morphology was obtained at pH 3.0 to 5.5, resulting in uniform pellets with size ranging from 2.5 to 4.25mm. Fermentation using N. intermedia pellets in the liquid straw hydrolysate, resulted in about 31% increase in the ethanol yield, with an improved glucose assimilation by the pellets (82% reduction) as opposed to filamentous forms (51% reduction), at similar culture conditions. The growth of fungal pellets in presence of inhibitors (at different concentrations of acetic acid and furfural) resulted in about 11% to 45% increase in ethanol production as compared to filamentous forms, at similar growth conditions in the liquid straw hydrolysate. Detailed results on N. intermedia pelletization in liquid straw hydrolysate will be discussed in this presentation.

  • 20.
    Nair, Ramkumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia2016In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 6, no 31, article id 10.1186/s13568-016-0203-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus,Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0–10.0), agitation rate (100–150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0–4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast- fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

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  • 21.
    Nordström, Simon
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kultivering av filamentösa svampar på lipider2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Filamentous fungi are used in many different biotechnological fields. The fungal biomass can be used for food or feed, while by-products that the fungi produce can be used in different industries or medical applications. The cultivations of Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillius oryzae implemented on butter, rapeseed and frying oil that is used in this work is for the larger understanding of how the fungi can grow on different lipids and the difference between species of fungi. Biomass concentration, protein content and pH are the main focus during this work, but problems like lipids storage in the biomass that can affect the results by increase of the total biomass concentration is discussed.

    The cultivations were implemented in Erlenmeyerflasks with 20 g/L lipid with added saltsolution with necessary nutrients. For A.oryzae cultivation in an airlift bioreactor was carried out for the understanding of larger scale cultivation. Highest concentration of dry biomass obtained from Erlenmeyerflasks are 18,49±1,90 g/L for A.oryzae and 17,31±1,14 g/L for N.intermedia with protein content for dry biomass up to 14%.The yield for dry biomass perlipid added during the cultivation ended at 94,00%±0,06% (rapeseed oil) for A.oryzae and 381,69%±0,007% (frying oil) for N.intermedia. During cultivation the cells can store lipids and that explains the high yields and biomass concentrations. For the understanding of morphology, the amount of lipids in the biomass and pH behaviour needs more work that includes changes of parameters like pH adjustment, temperature, airflow and analysis of the biomass for lipid content.

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    Kultivering av filamentösa svampar på lipider
  • 22.
    Oladzad, S
    et al.
    Amirkabir Univ Technol, Dept Chem Engn, Tehran 158754413, Iran.
    Fallah, N
    Amirkabir Univ Technol, Dept Chem Engn, Tehran 158754413, Iran.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Afsham, N
    Amirkabir Univ Technol, Dept Chem Engn, Tehran 158754413, Iran.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Date fruit processing waste and approaches to its valorization: A review2021In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 340, article id 125625Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Middle East and North Africa, dates are a traditional and economically valuable crop, playing an essential role in people's daily diets. Date fruit production and related processing industry generate a large quantity of waste; for illustration, the date juicing industry produces roughly 17-28% Date press cake (DPC), which is mainly discarded in open lands and drains. Considering the generation volume and the nutrient content of DPC, this organic by-product stream can be valorized through the production of a wide range of products with a great market appeal, such as volatile fatty acids, activated carbon, organic acids, etc. To provide an insight into the feasibility of the application DPC as a green precursor for various chemical and biological processes, the chemical and nutritional composition of dates and DPC, an overview of the date processing industries, and common practices conducted for DPC valorization addressed and thoroughly discussed, in this review.

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  • 23.
    Parchami, Mohsen
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biovalorization of brewer's spent grain as single-cell protein through coupling organosolv pretreatment and fungal cultivation2023In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 169, p. 382-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is a clean byproduct from the food sector, comprising 85% of the brewing process solid byproducts. BSG is mainly used as low-quality animal feed and often ends up in landfills due to its short shelf life. However, considering its abundant availability and high nutritional content, BSG holds the potential for biorefineries to produce valuable products. The recalcitrant nature of BSG poses a challenge, requiring pretreatment steps. Therefore, this study focused on valorizing BSG obtained from organosolv pretreatment by producing food- and feed-grade single-cell protein (SCP). The BSG was subject to organosolv pretreatment at 180C for 2 h with 50% v/v ethanol as solvent. Filamentous fungi N. intermedia and A. oryzae were cultivated on as-received and different fractions of organosolv-treated BSG to evaluate the effect of factors such as pretreatment, fungal strain, pretreated fraction content, and substrate loading on fungal biomass yield, biomass composition (protein content), and metabolite production. A. oryzae cultivation on all tested substrates yielded 7%-40% more biomass than N. intermedia. Cultivating A. oryzae on organosolv liquor resulted in the highest biomass protein content (44.8% ± 0.7%) with a fungal biomass concentration of 5.1 g/L. A three-fold increase in the substrate loading increased the ethanol-to-substrate yield by 50%, while protein content was decreased by 23%. Finally, a biorefinery concept was proposed to integrate the organosolv pretreatment of BSG with fungal cultivation for maximum yield of SCP while obtaining other products such as lignin and ethanol, providing a sustainable rout for managing BSG.

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  • 24.
    Pervez, M. N.
    et al.
    University of Salerno.
    Bilgiç, B.
    Istanbul Technical University.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Uwineza, Clarisse
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zarra, T.
    University of Salerno.
    Belgiorno, V.
    University of Salerno.
    Naddeo, V.
    University of Salerno.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Double-stage membrane-assisted anaerobic digestion process intensification for production and recovery of volatile fatty acids from food waste2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 825, article id 154084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of organic waste streams (i.e., food waste) for the sustainable production of precursor chemicals such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) using anaerobic digestion (AD) has received significant attention in the present days. AD-derived VFAs have great market appeal if the challenges with their recovery and purification from the complex AD effluent is overcome. In this study, a microfiltration immersed membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the production of VFAs from food waste and simultaneously in-situ recovery of VFAs. The MBR set-up was applied for 98 days, with a maximum yield of 0.2 gVFA/gVSadded at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4 g VS/L/d. The recovered permeate was then subjected to further purification using a side stream ultrafiltration unit. It was found that the removal rates of total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved solids (DS), volatile solids (VS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) were above 70–80% in both membranes (10 kDa and 50 kDa), and Phosphorus (P), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and NH4+-N were also removed partially. Particularly, VFAs concentration (above 6 g/L) was higher for 10 kDa at pH 5.4 in ultrafiltered solution and permeate flux decline was higher for 10 kDa at pH 5.4. These results are also supported by the measurement of UV–Vis spectra of the solution and visual appearance, providing a promising approach towards building a VFAs-based platform. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.

  • 25.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400, Türkiye.
    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400, Türkiye.
    Antimicrobial Activities of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater Extracts against Selected Microorganisms2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 10, article id 8179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discovering eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic chemicals has become an increasingly popular area of research. Natural products are now in the spotlight for their potential use as replacements for synthetic chemicals. To maximize the benefits of these natural products, it is important to use efficient extraction methods, especially from agroindustrial waste. Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) is a byproduct of the olive oil production process and is considered a pollutant; however, OOMW contains a wide range of phenolic compounds that have proven antimicrobial properties. This study investigates the extraction of these compounds from OOMW, with the aim of determining their potential antimicrobial activities against several bacterial strains and fungi, including Bacillus spizizenii, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans. The OOMW extracts (OEs) were prepared by using three different solvents: ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol. The highest total phenolic contents (4.03 g, GAE/L) and the strongest antibacterial activity were obtained with methanol extraction. All OEs showed no antifungal activity against C. albicans. OEs, particularly methanol extracts of OOMW, can be used as bioactive substances in various industries as nutraceuticals and food ingredients, respectively.

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  • 26.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Integration of olive oil industry wastewaters into biorefinery2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While olive oil is an important food product in the Mediterranean Sea Basin, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) and olive pomace, which are by-products of olive oil, are released in excessive quantities. OMWW is an important source of environmental pollutants due to its slightly acidic pH, high phenol content and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). To overcome this problem, it was aimed to investigate the potential use of OOMW as an alternative substrate for protein rich biomass and bacterial cellulose production by filamentous fungi and acetic acid bacterium, respectively, in this study. Additionally, extracts of OOMW against selected microorganisms were examined to determine their use for industrial applications. The finding results indicated that OOMW needs nitrogen supplementation for microbial production processes. On the other hand, extracts of OOMW showed significant antibacterial activities with high phenolic contents. Overall, OOMW can be integrated into biorefinery with both microbial production and extraction processes and the resulting products will contribute to the food and cosmetic industries. 

  • 27.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Arifa, VIna Hasna
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Hilmy, Muhammad Raihan
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Millati, Ria
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Organosolv pretreatment of oat husk using oxalic acid as an alternative organic acid and its potential applications in biorefinery2022In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, ethanol organosolv treatment of oat husk and the potential effects of phosphoric acid and oxalic acid as alternatives to sulfuric acid were investigated. These acids were determined as effective as sulfuric acid to obtain high quality lignin and glucan and they can be used instead of sulfuric acid in solvent acidification. To determine the purity and recovery of both lignin and glucan, the effects of initial substrate amount, solid-to-liquid ratio, and amount of washing solutions were also examined using a one-factor-at-a-time strategy. Reducing the amount of washing solutions (water, solvent, or both) negatively affected lignin recovery, but it did not affect glucan recovery. The optimum conditions for pretreatment of the oat husk at higher glucan recovery were obtained with 50% aqueous ethanol acidified with oxalic acid at 210 degrees C for 90 min and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:2. In the mixture of evaporated glucan-rich and hemicellulose-rich fractions obtained through the optimized condition, 4.62 g/L biomass containing 10.27% protein was produced by the cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae. The fractions obtained from organosolv treatment can be used to obtain value-added products such as biomass production, and thus contributing to a sustainable economy by integrating lignocellulosic substrate residues into the biorefinery.

  • 28.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Harirchi, Sharareh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ramezani, M
    Microorganisms Bank, Iranian Biological Resource Centre (IBRC), ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
    Bulkan, Gülru
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Akbas, M Y
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze-Kocaeli 41400, Turkey.
    Pandey, A
    CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Potential utilization of dairy industries by-products and wastes through microbial processes: A critical review2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 810Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dairy industry generates excessive amounts of waste and by-products while it gives a wide range of dairy products. Alternative biotechnological uses of these wastes need to be determined to aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems due to their high chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels and rich nutrient (lactose, protein and fat) contents. This work presents a critical review on the fermentation-engineering aspects based on defining the effective use of dairy effluents in the production of various microbial products such as biofuel, enzyme, organic acid, polymer, biomass production, etc. In addition to microbial processes, techno-economic analyses to the integration of some microbial products into the biorefinery and feasibility of the related processes have been presented. Overall, the inclusion of dairy wastes into the designed microbial processes seems also promising for commercial approaches. Especially the digestion of dairy wastes with cow manure and/or different substrates will provide a positive net present value (NPV) and a payback period (PBP) less than 10 years to the plant in terms of biogas production.

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  • 29.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yesilcimen Akbas, Meltem
    Gebze Technical University.
    Potential use of olive oil mill wastewater for bacterial cellulose production2022In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 7659-7669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW), an important waste in the Mediterranean basin, was evaluated to produce bacterial cellulose (BC). For this purpose, the effects of different ratios of OOMW fractions (25-100%) and some additional nutrients (yeast extract, peptone and Hestrin-Schramm medium (HS) components) on BC productions were investigated. Unsupplemented OOMW medium (75% and 100%) yielded as much as BC obtained in HS medium (0.65 g/L), while enrichment of OOMW medium (%100) with yeast extract (5 g/L) and peptone (5 g/L) increased the amount of BC by 5.5 times, reaching to 5.33 g/L. In addition, produced BCs were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XRD and SEM analyses. BC from OOMW medium (100% OOMW with supplementation) has a high thermal decomposition temperature (316.8°C), whereas it has lower crystallinity index (57%). According to the FT-IR analysis, it was observed that the components of OOMW might be absorbed by BCs. Thus, higher yield productions of BCs from OOMW media compared to BC obtained from HS medium indicate that olive oil industry wastes can be integrated into BC production for industrial applications.

  • 30.
    Svensson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bucuricova, Ludmila
    Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Souza Filho, Pedro F.
    Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-970 Natal, Brazil.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Valorization of Bread Waste to a Fiber- and Protein-Rich Fungal Biomass2021In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filamentous fungi can be used for the valorization of food waste as a value-added product. The goal of this study was the valorization of bread waste through fungal cultivation and the production of value-added products. The fungal cultivation was verified for upscaling from shake flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor (4.5 L) and a pilot-scale bioreactor (26 L). The fungus showed the ability to grow without any additional enzymes or nutrients, and it was able to consume a bread concentration of 4.5% (w/v) over 48 h. The biomass concentration in the shake flasks was 4.1 g/L at a 2.5% bread concentration, which increased to 22.5 g/L at a 15% bread concentration. The biomass concentrations obtained after 48 h of cultivation using a 4.5% bread concentration were 7.2–8.3 and 8.0 g/L in 4.5 and 26 L bioreactors, respectively. Increasing the aeration rate in the 4.5 L bioreactor decreased the amount of ethanol produced and slightly reduced the protein content of the fungal biomass. The initial protein value in the bread was around 13%, while the protein content in the harvested fungal biomass ranged from 27% to 36%. The nutritional value of the biomass produced was evaluated by analyzing the amino acids and fatty acids. This study presents the valorization of bread waste through the production of a protein- and fatty-acid-rich fungal biomass that is simultaneously a source of microfibers.

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  • 31.
    Ucm, R
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Aem, M
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Lhb, Z
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Kumar, V
    School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Garlapati, V K
    Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Information Technology, Waknaghat 173234, India.
    Chandel, A K
    Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena (EEL), University of São Paulo (USP), Lorena 12602-810, Brazil.
    Comprehensive review on biotechnological production of hyaluronic acid: status, innovation, market and applications2022In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 9645-9661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing, existing demand for low-cost and high-quality hyaluronic acid (HA) needs an outlook of different possible production strategies from renewable resources with the reduced possibility of cross-infections. Recently, the possibility of producing HA from harmless microorganisms appeared, which offers the opportunity to make HA more economical, without raw material limitations, and environmentally friendly. HA production is mainly reported with Lancefield Streptococci A and C, particularly from S. equi and S. zooepidemicus. Various modes of fermentation such as batch, repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous culture have been investigated to optimize HA production, particularly from S. zooepidemicus, obtaining a HA yield of 2.5 g L-1 - 7.0 g L-1. Among the different utilized DSP approaches of HA production, recovery with cold ethanol (4 degrees C) and cetylpyridinium chloride is the ideal strategy for lab-scale HA production. On the industrial scale, besides using isopropanol, filtration (0.22 um), ultrafiltration (100 kDa), and activated carbon absorption are employed to obtain HA of low molecular weight and additional ultrafiltration to purify HA of higher MW. Even though mature technologies have already been developed for the industrial production of HA, the projections of increased sales volume and the expansion of application possibilities require new processes to obtain HA with higher productivity, purity, and specific molecular weights. In this review, we have put forth the progress of HA technological research by discussing the microbial biosynthetic aspects, fermentation and downstream strategies, industrial-scale scenarios of HA, and the prospects of HA production to meet the current and ongoing market demands.

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  • 32.
    Vu, Hoang Danh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Root, Andrew
    MagSol, Tuhkanummenkuja 2, 00970 Helsinki, Finland.
    Heinmaa, Ivo
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thorough Investigation of the Effects of Cultivation Factors on Polyhydroalkanoates (PHAs) Production by Cupriavidus necator from Food Waste-Derived Volatile Fatty Acids2022In: Fermentation, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) have become promising candidates for replacing the conventional expensive carbon sources used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Considering the inhibitory effect of VFAs at high concentrations and the influence of VFA mixture composition on bacterial growth and PHA production, a thorough investigation of different cultivation parameters such as VFA concentrations and composition (synthetic and waste-derived VFAs) media, pH, aeration, C/N ratio, and type of nitrogen sources was conducted. Besides common VFAs of acetic, butyric and propionic acids, Cupriavidus necator showed good capability for assimilating longer-chained carboxylate compounds of valeric, isovaleric, isobutyric and caproic acids in feasible concentrations of 2.5–5 g/L. A combination of pH control at 7.0, C/N of 6, and aeration of 1 vvm was found to be the optimal condition for the bacterial growth, yielding a maximum PHA accumulation and PHA yield on biomass of 1.5 g/L and 56%, respectively, regardless of the nitrogen sources. The accumulated PHA was found to be poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) with the percentage of hydroxybutyrate in the range 91–96%. Any limitation in the cultivation factors was found to enhance the PHA yield, the promotion of which was a consequence of the reduction in biomass production.

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  • 33.
    Wijayarathna, Egodagedara Ralalage Kanishka Bandara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of Fungal Leather-like Material from Bread Waste2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste and fashion pollution are two of the significant global environmental issues throughout the recent past. In this research, it was investigated the feasibility of making a leather-like material from bread waste using biotechnology as the bridging mechanism. The waste bread collected from the supermarkets were used as the substrate to grow filamentous fungi species Rhizopus Delemar and Fusarium Venenatum. Tanning of fungal protein fibres was successfully performed using vegetable tanning, confirmed using FTIR and SEM images. Furthermore, glycerol and a biobased binder treatment was performed for the wet-laid fungal microfibre sheets produced. Overall, three potential materials were able to produce with tensile strengths ranging from 7.74 ± 0.55 MPa to 6.92 ± 0.51 MPa and the elongation% from 16.81 ± 1.61 to 4.82 ± 0.36. The binder treatment enhanced the hydrophobicity even after the glycerol treatment, an added functional advantage for retaining flexibility even after contact with moisture. The fungal functional material produced with bread waste can be tailored successfully into leather substitutes using an environmentally benign procedure.

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    Development of Fungal Leather-like Material from Bread Waste
  • 34.
    Yin, Dong-min
    et al.
    Biomass Engineering Center, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wainaina, Steven
    Qiao, W.
    Biomass Engineering Center, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The effect of mono- and multiple fermentation parameters on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from chicken manure via anaerobic digestion2021In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 330, article id 124992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the high nitrogen content of chicken manure (CM) poses major challenges for methane production through anaerobic digestion, on the bright side, it has a great potential for production of value-added intermediate products, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, in order to enhance VFAs yield, methane formation should be substantially suppressed. In the current research, individual and multiple effects of initial pH, heat-shock pretreatment, chemical methanogens inhibitor and the inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR) on optimization VFAs fermentation from CM were evaluated via batch assays. In this regard, the highest net VFAs yield, 0.53 g-VFA/g-VS, was achieved at conditions with heat-shocked inoculum and CM at ISR 1:6 and pH uncontrolled. Acetate dominated the VFAs mixture, accounting for up to 75% of total. Increased inoculum content enhanced the bioconversion efficiency to 78% at ISR 1:3. The study results suggest that alkalinity is a key promoter of VFAs production from CM.

1 - 34 of 34
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