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  • 1.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Ji, Guangchao
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Rödby, Kristian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björlin, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Östlund, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Textile-Electronic Integration in Wearable Measurement Garments for Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Guangchao, Li
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Rödby, Kristian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    A Knitted Garment using Intarsia Technique for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: Evaluation of Initial Prototype.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Agnhage, Tove
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University Lille 1, France; Soochow University, China.
    Eco-designed functionalization of polyester fabric2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased awareness of the textile dyeing and finishing sector’s high impact on the environment due to high water consumption, polluted wastewater, and inefficient use of energy. To reduce environmental impacts, researchers propose the use of dyes from natural sources. The purpose of using these is to impart new attributes to textiles without compromising on environmental sustainability. The attributes given to the textile can be color and/or other characteristics. A drawback however, is that the use of bio-sourced dyes is not free from environmental concerns. Thus, it becomes paramount to assess the environmental impacts from using them and improve the environmental profile, but studies on this topic are generally absent.

    The research presented in this thesis has included environmental impact assessment, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) tool, in the design process of a multifunctional polyester (PET) fabric using natural anthraquinones. By doing so an eco-design approach has been applied, with the intention to pave the way towards eco-sustainable bio-functionalization of textiles.

    The anthraquinones were obtained from the root extracts of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L.), referred to as madder dye. The research questions were therefore formulated related to the use of madder dye. Three research questions have been answered: (I) Can madder dye serve as a multifunctional species onto a PET woven fabric? (II) How does the environmental profile of the dyeing process of PET with madder dye look like, and how can it be improved? (III) What are the main challenges in using LCA to assess the environmental impacts of textile dyeing with plant-based dyes?

    It is concluded that there is a potential for the madder dye to serve as a multifunctional species onto PET. Based on the encouraging result, a recommendation for future work would be to focus on the durability of the functionalities presented and their improvement potential, both in exhaustion dyeing and pad-dyeing. LCA driven process optimization of the exhaustion dyeing enabled improvement in every impact category studied. However, several challenges have been identified which need to be overcome for the LCA to contribute to the sustainable use of multifunctional plant-based species in textile dyeing. The main challenges are the lack of available data at the research stage and the interdisciplinary nature of the research arena. It is envisaged that if these challenges are addressed, LCA can contribute towards sustainable bio-functionalization of textiles. 

  • 4.
    Artur, Cavaco-Paulo
    et al.
    University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
    Nierstrasz, VincentUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.Wang, QiangJiangnan University, Wuxi, China.
    Advances in Textile Biotechnology 2nd Edition2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Description

    Advances in Textile Biotechnology, Second Edition examines the latest in biotechnology for the fiber and textile industry. This new edition has been fully revised to include the current essential areas of development in the field, covering both natural and synthetic fibers. Chapters cover the latest technology in bioprocessing for bast fiber, PVA, polyester, wool and silk before exploring issues of enzyme stability. Essential areas of application and development are then considered, including biomedical textiles, silk materials for biotechnological applications, bacterial cellulose, the ink jetting of enzymes, and the role of enzymes, wool and silk fibers.

    Containing groundbreaking research, this book will be essential reading for manufacturers, designers and engineers in the textiles industry, textile and fiber scientists, and academic researchers and postgraduate students working in the area of textile technology.

    Key Features

    • Provides a thorough overview of current and future focuses of biotechnology in the fiber and textile industry
    • Presents fully revised content, with a new focus on biosynthesis and bioprocessing for novel textile fibers, both synthetic and natural
    • Enables readers to understand and utilize the benefits of biotechnology for the manufacture and production of textiles

    Readership

    Textile manufacturers, designers and engineers in the textile industry; textile and fibre scientists; academic researchers and postgraduate students in textile technology; experts in the biology, chemical and environmental engineering industries

  • 5.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of eco-friendly flame retardant polypropylene fibers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska filament: från garn till textil applikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric materials are frequently used in different sensors as they can generate a measurable electrical signal during applied pressure or when subjected to extension. This project examines how a piezoelectric yarn containing Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is affected when exposed to moisture, heat and long-term mechanical deformation. Focus has been directed towards investigating the properties of the piezoelectric yarn as well as how it can be applied in textile fabrics and textile applications. The piezoelectric yarn has been subjected to a series of tests. Most of the samples have undergone cyclic deformation in an extensometer during tests. The piezoelectric yarn has been examined by experiments in laboratory environment, practical tests in textile applications as well as by statistical analysis. It can be stated that factors such as moisture and temperature have influence on the piezoelectric effect of the yarn. Long-term tests reveal how the yarn displays a change in length while undergoing deformation, which contributes to the diminished signal strength of the yarn. The piezoelectric yarn can successfully be integrated in a piece of fabric by the means of sewing when using correct stitch- length, where higher stitch-length gives a higher signal output. The same method can be applied to construct a piezoelectric sensor used in a training sock. This project can conclude that parameters such as moisture, creep-behaviour and structural variation within the PVDF-filaments have a significant effect on the signal created by the piezoelectric yarn. The potential of the yarn as a sensor can be seen by successfully applying it to a textile structure as well as in a training sock that can monitor the fore and rear foot while running. It can be stated that much remains to be studied in this particular research area regarding piezoelectric filaments and yarns. Further research in the subject will lead to new innovative applications that can be of use in different parts of society, not to say the least in the area of medicine.

  • 7.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska strumpor för rörelsemonitorering - En känslighetsanalys2015In: Abstracts - Medicinteknikdagarna 2015, Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of thermoplastic biocomposites based on aligned hybrid yarns for fast composite manufacturing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in natural fibres as reinforcement for composite materials has been steadily increasing due to their attractive mechanical properties and the possibility of making more eco-friendly materials. Currently, various alternatives are being introduced for commercial applications, as fibres such as hemp, jute and flax exhibit properties, which make them appropriate for structural composite components. Biocomposites offer reductions in weight and cost and have less reliance on foreign oil resources, making them attractive. Several investigations have revealed that the full utilisation of fibre mechanical properties in the final composites can be exploited, provided an aligned fibre orientation is chosen. In fact, a major challenge for natural fibre reinforced composites is to achieve high mechanical performance at competitive prices. The use of commingled/hybrid yarns is one of the more promising methods for manufacturing structural thermoplastic composites.

    Commingled yarns of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres offer a potential for cost-effective production of composite parts, thanks to reduced applied pressures and impregnation times during processing. Besides economic advantages, there is also direct control over fibre placements and ease of handling of fibres in yarn process. The yarn technologies provide homogenous distribution of reinforcing fibre and matrix. Variation in natural fibre properties has been a major problem facing composite manufacturers, compared to carbon and glass fibres that have well-defined production processes. This issue can be addressed by regenerated cellulose fibres. These fibres can be reproduced easily with high surface evenness and even quality, making it possible to get consistent results, which is not possible with natural fibres. Combination of natural and regenerated cellulose fibre brings together the best of both materials. The end result is a product with superior properties, which could not be obtained by the individual components.

    This thesis describes the development of aligned hybrid yarns with low fibre twist, for high performance natural (hemp) and man-made (Lyocell) cellulose fibre-reinforced biocomposites, suitable for use in structural or semi-structural applications. The properties of composites in terms of fibre orientation, off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated, focusing on determining void%, water absorption, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties. The results show that combining hemp and Lyocell in PLA composite leads to the reduction of moisture absorption and can improve the mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composites were highly affected by the fibre direction. The alkali treatment on hemp fibre improved the mechanical properties of the composites.

  • 9.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strength electrically conductive fibers: functionalization of polyamide, aramid and polyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 310-318, article id 10.1002/pat.4116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

  • 10.
    Berggren Torell, Viveka
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    "It must be a little more close fitting...: On football clothes' contributions to constructions of femininity2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Berggren Torell, Viveka
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Knuts, Eva
    Soft, colorful and unique2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Infirri, Rosalinda Sardo
    Hagman, Susanna
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    An assistive sleeping bag for children with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Fashion and Textiles, ISSN 2198-0802, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children suffering from autism spectrum disorder are often reported to encounter sleeping disorder several causes such as hypersensitivity as a result of irregular brain and muscle functions. Disturbance in sleep affects not only their health but also daytime activities including the risk of other cognitive and behavioral impairments. Such hindrance in sleep has been demonstrated to treat therapeutically by measures like the application of deep pressure touch and full body vibration which can be beneficially integrated into the sleeping environment such as on the textile-based platform around the bed. With such a vision, this pilot design project aimed to develop a smart textile based sleeping bag incorporated with sensors to detect awakening stage of the child and thereby actuating stimuli for assuaging the child to fall asleep. To serve the purpose, a micro-controllable body movement detection sensor, based on conductive yarns connected to a vibrating motor was prosperously embedded at the interior of the sleeping bag along with weighted slots to exert deep touch and soothing sensation in the form of wearable technology.

  • 13.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjetting of Enzymes: Chapter 122019In: Advance in Textile Biotechnology 2nd edition / [ed] Artur Cavaco-Paulo, Vincent Nierstrasz, Qiang Wang, Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Björk, Annika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inse mitt värde och behåll mig en stund till: Ett undersökande projekt i hållbar textildesign2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recognise my value and keep me a while longer is an exploratory project in sustainable textile design. The focus is to explore possible design solutions that can give products a property transformation over time and prolong the products life cycle. This through practical investigations with different materials based on a chosen approach to sustainable design and changeable pattern images. Also with aim to give the consumer an active role in the changing of a products appearance and function. The end result is three product prototypes that all in different ways exemplify the chosen approach to sustainable design. 1. Moss is a jumper made of circular knitted jacquard fabric with the material combination Sally Fox cotton and unbleached cotton. The fabric is conformable and soft with a pattern that changes hue strength for each time the consumer washes it. The changing pattern makes the jumper interesting because it´s expression changes slowly while it´s being used. 2. Cone is a duvet and pillow cover that is made of a five shed satin jacquard weave. The textile pattern and colour is inverted on the back and front side of the textile. The aesthetic expression of the bed clothing can be renewed by the consumer through vegetable dyes. 3. Bark is a flat knitted, dubble relief, jacquard wool blanket. The blanket can be transformed by the consumer, through washing, and then get a new function as a rug. The textile goes from a soft, two-dimensional, flexible and somewhat fragile textile into a compact, three-dimensional durable textile.

  • 15.
    Bredies, Katharina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Universität der Künste Berlin.
    Explorations on Textile Electronics2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In electronic textiles, we apply production techniques from both textiles and electronic engineering to bridge the gap between these two very different materials. While it is obvious to apply electronic engineering to textiles to ensure the working of the electronic components, the application of textile production techniques to electronics is still challenging. Yet it is in the appropriation of textile manufacturing that there is a huge potential for innovation. This potential does not only cover the means of production, but also the way we interact with digital interfaces as well as the overall aesthetic of those interfaces.

    This report documents the application of textile production techniques for sensing and actuation in e-textile structures and artifacts. It shows how weaving and knitting on industrial machines can be used to design and build electronic elements in a textile shape, such as pressure sensors, speaker coils and shape change structures. The report also documents the application of those techniques in two different prototypes, the first being a sensor glove that was used for gesture recognition, and the second being woven textile muscle that was developed as the basis for a soft textile robot.

     

  • 16.
    Cheng, Jingyuan
    et al.
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
    Zhou, Bo
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
    Lukowicz, Paul
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet.
    Varga, Matija
    ETH Zurich.
    Mehmann, Andreas
    ETH Zurich.
    Chabrecek, Peter
    SEFAR AG.
    Gaschler, Werner
    SEFAR AG.
    Goenner, Karl
    ITV Denkendorf.
    Horter, Hansjürgen
    ITV Denkendorf.
    Schneegass, Stefan
    Hassib, Mariam
    University of Stuttgart.
    Schmidt, Albrecht
    University of Stuttgart.
    Freund, Martin
    University of Passau.
    Zhang, Rui
    University of Passau.
    Amft, Oliver
    University of Passau.
    Textile Building Blocks:Toward Simple, Modularized, and Standardized Smart Textile2017In: Smart Textiles: Fundamentals, Design, and Interaction, Springer, Cham , 2017, p. 303-331Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles are pervasive in our life, covering human body and objects, as well as serving in industrial applications. In its everyday use of individuals, smart textile becomes a promising medium for monitoring, information retrieval, and interaction. While there are many applications in sport, health care, and industry, the state-of-the-art smart textile is still found only in niche markets. To gain mass-market capabilities, we see the necessity of generalizing and modularizing smart textile production and application development, which on the one end lowers the production cost and on the other end enables easy deployment. In this chapter, we demonstrate our initial effort in modularization. By devising types of universal sensing fabrics for conductive and non-conductive patches, smart textile construction from basic, reusable components can be made. Using the fabric blocks, we present four types of sensing modalities, including resistive pressure, capacitive, bioimpedance, and biopotential. In addition, we present a multi-channel textile–electronics interface and various applications built on the top of the basic building blocks by ‘cut and sew’ principle.

  • 17.
    Christoffersson, Astrid
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hammarlund, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    PIEZOELEKTRISK TRYCKSENSOR: En undersökning om textil struktur och piezoelektricitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to create a sensor in textile material which can register and recognize different kinds of pressure. A suitable method has been developed in order to scientifically investigate and evaluate the sensitivity of the prototypes. The prototypes have been produced with a computerized hand weave machine and the materials used were polyester and piezoelectric PVDF-fiber, twisted with a conductive yarn, Shieldex®. When a force is applied to the PVDF-fiber, causing an extension of the fiber, a voltage is generated directly related to the applied force. The final prototype is a woven textile with integrated monofilaments and weft inserted in seven different layers to create a voluminous structure. An extension by the PVDF-fiber is there by enabled to occur which is related to the force applied onto the structure.

    Three equable prototypes were produced, each consisting four separated PVDF-fibers which were inserted with a distance of 1, 5 cm from each other. The prototypes were further attached one by one on a homemade ramp and the PVDF- and Shieldex®-fibers were connected to an oscilloscope. Different weights were then rolled from the top of the ramp, generating a voltage each time it pressures a fiber, which were seen on the computer software of the oscilloscope. The results were afterwards analyzed and evaluated using Excel.

    A clear relationship between applied force and generated voltage is shown although there is a great variety among the test results on each weight along with large standard deviations. The exact weight generating a specific voltage is therefore difficult to determine.

  • 18. Ciera, L.
    et al.
    Beladjal, L.
    Almeras, X.
    Gheysens, T.
    Mertens, J.
    Nierstrasz, V.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, L.
    A model system to study resistance of biological compounds to melt extrusion process parameters.2013In: Proceedings of the 13th AUTEX World Textile  Conference, Dresden, Germany May 22-24  2013., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Dixdotter, Maja
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    vemod(en): -A tribute to the perfect error.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this collection I have explored the paradox of perfection. The collection is an epic tribute to my prior self and discovers how the unperfect can be transformed to something, perceived, perfect. I flirt with my past obsessions in finding mathematically measured legs, exact tailored arms and perfectly fitted stockings. In a fun, poetic and melancholy way I invite the viewer on a highly visual voyage to my childhood where the obsession of finding costume perfection "Vemoden" the act of control becomes visual through statuesque frozen looks, where the previous unperfect becomes perfection.

  • 20.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Relational Textiles2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between technology and the expression of form have always been interconnected in the architectural design process; associating the art of envisioning spaces with the craft of materializing them. Recently in terms of surface fabrication, computational tools of representation and material fabrication opened for architectural design new possibilities to explore novel spatial expressions. Surface design processes in architecture start to borrow from the logic of representation of different non-hierarchical structures, e.g., biological systems or textile construction techniques. Relating to that, the present fascination of textiles in architectural design relies on this specific way of building surface design as non-hierarchical form, and by that, allowing the designer to play with the depth of the surface design at micro and macro levels. Exploring different relations between digital and physical through textiles expressions, this research reassess static principles of form–marking the turn from static to relational principles. Thus, the intention is to describe how the character of the textiles and computation as design material redefines the notion of space trough surface aesthetics merging the digital to the physical, and how spatiality can be questioned through textile and interaction aesthetics. Using practice-based research methodology, this research opens and explores this design space by relating theory and practice; it questions and reframes fundamental concepts of expression and scale in architecture by proposing methods for surface design, and a specific language to describe textile architectural aesthetics.

  • 21.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lundstedt, Lotta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Satomi, Mika
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Repetition: interactive expressions of pattern translation2012In: Proceedings The Art of Research 2012, The art of research 2012 Making, Reflecting and understading, 28-29 November 2012 at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture Helsinki, Finland, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a way of opening a space where methods from the fields of fashion design, textile design and interaction design overlap, the project Repetition intersects different methodologies through practice-based research in design. Experiments were conducted to explore ways of creating relationships between body and space by means of translating information as pattern design between garments and interactive knitted walls. By arranging a startup performance, we reflected on the expressional variables that influence the expression of the pattern translations; variables concerning the garments, the walls, the print and the movements were illustrated by the expressions found. The result formulates specific descriptions regarding accuracy and distribution of pattern translation, illustrating basic concepts of pattern formations identified in visual changes appearing in the garment. By communicating our understanding of basic expressions, Repetition aims to formulate a new framework for collaborative work as a method for further design.

  • 22.
    Dural-Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wessman, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Husmark, Ulrika
    SCA Hygiene Products AB.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biocontrol of solid surfaces in hospitals using microbial-based wipes2019In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hospital-acquired infections have become a major challenge which threaten the hospitalized patients’ safety. The presence of nosocomial pathogens is generally reported in connection with solid surfaces near patient environments. These surfaces become significant sources of transmission and lead most often to the contamination and cross-contamination of nosocomial pathogens to the patients and staff. This paper investigates strategies to apply beneficial bacteria on viscose-based nonwoven wipes and the viability of these beneficial bacteria on the wipes along with characterization of the physical properties of the wipes. Major findings include that it is possible to produce dry wipes which contain an adequate number of beneficial bacteria or spores. After these wipes are wetted, they can release a certain number of bacteria from the wetted wipes. These released beneficial bacteria can inhibit pathogens by growing and colonizing on the wiped surfaces.

  • 23.
    Eneh, Sandra
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Showroom the Future of Online Fashion Retailing 2.0: Enhancing the online shopping experience2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following have been rectified in response to previous evaluation by examiner Olof Bruninge. -We have solely chosen qualitative methods in data collection and analysis by making use of data gathered from focus group workshop. The findings have been coded and analysed descriptively. -We have reformulated research questions and replaced the hypothesis with open questions. Allowing us to explore the participants’ behaviour rather than testing hypothesis. -All quantitative measures have been replaced with qualitative analysis and descriptions. -We have provided tables with results from focus group findings to increase transparency in our data

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Siw
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. MedTech West.
    Three-dimensional Fabrics as Medical Textiles2015In: Advances in 3D Textiles: A volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles / [ed] X. Chen, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 305-340Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of 3D textile applications in medicine is rapidly increasing as new technology and procedures are introduced in health care.  A first estimate of current medical applications of both general and 3D textiles is presented based on the medical devices classification system established by the US Food and Drug Administration. The textile specifics for these applications are covered from a textile technique perspective where the different 3D weaving as well as knitting, braiding and non-woven techniques are described and how their properties they can contribute in medical applications. In addition, emerging opportunities based on smart textiles as part of textile systems are described on a general level. The strong application areas of 3D medical textiles, i.e. wound management, vascular grafting and scaffolding for tissue engineering are covered in detail both from the medical and textiles perspective. Finally, some future lines of development are suggested and a short discussion on how new 3D textiles applications can be developed in close cooperation between the textile industry and the health care sector is presented.

  • 25.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Campagne, Christine
    Zeng, Xianyi
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Guan, Jinping
    Chen, Yan
    Correlation between heat transfer of polyester textiles and its adhesion with 3D-printed extruded thermoplastic filaments2018In: 18th AUTEX World Textile Conference, June 20-22, 2018, Istanbul, Turkey / [ed] IOP publishers, 2018, p. 118-121, article id 3132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FDM technology used for printing functionalized layers on textiles brought new challenges such as the understanding and the improvement of the adhesion performance of the thermoplastic filaments on synthetic textile materials. In addition to the impact of printing parameters, the correlation between the heat transfer and structure of the textile material and the adhesion performance after varying printer platform temperature was an important parameter considered in this paper. A factorial design, using material density, direction, and structure and platform temperature as factors, was followed. 3D-printed materials made of PLA filaments deposited on polyester woven and knit materials were manufactured on a dual-head printer and their adhesion was measured according to DIN EN ISO 13937-2 and ISO 11339 and the heat transfer of the fabrics according to ASTM D4966-98, ISO 6330 and ISO 22007-2. The findings showed that the heat transfer and structure of textile materials affect the adhesion properties of the 3D-printed material.

  • 26.
    Guo, Li
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Smart textiles .
    Eriksson, Siw
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    3D Composite Textile Characteristics Relevant in Pressure Ulcer Management2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Effective ulcer management requires the wound to be in a moist but still breathable environment, to facilitate healing, absorb exudates and prevent maceration. One of the applicable methods to achieve this is the use of composite dressings. Most composite dressings are made of three layers to provide absorption and a bacterial barrier in a non- or semi-adherent cover. Various common textile materials such as cotton, polyester, polypropylene and cellulose can be used as different layers in those wound dressings. In addition to these established dressings, electrical stimulation therapy may be used in treating ulcers. It has been reported that electrical stimulation can reduce the area and depth of the wound in a shortened time compared to conventional treatment. In summary, encouraging wound healing results have been obtained both from using composite wound dressing and from applying of electrical stimulation. The aim of this study is to present a conceptual design based on a woven 3D structure that combines the composite wound dressing properties with electrical stimulation for pressure ulcers healing/management.

    METHOD

    In the suggested structure, different layers in X, Y and Z led were designed with different materials for different purposes.  The top layer consisting of a low-density web to provide a non-adherent layer combined with two textile electrodes made of conductive threads, the middle layer contributes pressure release and absorption of exudates, and the bottom layer next to the wound for moisture keeping while still allowing adequate ventilation.

    Two key properties were addressed in the study: pressure release and the possibility to provide electrical stimulation of the wound. Simulation with COMSOL Multiphysics was used to study pressure distribution according to Hertz contact theory. The surface resistance of the electrodes were also studied using in-house designed four-point measurement probes.

    RESULTS

    The simulation results show the composite structure to exhibit good pressure release properties. Surface resistance testing proved that the textile electrodes have resistance in the magnitude of 102 indicating that textile electrodes can be used for electrical stimulation in ulcers healing.

    The first results from this study demonstrate the feasibility to design a textile system combining established composite dressings solutions with means for electrical stimulation based on 3D weaving technique to be applied in pressure ulcer healing. 

  • 27.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    FDM 3D printing of conductive polymer nanocomposites: A novel process for functional and smart textiles2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to get the benefitof functionalities of fused deposition modeling(FDM) 3D printed conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPC) for the developmentof functional and smart textiles. 3D printing holds strong potential for the formation of a new class of multifunctional nanocomposites. Therefore, developmentand characterization of 3D printable functional polymers and nanocomposites areneeded to apply 3D printing as a novel process for the depositionof functional materials on fabrics. This method will introduce more flexible, resource-efficient and cost-effectivetextile functionalization processes than conventional printing process like screen and inkjet printing. The goal is to develop an integrated or tailored production process for smart and functional textiles which avoid unnecessary use of water, energy, chemicals and minimize the waste to improve ecological footprint and productivity.

    The contribution of this thesis is the creation and characterization of 3D printable CPC filaments, deposition of polymers and nanocomposites on fabrics, and investigation of the performance of the 3D printed CPC layers in terms of functionality. Firstly, the 3D printable CPC filaments were created including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and high-structured carbon black (Ketjenblack) (KB) incorporated into a biobased polymer, polylactic acid (PLA), using a melt mixing process. The morphological, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the 3D printer filaments and 3D printed layers were investigated. Secondly, the performance of the 3D printed CPC layers was analyzed under applied tension and compression force. The response for the corresponding resistance change versus applied load was characterized to investigate the performance of the printed layers in terms of functionality. Lastly, the polymers and nanocomposites were deposited on fabrics using 3D printing and the adhesion of the deposited layers onto the fabrics were investigated.

    The results showed that PLA-based nanocomposites including MWNT and KB are 3D printable. The changes in morphological, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of nanocomposites before and after 3D printing give us a great understandingofthe process optimization. Moreover, the results demonstrate PLA/MWNT and PLA/KB as a good piezoresistive feedstock for 3D printing with potential applications in wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics, where complex design, multi-directionality, and customizability are demanded. Finally, different variables of the 3Dprinting process showed a significanteffect on adhesion force of deposited polymers and nanocomposites onto fabrics which has been presented by the best-fittedmodel for the specific polymer and fabric.

  • 28.
    Hatamvand, Mohammad
    et al.
    Yazd University.
    Abbas Mirjalili, Seyed
    Yazd University.
    Fattahi, Saeid
    Yazd University.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Yazd University.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Optimum Drafting Conditions of Polyester and Viscose Blend Yarns2017In: AUTEX Research Journal, ISSN 1470-9589, E-ISSN 2300-0929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the  influence of the total draft, break draft, distance between the aprons (Clips) and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum drafting conditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV) blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex × 38 mm long) and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long) to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%)/CV (30%) blend ratio. When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controlling and leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a high quality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained under drafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure of the production top roller (18daN).

  • 29.
    Huang, Meiyuan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Guu, Annie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A study of consumer perception of a Chinese luxury fashion apparel brand in Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates consumer perceptions of a Chinese luxury fashion brand in Sweden. The impact of nation brand image in terms of consumer buying behaviour and perception is examined by performing a case study of Shanghai Tang, comparing it to the American luxury fashion brand Ralph Lauren through the brands’ country of origin and brand history. Then a questionnaire is developed to analyse the luxury consumers’ perception of the Chinese brand Shanghai Tang and calculate the probability of customers purchasing luxury goods by Shanghai Tang. Finally, the future of Chinese luxury in Sweden will be discussed through an in-depth interview.

  • 30.
    Huniade, Claude
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mulder, Roos
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Milad, Asadi Miankafshe
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Disposable, green smart textiles based on conductive graphite fibres2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles, a part of the present boom of wearables, is at the risk of being a newenvironmental problem as many axioms of sustainability are violated here, that of driving(mass) consumption, mixing of components of different material origin and no obvious wastehandling system when used and worn out. Smartness has been synonymous with integration ofelectronic conductivity functionality, typically realised by metal wires. Carbon allomorphsshowing low electrical resistivity might be an environmental friendly alternative.

    Here we report on attempts with simple conductive graphite systems from which we makeconductive textile fibres, the production of which could be up-scaled to industrial volumes.Coating textile bulk fibers as polyester, polyamide, wool and cellulose based regenerate onesrather than (melt/wet) spinning new fibers, the mechanical properties are sustained makingthem processable within existing textile processes infrastructure.

    Several different graphite compositions and different yarn topologies are compared. Twisting isshown to greatly increase the overall yarn conductance. Fabrics are manufactured with thegraphite yarns in the double role of being structural as well as functional. Furthermore, analphabet of fundamental electrical circuitry elements are demonstrated; conductor, capacitor,inductor. The devices are consisting of non-toxic components that are disposable andcompostable; showing the benefits of carbon based soft electronics.

  • 31.
    Imtiaz, Asaad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Business Expansion of Apparel Brands: Accessing opportunities in Apparel/Retail sector in Pakistan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current study aims to investigate the feasibility of international apparel and footwear retailers to expand their business in Pakistan and compete with other brands. It also highlights the business opportunities in Pakistan apparel retail sector and the motivations of international brands behind expansions. This study was conducted with the help of interviews based on diamond model of Porter, and Hofsetede cultural dimensions. The open ended questions were delivered to the professionals electronically while interviews were conducted by telephone. Seven companies from Pakistan were selected for study purpose. Data was analyzed and assessed manually. The study revealed that there is a significant opportunity for international apparel retailers to launch their retail outlets in Pakistan along with some risks. International brands which are financially strong can tackle these risks. However it was concluded that the companies with less financial strength may find it difficult to go in a new market within 5 years. UK brands are already there and brands from other countries are also opening. Overall Pakistan retail sector is growing and people are becoming fashion conscious. This study provides information to International apparel brands which they can take into consideration while entering Pakistan's apparel retail market. It also gives an opportunity for assessment of market in the light of theoretical modules and shows a direction of getting better market share by launching.

  • 32.
    IYER, SWETA
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Photoluminescent textile using biobased riboflavin derivative (FMN)2018In: 18th AUTEX World Textile Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2018, p. 1-4, article id 3471Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Riboflavin derivative such as Flavin mononucleotide possesses distinctive biological and physicochemical properties such as photosensitivity, redox activity and fluorescence. Flavin mononucleotide widely known as FMN is a biomolecule having molecular formula as C17H20N4NaO9P and is produced from biobased riboflavin by enzymatic reaction in living organisms. In contrast to riboflavin which is sparingly soluble in water, FMN is highly water soluble due to the presence of an ionic phosphate group. The presence of isoalloxazine ring in FMN is responsible for its properties such as UV absorption and fluorescence. This study evaluates the potential use of Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for production of photoluminescent textile.

  • 33.
    Jiong, Sun
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet.
    Zhou, Bo
    DFKI.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hemeren, Paul
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Categories of touch: Classifying human touch using a soft tactile sensor2017In: The robotic sense of touch: From sensing to understanding, workshop at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 29 May, Singapore., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Johansson, Evelina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kommunikation genom plaggskisser: En studie kring skisskommunikation mellan beställare och leverantör2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study that investigates how the communication in the developing process of a garment can be developed between a distributor and a supplier. The purpose is to investigate how large part of the quality assured and processed sketches can help improve the communicational issues and minimize the number of samples that are being transported between the buyer and the factory causing delays due to large distances. The study has been carried out in collaboration with a company that has been job initiator for the subject of the thesis. The main area in the method are based on a quality improving process to discover what a supplier as well as a distributor consider to be a distinct sketch. By using a survey as a data collection method, an evaluation of the fashion company`s sketches have been exercised. To reassure the quality of the sketches within the company and to investigate whether this can cause minor misunderstandings within the production department. In this study outlines of the inside of a blazer have been the focus as the company recently has experienced issues with these parts in the production of prototypes. The result is based on a comparison between two blazer prototypes that the factory has sent to the company as a first suggestion to manufacture the blazer. The conclusion highlights and evaluates the level of importance of the quality assured sketches versus the non-assured ones, and whether these are essential for the company`s desired quality and standard of the item or not. Thus, the conclusion also covers a discussion around how to fulfill the desired quality and standards of a blazer for the fashion company in question.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Repeated Stories: exploring storytelling for children in surface pattern design2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Repeated Stories is an exploratory project in textile design where the aim is to explore the design of storytelling patterns addressed to children. More precisely, the work examines how patterns can be designed as a tool to encourage curiosity and creativity among children. The work is practice-based, building on concrete experiments with a workshop character, where combinations of textile material, colour, printing techniques and scale are explored. The primary motive for this work is to take advantage of textile design expertise in a social context, to find new areas for competence in making repeats and patterns, and how a social value can be added to patterns. The result is an installation of three hanging textiles, meant for a public space, such as waiting room in a hospital. The work proposes an alternative approach to surface patterns by adding storytelling and give the patterns both a communicative and decorative function.

  • 36.
    Kadi, Nawar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Holmudd, Olle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karnoub, Amer
    University of Aleppo.
    The Effect of Warp Tension on the Colour of Jacquard Fabric2017In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, Vol. 254, article id 082014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this paper is to demonstrate the effect of warp tension on fabric colour for several types of weaves structures, and found a relationship between them. The image analyse technique used to determine the proportion of yarns colour appearance, the advantage of this techniques is the rapidity and reliability. The woven fabric samples are consisting of a polyester warp yarn with continuous filaments and density of 33 end/cm, a polypropylene weft yarn with a density of 24 pick/cm, and the warp tension ranged between 12-22 cN/tex. The experimental results demonstrated the effect of the warp tension on the colour of fabric, and this effect is related to several factors, where the large proportion of warp appearance leads to larger effect on fabric colour. The difference in the value of colour differences ΔEcmc is larger is in the range 16 to 20 cN/tex of warp tension. Using statistical methods, a mathematical model to calculate the amount of the colour difference ΔEcmc caused by the change in warp tension had been proposed.

  • 37.
    Kahoush, May
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Bio-functionalization of conductive textile materials with redox enzymes2017In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, Vol. 254, article id 112002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, immobilization of oxidoreductase enzymes on electrically conductive materials has played an important role in the development of sustainable bio-technologies. Immobilization process allows the re-use of these bio-catalysts in their final applications.

    In this study, different methods of immobilizing redox enzymes on conductive textile materials were used to produce bio-functionalized electrodes. These electrodes can be used for bio-processes and bio-sensing in eco-designed applications in domains such as medicine and pollution control.

    However, the main challenge facing the stability and durability of these electrodes is the maintenance of the enzymatic activity after the immobilization. Hence, preventing the enzyme’s denaturation and leaching is a critical factor for the success of the immobilization processes. 

  • 38.
    Kapur, Jyoti
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Smells: olfactive dimension in designing textile architecture2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing with non-visual attributes challenges ways of representation. This research explores methods for designing with invisible materiality within the research practice, as well as ways of representation through textiles when designing spaces. Exploring textiles and smells within a space, the research program investigates spatial interactions.

    This research focuses on designing embodied experiences using tangible materials as expressions of smells. Through the spatial installations and performances Sight of smell, Touch of smell, and Smell, space, and body movement, haptics were explored as one of the methods of interaction with smells through textiles.

    Through the sense of touch, this research also investigates ways of revealing, activating, and disseminating smells within a space. Smells were purposely added through the methods of dyeing, coating, and printing to the textile materials that did not inherently embody any smells, As a result, tactile surfaces create non-visual expressions of smell. Further ideas of research in this area would explore another perspective of designing with smells in spaces. As an example, by designing textiles being smell absorbers, dividers, and re ectors, could compliment the spatial concepts and deals with the already existing smells in a living environment.

    In this licentiate thesis thinking through the olfactive dimension to design textiles is not only novel for the textile design eld; but also, its proposal for application in the spatial design is quite unique, and o ers a new dimension for spatial design. 

  • 39.
    Karnoub, Amer
    et al.
    Aleppo University, Syria.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Azari, Zitouni
    ENIM, France.
    Using the expert system to analyze loom performance2017In: Journal of the Textile Institute, ISSN 0040-5000, E-ISSN 1754-2340, Vol. 108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kuzhanthaivelu, Gauthaman
    Bohlén, Martin
    Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Waste Management Option for Bioplastics Alongside Conventional Plastics2019In: IRC 2019 International Research Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics can be defined as polymers derived partly or completely from biomass. Bioplastics can be biodegradable such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA); or non-biodegradable (biobased polyethylene (bio-PE), polypropylene (bio-PP), polyethylene terephthalate (bio-PET)). The usage of such bioplastics is expected to increase in the future due to new found interest in sustainable materials. At the same time, these plastics become a new type of waste in the recycling stream. Most countries do not have separate bioplastics collection for it to be recycled or composted. After a brief introduction of bioplastics such as PLA in UK, these plastics are once again replaced by conventional plastics by many establishments due to lack of commercial composting. Recycling companies fear the contamination of conventional plastic in the recycling stream and they said they would have to invest in expensive new equipment to separate bioplastics and recycle it separately. Bioplastics are seen as a threat to the recycling industry as bioplastics may degrade during the mechanical recycling process and the properties of the recycled plastics are seriously impacted. This project studies what happens when bioplastics contaminate conventional plastics.

    Three commonly used conventional plastics were selected for this study: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In order to simulate contamination, two biopolymers, either polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) or thermoplastic starch (TPS) were blended with the conventional polymers. The amount of bioplastics in conventional plastics was either 1% or 5%. The blended plastics were processed again to see the effect of degradation. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of these plastics were characterized.

     

    The results from contamination showed that the tensile strength and the modulus of PE was almost unaffected whereas the elongation is clearly reduced indicating the increase in brittleness of the plastic. Generally, it can be said that PP is slightly more sensitive to the contamination than PE. This can be explained by the fact that the melting point of PP is higher than for PE and as a consequence, the biopolymer will degrade more quickly. However, the reduction of the tensile properties for PP is relatively modest. It is also important to notice that when plastics are recovered, there will always be a contamination that will reduce the material properties. The reduction of the tensile properties is not necessary larger than if a non-biodegradable polymer would have contaminated PE or PP. The Charpy impact strength is generally a more sensitive test method towards contamination. Again, PE is relatively unaffected by the contamination but for PP there is a relatively large reduction of the impact properties already at 1% contamination.

    PET is polyester and it is by its very nature more sensitive to degradation than PE and PP. PET also have a much higher melting point than PE and PP and as a consequence the biopolymer will quickly degrade at the processing temperature of PET. As for the tensile strength, PET can tolerate 1% contamination without any reduction of the tensile strength. However, when the impact strength is examined, it is clear that already at 1% contamination, there is a strong reduction of the properties. It can also be seen that presence of TPS is more detrimental to PET than PHA is. This can be explained by the fact that TPS contain reactive hydroxyl groups that can react with the ester bond of PET. This will in other words lead to degradation of PET.

    The thermal properties show the change in the crystallinity. As a general conclusion, it can be said that the plastics become less crystalline when contaminated. The blends were also characterized by SEM. Biphasic morphology can be seen as the two polymers are not truly blendable which also contributes to reduced mechanical properties. Recycling of the contaminated polymer shows an increase in crystallinity. This means that when the polymers are processed, polymer degradation occur causing the polymer chains to gradually become shorter which will enhance the crystallization process.

    The study shows that PE is relatively robust againt contamination, while polypropylene (PP) is somewhat more sensitive and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be quite sensitive towards contamination.

  • 41.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Periyasamy, Aravin Prince
    Technical University Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    Lavate, Saatish Siddappa
    DKTE’s Textile Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, India.
    Eco-friendly Denim Processing2018In: Handbook of Ecomaterials / [ed] Leticia Myriam Torres Martínez, Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The denim sector is booming worldwide, because of the spread of denim culture. All over the world it has brought with it a trend of fast-changing fashion. Denim washing has emerged as one of the important production routes toward meeting the fast-changing demands of the fashion market. There are huge ecological concerns, as this sector is enormous. Approximately 1500 gallons of water is needed to produce 1.5 pounds of cotton to make one pair of jeans. If this continues, soon it will pose a serious problem to drinking water supplies. It is therefore important to study the environmental impact of denim and find alternative processes. This chapter starts by describing the different types of denim washing techniques. In addition, it discusses the environmental impact of denim dry and wet washing techniques, and the importance of environmentally friendly washing techniques. It also describes the latest denim finishing technologies, comparing their impacts on the environment with those of the classic techniques. Further, the environmental aspects of auxiliaries and washing chemicals are reviewed, followed by a discussion of garment washing and finishing processes.

  • 42.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Periyasamy, Aravin Prince
    Technical University of Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    Rwawiire, Samson
    Busitema University, Tororo, Uganda.
    Zhao, Yan
    Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China.
    Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Methods for Textile Industry2018In: Sustainable Innovations in Apparel Production / [ed] Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Singapore: Springer Publishing Company, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All over the world, environmental considerations are now becoming vital factors during the selection of consumer goods which include textiles. According to the World Bank, 20% of water pollution globally is caused by textile processing, which means that these industries produce vast amounts of wastewater. Generally, these effluents contain high levels of suspended solids (SS), phosphates, dyes, salts, organo-pesticides, non-biodegradable organics, and heavy metals. Increase in water scarcity and environmental regulations has led to textile industries to seek for sustainable wastewater treatment methods which help to reduce their water footprint as well as reduce their operational costs. Therefore, sustainable wastewater treatment could be the best choice for the textile industries with respect to the current issues. So, it is important to discuss and champion awareness mechanisms which help to reduce the current issues with respect to the textile wastewater. Therefore, this chapter intends to discuss the various sustainable wastewater treatments, namely granular activated carbon (GAC), electrocoagulation (EC), ultrasonic treatment, an advanced oxidation process (AOP), ozonation, membrane biological reactor (MBR), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

  • 43.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Rainosalo, Egidija
    Centria University of Applied Sciences.
    Thomas, Selvin
    Yanbu Industrial College and Advanced Materials Laboratory.
    Zavasnik, Janez
    Jožef Stefan Institute.
    Vuorinen, Jyrki
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Mechanical, thermal, and burning properties of viscose fabric composites: Influence of epoxy resin modification2018In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 135, no 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of epoxy resin modification by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on various properties of warp knitted viscose fabric is reported in this study. Dynamic mechanical, impact resistance, flexural, thermal properties, and burning behavior of the epoxy/viscose fabric composites are studied with respect to varying content of silane coupling agent. The results obtained forAPTES-modified epoxy resin based composites reinforced with unmodified viscose fabric composites are compared to unmodified epoxy resin based composites reinforced with APTES-modified viscose fabric. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the APTES-modified resin based composites indicates improved interfacial adhesion. The composites prepared from modified epoxy resin exhibited a twofold increase in impact resistance. The improved adhesion between the fiber and modified resin was also visible from the scanning electron microscope analysis of the impact fracture surface. There was less influence of resin modification on the flexural properties of the composites. The 5% APTES modification induced early degradation of composites compared to all other compo-sites. The burning rate of all the composites under study is rated to be satisfactory for use in automotive interior applications.

  • 44.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Tampere University.
    Periyasamy, Aravin Prince
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Mechanical performance of biofibers and their corresponding composites2019In: Mechanical and Physical Testing of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites / [ed] Mohammad Jawaid, Mohamed Thariq, Naheed Saba, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on mechanical performance of biofibers such as flax, hemp, and sisal and their effect on mechanical performance when they are reinforced in thermoset and thermoplastic polymers. The aim of this chapter is to present an overview of the mechanical characterization of the biofibers and their corresponding composites. The mechanical characterization includes tensile, flexural, impact, compressive, shear, toughness, hardness, brittleness, ductility, creep, fatigue, and dynamic mechanical analyses. Detailed studies of each test have been widely reported and an overview is important to relate the studies. Studies pertaining to the topics are cited. The most common materials used in biocomposites are biofibers (also called natural fibers) and petroleum-based polymers such polypropylene. The use of renewable materials in biocomposites has increased in the past couple of decades owing to extensive research on cellulosic fibers and biopolymers based on starch or vegetable oil. Today, research is focused on reinforcing natural fibers in petroleum-based polymers. However, the emphasis is shifting toward the amount of renewable materials in biocomposites, which has led to the use of biopolymers instead of petroleum-based polymers in composites. The mechanical properties of some renewable resource-based composites are comparable to commercially available nonrenewable composites.

    Several plant biofibers have been reinforced in thermoplastics or thermosets to manufacture biocomposites because of their specific properties. The Young's modulus of commonly used biofibers such as hemp and flax could be over 50 GPa and therefore they could be good alternatives to glass fibers in several applications. The good mechanical properties of these biofibers influence the composites' mechanical performance when reinforced in polymers. It is important to understand the mechanical performance of these biofibers and biocomposites in a working environment. A detailed discussion about the mechanical performance of commonly used biofibers and composites is provided in this chapter.

  • 45.
    Kumar, Vijay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rawal, Amit
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India.
    Elastic Moduli of Electrospun Mats: Importance of Fiber Curvature and Specimen Dimensions2017In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 72, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Success of tissue engineering relies on the architecture and properties of porous scaffolds. Electrospun nonwoven scaffolds in the form of mats are unique materials due to large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, versatility in surface functionalities and excellent mechanical properties. Maneuvering the mechanical behavior ofthe electrospun mat is a major challenge both from theoretical and experimental perspectives. Herein, we report a two-dimensional (2D) analytical model of normalized elastic moduli of electrospun mats by formulating a relationship with the governing fiber and structural parameters. The analytical model of normalized mat modulush as also accounted for fiber curvature in the form of sinusoidal curve along with the specimen dimensions considered during the uniaxial tensile test. A comparison has been made between the magnitudes of normalized matmodulus obtained through predictive modeling and the experimental results adapted from the literature. In general, a good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental results of normalized moduli ofthe electrospun mats. An interplay of some of the governing parameters has been analyzed through parametric analysis. Through theoretical modeling, the normalized amplitude of fiber crimp via fiber diameter along withthe aspect ratio of specimen dimensions are observed to be the dominant factors responsible for modulating thenormalized mat modulus.

  • 46.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    Cognitiona and Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Bredies, Katharina
    Design Research Lab Berlin.
    Lund, Anja
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hemeren, Paul
    Cognition and Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    School of Engineering Science, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    kNN based Numerical Hand Posture Recognition using a Smart Textile Glove2015In: Ambient 2015: The Fifth International Conference on Ambient Computing, Applications, Services and Technologies / [ed] Maarten Weyn, 2015, p. 36-41Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Lindblad, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chu, Anny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Manifestation och implementering av CSR: En studie om hur ett mindre företag kan använda CSR som instrumentför att stärka varumärket2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka och analysera hur arbete med CSR (Corporate SocialResponsibility) och hållbarhet kan manifesteras och implementeras i ett mindre företag för attstärka företagets varumärke.

    Metod: Uppsatsen grundas i en kvalitativ metod för att eftersträva en holistisk- ochövergripande bild. Metoden är explorativ och utforskande och ger en djupare insikt ochförståelse för företagets tillvägagångssätt. Som utgångspunkt för sekundära källor harelektroniska och tryckta källor samt akademiska artiklar använts.

    Slutsats: Efter avslutade studier kan konstateras att genom företagets ståndpunkt i etik, moraloch värderingar i kombination med de praktiska handlingar de utför, manifesteras ochimplementeras CSR- och hållbarhetsarbete i verksamheten. Kundens medvetande ger styrkanoch det värdefulla i varumärket vilket leder till att dessa aktiviteter på ett omsorgsfullt ochgenuint sätt bör planeras och genomföras för att behålla och stärka företagetsvarumärkesimage.

  • 48.
    Lindström, Katarina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pretreatment of textile for a more gentle shredding process2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Utility of conditioner for reduced interfibre friction as predictor of gentler shredding2018In: Aachen-Dresden-Denkendorf International Textile Conference, Aachen, November 29-30 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sjöblom, Therése
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Decreasing Inter-Fiber Friction With Lubricants For Efficient Mechanical Recycling Of Textiles2019In: Autex 19th World Textile Conference: Textiles at the Crossroads, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the environmental burden of the textile industry and at the same time reduce textile waste, the fibers of discarded textiles can be re-used into new yarns and fabrics. The shortening of fibers during mechanical shredding direct the use of the recovered fibers to low value products. With the use of a lubricant pre-treatment on cotton and polyester fabrics, we decreased the friction during shredding. The reduction in friction was shown with a developed inter-fiber friction test. Further, the pre-treatment was shown to give longer recovered fibers and eliminate melted areas in polyester material.

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