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  • 1.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    College of Engineering and Technology, East Carolina University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Textile Sustainability: Living Within Our Means2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is defined by Brundtland as “….development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. An evaluation of the current ‘pulse of the planet’ which consists of nature’s core business of creating diversity, abundance and continuance yields a bleak future. It suggests limited supplies of natural resources that pose an obstacle to future worldeconomic growth. This paper makes an assessment of a sustainable future for textiles based on economic, social,and environmental dimensions. Both strategic and tactical remedies for the textile value chain are provided. Thecollective actions suggested will not ensure success but rather provide a framework for a better and safer planet.

  • 2.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Environmental impacts of food waste in a life cycle perspective: A case study in a Swedish supermarket2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The food production system has been acknowledged as a problem that needs to be addressed in order to achieve a sustainable society. Hertwich and Peters (2009), estimate that 10-30% of an individual’s environmental impact is related to the industrial production and consumption of food. The problem is aggravated by the wastage of one third of the global food production. The consequences of the wastage of food are the loss of resources, such as energy, water, land and labour and unnecessary emissions of pollutants.

    In order to address this problem several actions have been proposed. The Sustainable Development Goal 12.3, which Sweden has committed to fulfil, aims to reduce by half the amount of food waste along the production and supply chain by 2030.

    Retail is an important player in the food supply chain. Its influence spreads both upstream to suppliers and downstream to consumers. Therefore, this research aims to contribute to reduction of the environmental impacts related to food waste in retail, by identifying products with high environmental impacts. The main goals of this study are 1) the quantification of food waste produced by the supermarket and 2) to examine the environmental impacts of selected products in order to assess the impacts generated by the waste production at the supermarket.

    The findings of the research revealed 1) the importance of not only measuring the food waste in terms of mass, but also in terms of environmental indicators and costs. The results indicate bread as an important contributor for the environmental footprint of the supermarket and a potential product for interventions 2) Sorting the organic content of the products from its packaging before sending it to the current waste treatment leads to a reduction in the carbon footprint.

    The research identified the following recommendations: 1) increasing supermarket personnel and consumers’ awareness regarding the environmental impact of food waste, 2) finding alternative routes for waste treatment and 3) improving logistic operations.

  • 3.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rousta, Kamran
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    LCA as a Supporting Tool for Supermarket Food Waste Management2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rousta, Kamran
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Life cycle assessment of supermarket food waste2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 118, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retail is an important actor regarding waste throughout the entire food supply chain. Although it produces lower amounts of waste compared to other steps in the food value chain, such as households and agriculture, it has a significant influence on the supply chain, including both suppliers in the upstream processes and consumers in the downstream. The research presented in this contribution analyses the impacts of food waste at a supermarket in Sweden. In addition to shedding light on which waste fractions have the largest environmental impacts and what part of the waste life cycle is responsible for the majority of the impacts, the results provide information to support development of strategies and actions to reduce of the supermarket's environmental footprint. Therefore, the food waste was categorised and quantified over the period of one year, the environmental impacts of waste that were generated regularly and in large amounts were assessed, and alternative waste management practices were suggested. The research revealed the importance of not only measuring the food waste in terms of mass, but also in terms of environmental impacts and economic costs. The results show that meat and bread waste contributes the most to the environmental footprint of the supermarket. Since bread is a large fraction of the food waste for many Swedish supermarkets, this is a key item for actions aimed at reducing the environmental footprint of supermarkets. Separation of waste packaging from its food content at the source and the use of bread as animal feed were investigated as alternative waste treatment routes and the results show that both have the potential to lead to a reduction in the carbon footprint of the supermarket.

  • 5.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    Bread loss rates at the supplier-retailer interface – Analysis of risk factors tosupport waste prevention measures2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, p. 128-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies bread waste throughout the Swedish supply chain and investigates the loss rate of prepackagedbread products at the supplier-retailer interface. The goal is to understand the extent of bread waste inSweden and to identify risk factors for high quantities of waste at the supplier-retailer interface, in order toprovide information supporting waste prevention measures. The study uses primary data, in combination withnational statistics and data from sustainability reports and the literature. Primary data were collected from 380stores of a Swedish retail company and a bakery. Bread waste was calculated to be 80 410 tons/year in Sweden,the equivalent of 8.1 kg per person/year, and was found to be concentrated at households and in retail, specificallyat the supplier-retailer interface. The results provide evidence that take-back agreements between suppliersand retailers, where the retailer only pays for sold products and the supplier bears the cost of the unsoldproducts and their collection and treatment, are risk factors for high waste generation. Current business modelsmay need to be changed to achieve a more sustainable bread supply chain with less waste.

  • 6.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Rousta, Kamran
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Environmental impacts of supermarket food waste in a life cycle perspective2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mouwitz, Pia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lidström, Anna
    Another Design.
    ReDesign kläder: Förstudie2014Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Paras, Manoj K.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Re:Textile – Planning a Swedish Collection and Sorting Plant for Used Textiles2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser följande frågor:− Finns det några realistiska förutsättningar att etablera en svensk sorteringsanläggning för insamlade textilier med hänsyn tagen till redan etablerade insamlingsstrukturer?− Vilka ar de avgörande kritiska faktorerna?− Hur ser framtiden ut?− Hur kan en framkomlig väg se ut för att etablera en lämplig strategi för en cirkulär ekonomi avseende använda textilier?Grundförutsättningar för studien:Idag bedrivs den ordnade insamlingen av textilier huvudsakligen av välgörenhetsorganisat-ioner som Myrorna, Röda Korset, etc. Av en total konsumtionsvolym på ca 13 kg/capita i Sverige (omfattande kläder och hemtextil) samlas 3-4 kg in av mestadels seriösa operatörer genom direktöverlämning eller genom insamlingscontainrar. Vissa butiker/varumärken har också kommit igång med mottagning av använda textilier, t.ex. H&M, Hemtex, Kapp-Ahl m.fl. Övriga kvantiteter (8-10 kg) har vi inte exakt kännedom om, men troligen hamnar de förr eller senare i containrar för brännbart.Motivet för de seriösa insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva denna verksamhet är dels att skapa finansiella resurser för att kunna bedriva sin hjälpverksamhet, dels att skapa sysselsätt-ning för en växande kader av personer i arbetsträning och liknande. Detta innebär att verksam-heten i stor utsträckning bedrivs av volontärer samt av subventionerad personal vad avser ar-betskostnader. Samhällsnyttan som skapas genom detta är mycket stor och bör inte äventyras av förändringar i denna struktur. I regeringsuppdraget 2014 till Naturvårdsverket angående hantering av textilier framhålls detta också som en förutsättning.

    Den sorteringsverksamhet som bedrivs av dessa organisationer syftar till att sortera ut de bästa produkterna, som har förutsättningar att säljas genom egna butikskanaler. Ungefär 20 % av volymerna tar denna väg, och dessa har en helt avgörande ”värdeuppväxling”. Övriga 80 % exporteras till avsevärt lägre värde än de första 20 procenten.

    Eftersom välgörenhetsorganisationerna utför denna första fas på ett utomordentligt kostnads-effektivt sätt, samt därigenom skapar samhällsnytta som också är mycket kostnadseffektiv, kan vi inte se något som helst motiv att ändra på detta förhållande utan kanske istället förbättra möjligheterna att utveckla deras värdefulla arbete.

    För en regional/nationell sorteringscentral återstår alltså en potential bestående av ex-portkvantiteterna samt de volymer som hamnar i ”brännbart”.

    De beräkningar vi har utfört baseras på en sorteringsanläggning som bedrivs efter normala affärsbetingelser, dvs. avtalsenliga löner, marknadsmässiga hyror och avskrivningar samt rå-dande finansiella kostnader.

    Den kritiska volymen för en sådan anläggning har beräknats till en kapacitet om 40 ton/dag motsv. ca 50 anställda. Denna kapacitet motsvarar ca 40 % av totalförbrukningen (13 kg/ca-pita) i Västra Götaland eller ca 170 % om insamlingsnivån ligger på nuvarande ca 3 kg/capita.

    För att nå erforderlig volym krävs alltså:

    − Utökat geografiskt upptagningsområde

    − Maximerade marknadsandelar

    − Större insamlad volym per capita.

    Beaktande dagens kostnadsläge för en effektiv anläggning om 40 ton/dag samt de mark-nadsmässiga priser/intäkter som idag är för handen avseende ”2nd choice” kvantiteter är projektet inte ekonomiskt försvarbart. Kostnads/intäktsförhållandet ligger på ca 7,80 SEK/kg mot ca 6,50 SEK/kg.

    De faktorer som påverkar detta förhållande är följande:

    − Andelen förstasortering i fraktionerna (andelen är noll i vårt exempel)

    − Totalvolymerna

    − Kvalitetsfördelning. Bärbara plagg i förhållande till icke bärbart, dvs. kvantiteter för re-cycling etc.

    − Produktiviteten

    −Lönekostnaderna

    − Låga marknadspriser på framförallt material till recycling samt ”rags” (putstrasor)

    − Teknologi för hantering respektive potentiell sensorteknologi för automatisk sortering av-seende främst förekomst av skadliga kemikalier samt fiberinnehåll

    − Recyclingsteknik för återvinning av använda fiber till nya fiber; inte kommersiellt tillgäng-lig ännu

    − Vertikal integration (insamling-sortering; recyclingprocesser/second hand-retailing)Dessa förhållanden kan självfallet förändras och ändra bilden av konceptets realism.

    Slutsatser avseende marknadsutveckling:

    Beaktande att framtidens fiberbehov om mer än 200 miljoner ton/år (från nuvarande ca 90 miljoner ton/år) huvudsakligen genereras genom befolkningsökning och ekonomisk tillväxt i utvecklingsländer som utgör dagens exportmarknader, får detta till följd att dessa marknader blir självförsörjande avseende bärbara second hand-kläder. Alltså: våra exportmarknader minskar betydligt.

    De tekniker och marknader som måste utvecklas i strävan mot en lönsam cirkulär ekonomi utgörs följaktligen av

    − Sorteringsteknik som kan detektera och sortera på skadligt kemiskt innehåll respektive fiberinnehåll. Dessa två sorteringsförutsättningar är grundläggande för säkra och lönsamma produktinnovationer.

    − Nya tekniker och processer för utveckling av nya innovativa, värdeskapande produkter från både mekanisk, kemisk och termisk recycling.

    Dessa båda områden är centrala för att värdet på insamlade textilier kan öka vad avser både volym och priser.

    Förslag till fortsatt arbete; ett diskussionsscenario:Förslaget är att skapa en flexibel öppen struktur, baserad på tre grundkomponenter:

    1. Bygg upp regionala sorteringscentra som ger grundförutsättningar för insamlingsorganisationerna att bedriva sin verksamhet på ett effektivt sätt.En bra samlad sorteringsvolym (summan av varje organisations insamling och sortering)ligger lämpligtvis på ca 40 ton/dag. Vissa gemensamma funktioner kan utvecklas som t.ex. balning/packning, intern transportlogistik etc. Detta skulle ge skalfördelar utan att påverka varje organisations egna affärsprocesser. Det bör kunna vara självfinansierat genom hyror respektive sålda logistiktjänster.

    2. Skapa en agentur eller liknande med uppgift att sälja exportkvantiteter på uppdrag av insamlingsorganisationerna. Motivet skall vara att bättre kunna optimera en kundsamman-sättning som ger en optimal mix av EKONOMI – EKOLOGI – ETIK. Genom att den totalt genererade volymen blir större borde en professionell organisation kunna nå bättre totalt utfall avseende de tre E:na. Erfarenheter från vår empiri ger vid handen att det finns potential för bättre utfall. Den borde också kunna vara självfinansierad genom t.ex. provisionsintäkter.OBS. Om förutsättningarna förändras enligt vår studie kan en fysisk sorteringsanläggning strukturellt etableras och ersätta agenturen.

    3. Ovanstående punkter ger förutsättningar för att bygga upp en testbädd som är inriktad på att kunna serva företag, forskningsorganisationer etc. med kapacitet att köra betatester, som är ett nödvändigt inslag i produktutvecklingsprocessen. Eftersom Sverige saknar en infrastruktur för både subindustriell produktion av fiber och recycling av textilier är detta en viktig förutsättning för utveckling av de produkter/processer som ligger till grund för värdeutvecklingen av använda textilier.

  • 9.
    Chizaryfard, Armaghan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Samie, Yassaman
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    New Textile Waste Management Through Collaborative Business Models for Sustainable Innovation2018In: Detox Fashion: Waste Water Treatment / [ed] S.S. Muthu, Singapore: Springer, 2018, p. 81-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most nations, textile waste management is recognized to be a multi-actor system; however most participating actors tend to play a significant role in handling and treating the textile waste single-handedly thus resulting in a very fragmented system fraught with many challenges. In addition, the main textile waste treatment, e.g. in Sweden is still incineration (nearly 55% of per capita disposal) resulting in low degrees of value generation. Nearly 20% of the waste is handled by ten major charities in Sweden. This highlights the necessity for the actors to perform in a network and expand their collaboration, thus move more efficiently towards development of a sustainable value innovation, and find an alternative new way to manage textile waste. Given this our study strives to investigate the challenges and opportunities of implementation of a collaborative business model for sustainable innovation. By taking the benefits of actor-, activity- and value-mapping technique, our study helps in gaining a better realization of the Swedish textile waste management system. The core values of actors have been identified along with the identification of their shared and conflicting values with the aid of a value mapping tool. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from seven organizations representing the Swedish textile waste man- agement system. Overall our study provides a rich and descriptive picture of the participating actors, their activities, collaboration and value-orientations within the Swedish textile waste management system, and highlights the key drivers of a collaborative solution, viz. legislation, trust and shared understanding and communication, that can be foreseen to increase dialogue and collaboration among actors to support the movement from egocentric to a multi-actor business model. A clear benefit of such collaborative business models is substitution of incineration by higher degrees of reuse of textiles, which has high potential to generate positive environmental impact, through reduction of toxic effects of textile incineration and also new production processes.

  • 10.
    Forgács, Gergely
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    J. Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Methane production from feather waste pretreated with Ca(OH)2: Process development and economical analysis2014In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the industrial application of feather waste as a substrate for anaerobic digestion. Feather was pretreated with 0–0.2 Ca(OH)2 g/g TSfeather (total solids of feathers) for 30–120 min at 100–120 °C, in order to increase the digestibility, and to enhance the methane yield in a subsequent digestion at 55 °C. Based on the results of the batch digestion, an industrial process was developed, which can achieve 0.40 Nm3/kg VSfeather (volatile solids of feathers) methane yield from the pretreated feathers, while it fulfills the animal by-product hygenization requirements as well. This base case of the industrial pretreatment process was designed using SuperPro Designer® for utilizing 2,500 tons of feathers per year, which is the waste stream from an average slaughterhouse with a capacity of 60,000 broilers per day. The production cost of the methane is estimated to be 0.475 EUR/Nm3, while the investments on the pretreatment unit requires 0.97 million EUR as total capital investment, and 0.25 million EUR/year for operating cost. However, the process is sensitive to the plant capacity. Changing the plant capacity from 625 to 10,000 tons of feather per year, results in reducing the biogas production cost from 1.177 to 0.203 EUR/Nm3. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed on the base case to investigate the effect of the value of the incoming feather on the overall process profitability. The results showed that the proposed investment could be considered as being financially viable in the case of production of upgraded biomethane even without the current gate fee system.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Blomqvist, Evalena
    Ekvall, Annika
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    Tullin, Claes
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Jarlsvik, Tisse
    Assarsson, Anders
    Peters, Gunnar
    Report: Waste Refinery in the Municipality of Borås2007In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 296-300Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Kabir, Maryam M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Forgács, Gergely
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Pretreatment of wool based textile wastes for enhanced biogas production2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different wool based textile wastes (TW1 and TW2) have been subjected for biogas production. TW1 was composed of 70% wool and 30% polyamide (PA), while TW2 consisted of 70% wool, 18% PA and 12% kermel (protective polyamide-imide fibre). Two pre-treatments: thermal treatment, enzymatic treatment and combinations of these two were performed to enhance the methane yield. Determining the soluble protein concentrations in the treated samples showed that the additional thermal treatment and the enzyme concentration had significant positive effect on the degradation of wool. Samples treated with thermal and combination treatments were therefore selected for anaerobic batch digestion assays. The best results were obtained after combination treatments resulting in methane yields of 0.33-0.43 Nm3/kg VS, and 0.21-0.26 Nm3/kg VS, for TW1 and TW2, respectively, while only 0.21 and 0.05 Nm3/kg VS methane production was measured after the thermal treatment. The methane yields of untreated samples were close to zero.

  • 13.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Periyasamy, Aravin Prince
    Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    Rwawiire, Samson
    Busitema University, Tororo, Uganda.
    Zhao, Yan
    Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China.
    Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Methods for Textile Industry2018In: Sustainable Innovations in Apparel Production / [ed] Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Singapore: Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All over the world, environmental considerations are now becoming vital factors during the selection of consumer goods which include textiles. According to the World Bank, 20% of water pollution globally is caused by textile processing, which means that these industries produce vast amounts of wastewater. Generally, these effluents contain high levels of suspended solids (SS), phosphates, dyes, salts, organo-pesticides, non-biodegradable organics, and heavy metals. Increase in water scarcity and environmental regulations has led to textile industries to seek for sustainable wastewater treatment methods which help to reduce their water footprint as well as reduce their operational costs. Therefore, sustainable wastewater treatment could be the best choice for the textile industries with respect to the current issues. So, it is important to discuss and champion awareness mechanisms which help to reduce the current issues with respect to the textile wastewater. Therefore, this chapter intends to discuss the various sustainable wastewater treatments, namely granular activated carbon (GAC), electrocoagulation (EC), ultrasonic treatment, an advanced oxidation process (AOP), ozonation, membrane biological reactor (MBR), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

  • 14.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Reusing Textile Waste As Reinforcements In Composites2014In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 131, no 17, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyester (PET) has wide applications in textile industries as textile fiber and its share continues to grow. Substantial quantities of cotton/polyester blend fabrics are disposed every year due to technical challenges, which pose a big environmental and waste-dumping problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of discarded cotton/PET fabrics as raw materials for composites. If their inherent reinforcement properties can be used in composites, an ecological footprint issue can be solved. In this study, we investigate three concepts for reuse of cotton/PET fabrics for composites: compression molding above the Tm of PETs, use of a matrix derived from renewable soybean oil, use of thermoplastic copolyester/polyester bi-component fibers as matrix. All three concepts have been explored to make them available for wider applications. The effects of processing parameters such as compression temperature, time and pressure are considered in all three cases. The third concept gives the most appealing properties, which combine good tensile properties with toughness; more than four times better tensile strength than the first concept; and 2.2 times better than the second concept.

  • 15.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Preparation and Characterization of Biobased Thermoset Polymers from Renewable Resources and Their Use in Composites2017In: Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization / [ed] Vijay Kumar Thakur, Manju Kumari Thakur, Michael R. Kessler, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 425-457Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on physicochemical and mechanical characterization of compositesmade from renewable materials. Most common renewable materials used in composites arenatural fibers and polymers based on starch or vegetable oil. The extent of using renewablematerials in biocomposites has increased during the past decade due to extensive research oncellulosic fibers and biobased polymers. Earlier, the research was focused on using the naturalfibers as reinforcement in crude oil-based polymers such as polypropylene. Later, the emphasisshifted to increase the amount of renewable components in the biocomposites which led tothe introductionof biobased resins in the composites. The properties of some biocompositesare today comparable to the properties for commercially available nonrenewable composites.Several plant biofibers have been used as reinforcement in biobased thermoplastics or thermosetsto manufacture biocomposites. Material characterization is important to understand theperformance of these composites under specific environment. Detailed discussion about themechanical and physicochemical characterization is provided in this chapter. Physicochemicalcharacterization includes chemical composition, density, viscosity, molecular weight, meltingtemperature, crystallinity,morphology, wettability, surface tension, water binding capacity,electricalconductivity, flammability, thermal stability, and swelling. Mechanical characterizationincludes tensile, flexural, impact, compressive, shear, toughness, hardness, brittleness, ductility,creep, fatigue, and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  • 16.
    Rousta, Kamran
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 40, no 0, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household’s application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system.

  • 17.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Life Cycle Assessment: Concrete Hollow Core Slab2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A report about the environmental impacts involved in the use of recycled concrete waste as aggregates in new concrete. The environmental impacts were assessed based on a simple LCA using a prefabricated concrete producing company in Sweden as a case study. The results of the LCA revealed that major environmental impacts arised from the crushing and extraction processes as these were diesel fuel intensive. Comparatively, the use of recycled concrete as aggregates in new concrete saw a reduction in the environmental impacts as the need for extraction had reduced with the introduction of recycled aggregates. 

  • 18.
    Saleh Hadi Bahram, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Förstudie av solcellsinstallation: Förstudie av solcellsinstallation på Engelhardt Göteborg2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Denna förstudie av en eventuell solcellsinstallation på Engelhardts fastigheter i Göteborg redogör vilken lönsamhet solcellsinstallationen innebär, hur mycket solel som kan produceras samt ger Engelhardt information angående kostnader, elproduktion och ekonomiskt stöd som förekommer med installationen. I rapportens bakgrund beskrivs solenergi, solceller, solcellssystem, stöd och bidrag i allmänhet medan resultat och diskussionsdelen jämförs olika leverantörer och deras nyckelfärdiga paket. Beroende på solcellspaketstorlek, dimensionering och modeller med två lutningar på taket jämfördes den förväntade elproduktion med hjälp av olika databaserade beräkningsprogram nämligen Solelekonomi 1,0 som utför beräkningar baserat på solinstrålningarna enligt SMHI2007och PVGIS som baseras på satellitdata och källor på solinstrålning till jordytan under referensperioden 1981–1990. För att beräkna återbetalningstiden har pay-back metoden används. För en budget på cirka 250 000 kr kan Engelhardt installera ett paket från Solexperten med 21,7kWp och en förväntad elproduktion på 20 900 kWh/år enligt PVGIS och 20 600 kWh/år enligt leverantören. Paketet innehåller 76 moduler av monokristallina solceller. Modulerna täcker en takyta på 125m² och ska riktas söder med en lutning mellan 10°-15° till beräkning användes den högst graden (15°). Den beräknade paybacktiden var 5,3 år med bidrag och 8,9 år utan bidrag och mellan 1,5–1,7 % av Engelhardts elförbrukning kommer att täckas av solcellsinstallationen. Med detta sagt så är inte fullständig elförsörjning med solel syftet med installation utan Engelhardt vill bidra till en hållbar utveckling och med installationen av solcellsanläggning är de på god väg.

  • 19.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Energy Generation from Wastes2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastes and residuals are undeniably part of human society. The accumulation of these materials and the “throw-away philosophy” result in many environmental and health issues and safety hazard problems, and prevent sustainable development in terms of resource recovery and recycling of waste materials. The carbon sources in the wastes can be converted to energy (electricity, heat, chill, fuels) and even materials using different technologies including collecting and converting current landfill gases, wet or dry anaerobic digestion to biogas, incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Sweden has been one of the pioneers in waste management and resource recovery with more than 30 years development. The MSW of 150,000,000 inhabitants (with a typical composition and amount similar to the Nordic European countries) can be converted to about 1,000-5,000 MW electricity, depending on the technology used.

  • 20.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol and fish food from old jeans2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Resource Recovery to Approach Zero Municipal Waste2015Book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Weidema, Bo
    et al.
    Aalborg University.
    Simas, Moana S.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Schmidt, Jannick
    Aalborg University.
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Aalborg University.
    Løkke, Søren
    Aalborg University.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Relevance of attributional and consequential information for environmental product labelling2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Considering the general agreement in the literature that environmental labelling should be based on consequential modelling, while all actually implemented environmental labelling schemes are based on attributional modelling, we investigate the arguments for this situation as provided in the literature, and whether a dual label, representing on the same label the attributional and consequential results for the same product, can be a relevant solution or at least contribute to a more informed discussion.

    Methods

    We developed a dual label for three hypothetical, comparable products and presented this for a small test audience, asking three questions, namely “Which product would you choose?”, “Was the attributional information useful?” and “Would you accept to have only the attributional information?”

    Results and discussion

    From this small pilot exercise, it appears that informed consumers may have a strong preference for consequential information and that the main problem in communicating consequential results is that they are perceived as less trustworthy and more uncertain due to the fact that the consequences are located in the future. It thus appears important to build into a consequential label some increased level of guarantee of future good behaviour.

    Conclusions

    We propose to apply the above questions to a more statistically representative audience to confirm or refute the findings of this little test exercise.

1 - 22 of 22
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