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  • 1.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Ji, Guangchao
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Rödby, Kristian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björlin, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Östlund, Anders
    Kiwok AB.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Textile-Electronic Integration in Wearable Measurement Garments for Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Guangchao, Li
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Rödby, Kristian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    A Knitted Garment using Intarsia Technique for Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback: Evaluation of Initial Prototype.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Agnhage, Tove
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University Lille 1, France; Soochow University, China.
    Eco-designed functionalization of polyester fabric2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increased awareness of the textile dyeing and finishing sector’s high impact on the environment due to high water consumption, polluted wastewater, and inefficient use of energy. To reduce environmental impacts, researchers propose the use of dyes from natural sources. The purpose of using these is to impart new attributes to textiles without compromising on environmental sustainability. The attributes given to the textile can be color and/or other characteristics. A drawback however, is that the use of bio-sourced dyes is not free from environmental concerns. Thus, it becomes paramount to assess the environmental impacts from using them and improve the environmental profile, but studies on this topic are generally absent.

    The research presented in this thesis has included environmental impact assessment, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) tool, in the design process of a multifunctional polyester (PET) fabric using natural anthraquinones. By doing so an eco-design approach has been applied, with the intention to pave the way towards eco-sustainable bio-functionalization of textiles.

    The anthraquinones were obtained from the root extracts of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L.), referred to as madder dye. The research questions were therefore formulated related to the use of madder dye. Three research questions have been answered: (I) Can madder dye serve as a multifunctional species onto a PET woven fabric? (II) How does the environmental profile of the dyeing process of PET with madder dye look like, and how can it be improved? (III) What are the main challenges in using LCA to assess the environmental impacts of textile dyeing with plant-based dyes?

    It is concluded that there is a potential for the madder dye to serve as a multifunctional species onto PET. Based on the encouraging result, a recommendation for future work would be to focus on the durability of the functionalities presented and their improvement potential, both in exhaustion dyeing and pad-dyeing. LCA driven process optimization of the exhaustion dyeing enabled improvement in every impact category studied. However, several challenges have been identified which need to be overcome for the LCA to contribute to the sustainable use of multifunctional plant-based species in textile dyeing. The main challenges are the lack of available data at the research stage and the interdisciplinary nature of the research arena. It is envisaged that if these challenges are addressed, LCA can contribute towards sustainable bio-functionalization of textiles. 

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  • 4. Aronsson, Julia
    et al.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Tearing of post-consumer cotton T-shirts and jeans of varying degree of wear2020In: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, E-ISSN 1558-9250, Vol. 15, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for textile fibres is growing quickly. However, global cotton production has stabilized around 25 Mton/year. This is a sound development since cotton cultivation causes major sustainable development issues. Even if regenerated cellulose fibre production steadily grows, it is still only from a sixth to a fifth of cotton volumes. Hence, it is essential to find resource-efficient routes to generate alternatives to virgin cotton. There are many promising research initiatives that discover the possibility to utilize waste streams of neat cotton and cotton in fibre blends as raw materials for dissolving pulp for regeneration into, for example, viscose or Lyocell. However, there is a much simpler and energy-efficient route at hand. If fabrics are disintegrated mechanically, the separated fibres can be turned into yarn again. However, since fibre length is a key parameter to accomplish strong and durable textiles, fibre length loss upon tearing should be minimized. This study evaluates how fibre length distribution alters upon tearing of post-consumer cotton waste of two different constructions: denim and single jersey; and different degrees of wear, rendering four different fractions: (1) barely worn denim, (2) rather worn denim, (3) barely worn single-jersey and (4) rather worn single-jersey. Before tearing, the garments were dissembled, their yarns were characterized, fibre length distributions were manually determined for (1)–(4). Length analysis of the recovered fibres after tearing revealed that the length drop was most severe for (a) the finer single-jersey and (b) the barely worn fractions. The findings suggest that significant wear does not exclude from mechanical recycling.

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  • 5.
    Artur, Cavaco-Paulo
    et al.
    University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
    Nierstrasz, VincentUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.Wang, QiangJiangnan University, Wuxi, China.
    Advances in Textile Biotechnology 2nd Edition2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Description

    Advances in Textile Biotechnology, Second Edition examines the latest in biotechnology for the fiber and textile industry. This new edition has been fully revised to include the current essential areas of development in the field, covering both natural and synthetic fibers. Chapters cover the latest technology in bioprocessing for bast fiber, PVA, polyester, wool and silk before exploring issues of enzyme stability. Essential areas of application and development are then considered, including biomedical textiles, silk materials for biotechnological applications, bacterial cellulose, the ink jetting of enzymes, and the role of enzymes, wool and silk fibers.

    Containing groundbreaking research, this book will be essential reading for manufacturers, designers and engineers in the textiles industry, textile and fiber scientists, and academic researchers and postgraduate students working in the area of textile technology.

    Key Features

    • Provides a thorough overview of current and future focuses of biotechnology in the fiber and textile industry
    • Presents fully revised content, with a new focus on biosynthesis and bioprocessing for novel textile fibers, both synthetic and natural
    • Enables readers to understand and utilize the benefits of biotechnology for the manufacture and production of textiles

    Readership

    Textile manufacturers, designers and engineers in the textile industry; textile and fibre scientists; academic researchers and postgraduate students in textile technology; experts in the biology, chemical and environmental engineering industries

  • 6.
    Asadi, Milad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Graphene: a vision to the future of smart E-Textile application2022Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textile is a term referring to the textiles that could interact with their environment, receiving input and giving output based on their applications. Among smart textiles, electrically driven smart textiles (E-textiles) are being produced by various methods and materials integrated with textile substances. Graphene is one of these compounds that could be integrated into the polymer or integrated into the textile materials such as fibres. Therefore, other elements could be doped or immobilised on the graphene nanosheets for a wider range of applications, such as catalytic and electrocatalytic systems.  

    However, finding the most applicable and efficient method to integrate graphene into the textile fibres and further establishing a method for catalyst immobilisation are challenging and require focused research.  

    Therefore, this doctoral thesis focused on the innovative concept of integration of graphene and immobilisation of iron nanoparticles on it. Evidence from the systematic experiments was gathered for the case of dip-coating of polyester textiles with graphene oxide dispersion and enhancing the electrostatic bonding between fibres and graphene oxide nanosheets. In the second step, systematic experiments were gathered for the case of immobilisation of an inorganic catalyst (zerovalent iron) on textile supports. The goal of this thesis is to establish the feasibility of a mild and applicable method for textile material supports, which requires low temperature and mild pH, and further fabrication of heterogeneous catalytic and electrocatalytic systems for wastewater treatment. Polyester was chosen as the textile support material for graphene oxide coating and catalyst immobilisation due to its availability and cost-effectiveness.  

    The thesis has four distinct parts related to (a) Pre-surface-charge modification of the polyester for strong electrostatic bonding between polyester and graphene, (b) Design a continuous yarn coating system for mass production of graphene-coated conductive yarns, (c) Immobilisation of Fe0 on graphene-coated polyester textiles and optimising their feasibility in catalytic systems and (d) Design and prove the feasibility of knitting a fully textile-based reactor having two anodic and cathodic sections by using rGO-Fe0 yarns and stainless-steel multifilament yarns, respectively as a concept of electro-Fenton wastewater treatment.  

    Diverse analytical and instrumental techniques were used to monitor the surface modification of the polyester textiles and conductivity of the resulting textiles; moreover, the electromechanical and electrothermal properties of the graphene-modified textiles were examined. Further, the efficiency of catalyst immobilisation, physio-chemical properties of the immobilised catalyst, and their catalytical activities in dye removal from the water was studied. Results showed that surface charge modification of polyester fabric with both chitosan and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDPC) gives the most homogeneous graphene coating, resulting in high conductivity and very good fastness. Furthermore, results from scanning electron microscope (SEM), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and UV/Visible spectrophotometry prove the success of immobilisation of zerovalent iron on the graphene-modified textiles. 

    The novelty of the research presented in this doctoral thesis is primarily attributed to the novelty of a hybrid graphene-catalyst immobilisation-grafting on polyester textile supports for wastewater treatment applications. The final concept of the thesis is to introduce the potential for assembling a fully textile-based reactor for Electro-Fenton wastewater treatments.

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  • 7.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of eco-friendly flame retardant polypropylene fibers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Asres, Bersabeh Zemedagegnehu
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Viskostygs inverkan på plagg efter tvätt.: Hur krympning av viskos påverkar plaggets passform, mått och konstruktion för en klänning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is developed in collaboration with a small company that works with women's clothing. The company has had recurring problems with the fit of their viscose dress. The purpose of the study is to analyze the effect of the viscose material shrinkage after laundering on the fit of the garment such as balance, ease, length and the garment dimension. Viscose is one of the finest textile materials for dresses sewing because of its properties such as it’s fine shine, drapes well and it have high absorbent. In contrast, viscose material tends to lose strength when wet, which affects garment fit due to viscoses shrinkage after laundering. The study is performed through comparing of three production processes of a dress to get the best fit and dimensions. For sample A and B, the same pattern construction is used, except for sample B, the viscose fabric was pre-washed in advance. While for sample C fabric samples was washed and the number of shrinkage is calculated . Pattern construction was adjusted by adding the results of shrinkage . The three sample dresses were sewn with the same viscose fabric, and the fit were tasted by one person in size Medium .The dress samples were measured both before and after laundering. The result of prototype C showed that the dress has shrunk to the best fit and meets the desired garment sizes in comparison with prototypes A and B. The study showed that garments that are sewn in viscose material change both in fit and size after washing. Washing viscose material before cutting will not ensure that the sewn garment will not shrink or that the garments will retain its dimension after washing. The change in pattern design gives better results.

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  • 9.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska filament: från garn till textil applikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric materials are frequently used in different sensors as they can generate a measurable electrical signal during applied pressure or when subjected to extension. This project examines how a piezoelectric yarn containing Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is affected when exposed to moisture, heat and long-term mechanical deformation. Focus has been directed towards investigating the properties of the piezoelectric yarn as well as how it can be applied in textile fabrics and textile applications. The piezoelectric yarn has been subjected to a series of tests. Most of the samples have undergone cyclic deformation in an extensometer during tests. The piezoelectric yarn has been examined by experiments in laboratory environment, practical tests in textile applications as well as by statistical analysis. It can be stated that factors such as moisture and temperature have influence on the piezoelectric effect of the yarn. Long-term tests reveal how the yarn displays a change in length while undergoing deformation, which contributes to the diminished signal strength of the yarn. The piezoelectric yarn can successfully be integrated in a piece of fabric by the means of sewing when using correct stitch- length, where higher stitch-length gives a higher signal output. The same method can be applied to construct a piezoelectric sensor used in a training sock. This project can conclude that parameters such as moisture, creep-behaviour and structural variation within the PVDF-filaments have a significant effect on the signal created by the piezoelectric yarn. The potential of the yarn as a sensor can be seen by successfully applying it to a textile structure as well as in a training sock that can monitor the fore and rear foot while running. It can be stated that much remains to be studied in this particular research area regarding piezoelectric filaments and yarns. Further research in the subject will lead to new innovative applications that can be of use in different parts of society, not to say the least in the area of medicine.

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  • 10.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska strumpor för rörelsemonitorering - En känslighetsanalys2015In: Abstracts - Medicinteknikdagarna 2015, Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of thermoplastic biocomposites based on aligned hybrid yarns for fast composite manufacturing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in natural fibres as reinforcement for composite materials has been steadily increasing due to their attractive mechanical properties and the possibility of making more eco-friendly materials. Currently, various alternatives are being introduced for commercial applications, as fibres such as hemp, jute and flax exhibit properties, which make them appropriate for structural composite components. Biocomposites offer reductions in weight and cost and have less reliance on foreign oil resources, making them attractive. Several investigations have revealed that the full utilisation of fibre mechanical properties in the final composites can be exploited, provided an aligned fibre orientation is chosen. In fact, a major challenge for natural fibre reinforced composites is to achieve high mechanical performance at competitive prices. The use of commingled/hybrid yarns is one of the more promising methods for manufacturing structural thermoplastic composites.

    Commingled yarns of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres offer a potential for cost-effective production of composite parts, thanks to reduced applied pressures and impregnation times during processing. Besides economic advantages, there is also direct control over fibre placements and ease of handling of fibres in yarn process. The yarn technologies provide homogenous distribution of reinforcing fibre and matrix. Variation in natural fibre properties has been a major problem facing composite manufacturers, compared to carbon and glass fibres that have well-defined production processes. This issue can be addressed by regenerated cellulose fibres. These fibres can be reproduced easily with high surface evenness and even quality, making it possible to get consistent results, which is not possible with natural fibres. Combination of natural and regenerated cellulose fibre brings together the best of both materials. The end result is a product with superior properties, which could not be obtained by the individual components.

    This thesis describes the development of aligned hybrid yarns with low fibre twist, for high performance natural (hemp) and man-made (Lyocell) cellulose fibre-reinforced biocomposites, suitable for use in structural or semi-structural applications. The properties of composites in terms of fibre orientation, off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated, focusing on determining void%, water absorption, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties. The results show that combining hemp and Lyocell in PLA composite leads to the reduction of moisture absorption and can improve the mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composites were highly affected by the fibre direction. The alkali treatment on hemp fibre improved the mechanical properties of the composites.

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  • 12.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Belinda
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    All-Cellulose Composites Properties from Pre- and Post-Consumer Denim Wastes: Comparative Study2022In: Journal of Composites Science, E-ISSN 2504-477X, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 130Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the recycling of discarded denim textiles by the production of all-cellulose composites (ACCs). Discarded denim fabrics were shredded into fibers and then made into nonwoven fabrics by carding and needle punching. The produced nonwoven fabrics were converted to ACCs by one-step and two-step methods using an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate ([BMIM][Ac]). In this study, the effect of different ACC manufacturing methods, denim fabrics with different contents (a 100% cotton denim (CO) and a blend material (cotton, poly-ester and elastane (BCO)) and reusing of IL as a recycled cellulose solvent on the mechanical pro-perties of the formed ACCs were investigated. The ACCs were characterized according to their tensile and impact properties, as well as their void content. Microscopic analysis was carried out to study the morphology of a cross-section of the formed composites. The choice of the one-step method with recycled IL, pure IL or with a blend material (BCO) had no influence on the tensile properties. Instead, the result showed that the two-step method, with and without DMSO, will influence the E-modulus but not the tensile strength. Regarding the impact properties of the samples, the only factor likely to influence the impact energy was the one-step method with CO and BCO.

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  • 13.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strength electrically conductive fibers: functionalization of polyamide, aramid and polyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 310-318, article id 10.1002/pat.4116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

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  • 14.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strengthelectrically conductive fibers: Functionalization of polyamide, aramid andpolyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

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  • 15.
    Berggren Torell, Viveka
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    "It must be a little more close fitting...: On football clothes' contributions to constructions of femininity2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Berggren Torell, Viveka
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Knuts, Eva
    Soft, colorful and unique2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Biswas, Tuser
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enzyme Printed Fabrics: Bio‐functionalisation of Synthetic Textiles by Digital Inkjet Printing2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the possibilities of printing enzymes using resource-efficient technologies to promote the binding of other proteins and biomaterials on synthetic textiles. This strategy can be used to develop advanced textiles for applications, for example, in antimicrobial, drug delivery and biosensing. Digital inkjet printing was combined with enzyme technology to ensure minimum use of water, chemicals and energy in textile manufacturing processes.  

    Inks containing two enzymes, lysozyme and tyrosinase, were formulated by adjusting several rheological and ionic properties. The activity of these enzymes was optimised while being printed through two different industrial grade piezoelectric printheads. The theoretical printability of the prepared inks was calculated. The effect of printhead temperature and number of printing passes on the activity was evaluated. Polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) and polyamide-6,6 were pre-treated through several techniques to understand their effect on enzyme adhesion, binding and activity retention. Tyrosinase was used to bind lysozyme on plasma activated polyamide-6,6 surface. The effects of printing these two enzymes in various sequences, i.e. tyrosinase before lysozyme and vice-versa on binding stability and activity, were studied. Influence of the printing process on enzyme kinetics was evaluated. Ability to store and reuse printed fabrics was also studied.  

    Lysozyme and tyrosinase containing inks showed activity retention of 85% and 60%, respectively. Activity of lysozyme containing ink was optimum at 10–15 mPa.s when glycerol was used as a viscosity modifier. However, the optimum viscosity for tyrosinase containing ink was at 6–9 mPa.s, and carboxymethyl cellulose was found to be the most favourable modifier. For both inks, a surfactant amount below the critical micelle concentration was considered to be the most effective for printing. Among the studied fabric pre-treatment methods (alkaline, cutinase and plasma), it was found that the activity and stability of the enzyme were dependent on the nature of the pretreatment processes, which can be beneficial for different application areas, e.g. drug release and bio-sensing. Upon printing both inks on a plasma treated polyamide-6,6, tyrosinase was able to catalyse lysozyme protein to bind it on fabric. A maximum of 68% lytic activity was retained by lysozyme when it was printed after tyrosinase. This fabric showed inhibition of bacterial growth and retained almost half of its initial activity when cold stored for a month. 

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  • 18.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Infirri, Rosalinda Sardo
    Hagman, Susanna
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    An assistive sleeping bag for children with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Fashion and Textiles, ISSN 2198-0802, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children suffering from autism spectrum disorder are often reported to encounter sleeping disorder several causes such as hypersensitivity as a result of irregular brain and muscle functions. Disturbance in sleep affects not only their health but also daytime activities including the risk of other cognitive and behavioral impairments. Such hindrance in sleep has been demonstrated to treat therapeutically by measures like the application of deep pressure touch and full body vibration which can be beneficially integrated into the sleeping environment such as on the textile-based platform around the bed. With such a vision, this pilot design project aimed to develop a smart textile based sleeping bag incorporated with sensors to detect awakening stage of the child and thereby actuating stimuli for assuaging the child to fall asleep. To serve the purpose, a micro-controllable body movement detection sensor, based on conductive yarns connected to a vibrating motor was prosperously embedded at the interior of the sleeping bag along with weighted slots to exert deep touch and soothing sensation in the form of wearable technology.

  • 19.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Author Correction: Effects of ink characteristics and piezo-electric inkjetting parameters on lysozyme activity2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 21758Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digital inkjet printing of antimicrobial lysozyme on pretreated polyester fabric2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lysozyme was inkjet printed on two different polyester fabrics considering several challenges of printing enzymes on synthetic fabric surfaces. Wettability of both the fabrics were improved by alkaline pre-treatment resulting reduction in water contact angle to 60±2 from 95°±3 and to 80°±2 from 115°±2 for thinner and coarser fabric respectively. Activity of lysozyme in the prepared ink was 9240±34 units/ml and reduced to 5946±23 units/ml as of collected after jetting process (before printing on fabric). The formulated ink was effectively inkjet printed on alkali treated polyester fabric for antimicrobial applications. Retention of higher activity of the printed fabric requires further studies on enzyme-fibre binding mechanisms and understanding protein orientation on fabric surface after printing

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  • 21.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effective Pretreatment Routes of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabric for Digital Inkjet Printing of Enzyme2021In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes immobilized on synthetic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile surface by resource‐efficient inkjet printing technology can promote developments for various novel applications. Synthetic fabrics often require adequate pretreatments to facilitate such printing process. This work discusses PET–woven fabric pretreatment routes to improve wettability by alkaline, enzymatic, and plasma processes for effective printing of lysozyme using an industrial piezoelectric printhead. Results indicate that all pretreated samples contain a similar amount of enzymes upon printing. Plasma treated fabrics show relatively more hydrophilic surface characteristics, better protein binding stability, and lower retained activity. Alkali and cutinase‐treated samples possess relatively higher activity due to the greater amount of enzyme desorption to substrate solution. Depending on respective enzyme‐binding stability, a combination of a well-pretreated surface and inkjet as preferential placement technology, the approach of this study can be used as a facile enzyme immobilization method for suitable applications, for example, controlled‐release and bio‐sensing.

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  • 22.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effects of ink characteristics and piezo-electric inkjetting parameters on lysozyme activity2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 18252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing of enzymes can facilitate many novel applications where a small amount of materials need to be deposited in a precise and flexible manner. However, maintaining the satisfactory activity of inkjet printed enzyme is a challenging task due to the requirements of ink rheology and printhead parameters. Thus to find optimum inkjetting conditions we studied the effects of several ink formulation and jetting parameters on lysozyme activity using a piezoelectric printhead. Within linear activity range of protein concentrations ink containing 50 µg/mL lysozyme showed a satisfactory activity retention of 85%. An acceptable activity of jetted ink was found at pH 6.2 and ionic strength of 0.06 molar. Glycerol was found to be an effective viscosity modifier (10–15 mPa.s), humectant and protein structure stabilizer for the prepared ink. A non-ionic surfactant when used just below critical micelle concentration was found to be favourable for the jetted inks. An increase in activity retention was observed for inks jetted after 24 hours of room temperature incubation. However, no additional activity was seen for inkjetting above the room temperature. Findings of this study would be useful for formulating other protein-based inks and setting their inkjet printing parameters without highly compromising the functionality.

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  • 23.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enzyme immobilization on textiles by inkjet printing for advanced applications2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilization of enzymes on textiles can impart a range of advanced applications e.g. anti-microbial, controlled release, drug delivery and bio-sensing (Wehrschütz-Sigl et al., 2010). Such applications enable minimal consumption, recovery, and reusability of these valuable bio-materials compared to their conventional textile applications in surface cleaning and finishing (Araujo et al., 2008). Methods used for immobilization can play important roles to ensure precise, flexible and contamination free application. Compared to many of the conventional methods of textile immobilization such as coating and screen-printing, digital inkjet technology offers many benefits for such advanced applications (Kan and Yuen, 2012). Among various inkjet technologies, drop-on-demand piezoelectric printing is a promising resource-efficient technology for enzyme immobilization. 

     

    The enzymes should retain high activity after the immobilization process. Various factors involved during inkjet printing (Saunders and Derby, 2014) and fabric characteristics (Mohamed et al., 2008) can influence this enzymatic activity. Factors concerning the inkjet procedure include rheology and ionic nature of ink along with the shear force and waveform generated inside a piezoelectric printhead (Magdassi, 2010). Factors dependent upon fabric characteristics include surface structure, pore size distribution, and binding mechanism (Nierstrasz and Warmoeskerken, 2003). In this work, we have studied the effects of inkjet procedures on enzymatic activity. Lysozyme being a stable and well-studied enzyme was chosen for our experiments. A Xennia Carnelian printer with a Dimatix QS10 industrial printhead was used for inkjetting. Lytic activity of lysozyme was studied by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer against decrease of Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell concentration at 450 nm. Results showed ca. 10-15% activity reduction of the jetted lysozyme ink. As all the ink and printer parameters were optimized, the probable reason for such reduction could be the effect of shear forces inside the printhead on three-dimensional conformation of lysozyme. In conclusion, our formulated lysozyme ink showed potential for printing textiles with probable activity reduction that require further investigation. 

  • 24.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjet printing of enzymes on synthetic fabrics2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes can be immobilized on textiles to impart anti-microbial properties in a more environment-friendly manner compared to conventional biocide-based solutions. Such application requires ensuring precise, flexible and contamination-free immobilization methods that can be offered by digital printing compared to coating or screen-printing techniques. Drop-on-demand inkjet printing is a resource-efficient technology that can ensure these requirements. The use of polyester and polyamide-based fabrics is rising for applications ranging from apparel and home furnishing to hygiene and medical textiles. These fibers offer superior chemical, physical, and mechanical properties due to their inert nature but challenge the printing process due to hydrophobicity and lack of functional groups. Lysozyme and tyrosinase are two enzymes showing great potential for grafting on synthetic fabrics paving the way to use them for inkjet printing as well.

    Challenges for inkjet printing of enzymes on synthetic fabric surfaces come in multiple forms i.e. ink recipe formation, printer mechanics and fabric surface characteristics. The ink must maintain a suitable viscosity and surface tension for effective drop ejection and a feasible ionic nature for enzyme activity. Then, the enzyme must be able to sustain the temperature and shear stress generated inside an inkjet printhead. Finally, influential fabric characteristics include surface structure, pore size distribution, evaporation rate and binding mechanism. By considering these parameters, lysozyme and tyrosinase were successfully printed on variously modified synthetic fabrics using a combination of sustainable technologies.

  • 25.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjetting of Enzymes: Chapter 122019In: Advance in Textile Biotechnology 2nd edition / [ed] Artur Cavaco-Paulo, Vincent Nierstrasz, Qiang Wang, Elsevier, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelectric inkjet printing of tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) enzyme on atmospheric plasma treated polyamide fabric2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 6828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tyrosinase enzyme was digitally printed on plasma pretreated polyamide-6,6 fabric using several sustainable technologies. Ink containing carboxymethyl cellulose was found to be the most suitable viscosity modifier for this enzyme. Before and after being deposited on the fabric surface, the printed inks retained enzyme activity of 69% and 60%, respectively, compared to activity prior printing process. A good number of the printed enzyme was found to be strongly adsorbed on the fabric surface even after several rinsing cycles due to surface activation by plasma treatment. Rinsed out fabrics retained a maximum activity of 34% resulting from the well-adsorbed enzymes. The activity of tyrosinase on printed fabrics was more stable than ink solution for at least 60 days. Effects of pH, temperature and enzyme kinetics on ink solution and printed fabrics were assessed. Tyrosinase printed synthetic fabrics can be utilized for a range of applications from biosensing and wastewater treatment to cultural heritage works.

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  • 27.
    Björk, Annika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inse mitt värde och behåll mig en stund till: Ett undersökande projekt i hållbar textildesign2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recognise my value and keep me a while longer is an exploratory project in sustainable textile design. The focus is to explore possible design solutions that can give products a property transformation over time and prolong the products life cycle. This through practical investigations with different materials based on a chosen approach to sustainable design and changeable pattern images. Also with aim to give the consumer an active role in the changing of a products appearance and function. The end result is three product prototypes that all in different ways exemplify the chosen approach to sustainable design. 1. Moss is a jumper made of circular knitted jacquard fabric with the material combination Sally Fox cotton and unbleached cotton. The fabric is conformable and soft with a pattern that changes hue strength for each time the consumer washes it. The changing pattern makes the jumper interesting because it´s expression changes slowly while it´s being used. 2. Cone is a duvet and pillow cover that is made of a five shed satin jacquard weave. The textile pattern and colour is inverted on the back and front side of the textile. The aesthetic expression of the bed clothing can be renewed by the consumer through vegetable dyes. 3. Bark is a flat knitted, dubble relief, jacquard wool blanket. The blanket can be transformed by the consumer, through washing, and then get a new function as a rug. The textile goes from a soft, two-dimensional, flexible and somewhat fragile textile into a compact, three-dimensional durable textile.

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  • 28.
    Bredies, Katharina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Universität der Künste Berlin.
    Explorations on Textile Electronics2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In electronic textiles, we apply production techniques from both textiles and electronic engineering to bridge the gap between these two very different materials. While it is obvious to apply electronic engineering to textiles to ensure the working of the electronic components, the application of textile production techniques to electronics is still challenging. Yet it is in the appropriation of textile manufacturing that there is a huge potential for innovation. This potential does not only cover the means of production, but also the way we interact with digital interfaces as well as the overall aesthetic of those interfaces.

    This report documents the application of textile production techniques for sensing and actuation in e-textile structures and artifacts. It shows how weaving and knitting on industrial machines can be used to design and build electronic elements in a textile shape, such as pressure sensors, speaker coils and shape change structures. The report also documents the application of those techniques in two different prototypes, the first being a sensor glove that was used for gesture recognition, and the second being woven textile muscle that was developed as the basis for a soft textile robot.

     

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  • 29.
    Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gwilt, Alison
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattila, Heikki
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lidström, Anna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Feasibility of conditional design: Organizing a circular textile value chain by design principles2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Cheng, Jingyuan
    et al.
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
    Zhou, Bo
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
    Lukowicz, Paul
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet.
    Varga, Matija
    ETH Zurich.
    Mehmann, Andreas
    ETH Zurich.
    Chabrecek, Peter
    SEFAR AG.
    Gaschler, Werner
    SEFAR AG.
    Goenner, Karl
    ITV Denkendorf.
    Horter, Hansjürgen
    ITV Denkendorf.
    Schneegass, Stefan
    Hassib, Mariam
    University of Stuttgart.
    Schmidt, Albrecht
    University of Stuttgart.
    Freund, Martin
    University of Passau.
    Zhang, Rui
    University of Passau.
    Amft, Oliver
    University of Passau.
    Textile Building Blocks:Toward Simple, Modularized, and Standardized Smart Textile2017In: Smart Textiles: Fundamentals, Design, and Interaction, Springer, Cham , 2017, p. 303-331Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles are pervasive in our life, covering human body and objects, as well as serving in industrial applications. In its everyday use of individuals, smart textile becomes a promising medium for monitoring, information retrieval, and interaction. While there are many applications in sport, health care, and industry, the state-of-the-art smart textile is still found only in niche markets. To gain mass-market capabilities, we see the necessity of generalizing and modularizing smart textile production and application development, which on the one end lowers the production cost and on the other end enables easy deployment. In this chapter, we demonstrate our initial effort in modularization. By devising types of universal sensing fabrics for conductive and non-conductive patches, smart textile construction from basic, reusable components can be made. Using the fabric blocks, we present four types of sensing modalities, including resistive pressure, capacitive, bioimpedance, and biopotential. In addition, we present a multi-channel textile–electronics interface and various applications built on the top of the basic building blocks by ‘cut and sew’ principle.

  • 31.
    Chiango, Ludovica Beatrice
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.
    Buffo, Antonio
    Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.
    Vanni, Marco
    Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferri, Ada
    Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.
    Simulation of an industrial scale scCO2 beam dyeing process2022In: Journal of CO2 Utilization, ISSN 2212-9820, E-ISSN 2212-9839, Vol. 64, article id 102147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An industrial dyeing process in supercritical carbon dioxide has been modelled with computational fluid dynamics using Ansys Fluent software. In order to investigate the distribution of the dye carrier fluid, the flow resistance of the fabric has been accurately characterised. For this purpose, in the first part of the work a plain-woven fabric geometry was created in the open software Tex-Gen and modelled in Ansys Fluent to predict the permeation of fluid through the pores of the fabric material and to estimate the relationship between local fluid velocity and pressure drop. The second part of the study focused on evaluating the influence of beam structure, inlet flow rate, fabric height on the fluid flow through the fabric, which must be uniform to achieve a homogeneous level of dyeing. From the simulations the main obstacle to achieving a uniform flow velocity in the fabric is the pressure rise that occurs in the beam and creates a slight difference in permeation velocity between the two axial ends of the fabric; other disturbances, such as the effect of the perforated structure of the beam, are usually minor. Due to the low viscosity of supercritical carbon dioxide, inertial losses predominate over viscous losses in the porous medium. This means that approaches based only on the permeability of the fabric and the application of Darcy's law are inadequate to correctly predict the response of a dyeing unit when using carbon dioxide.

  • 32.
    Christoffersson, Astrid
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hammarlund, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    PIEZOELEKTRISK TRYCKSENSOR: En undersökning om textil struktur och piezoelektricitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to create a sensor in textile material which can register and recognize different kinds of pressure. A suitable method has been developed in order to scientifically investigate and evaluate the sensitivity of the prototypes. The prototypes have been produced with a computerized hand weave machine and the materials used were polyester and piezoelectric PVDF-fiber, twisted with a conductive yarn, Shieldex®. When a force is applied to the PVDF-fiber, causing an extension of the fiber, a voltage is generated directly related to the applied force. The final prototype is a woven textile with integrated monofilaments and weft inserted in seven different layers to create a voluminous structure. An extension by the PVDF-fiber is there by enabled to occur which is related to the force applied onto the structure.

    Three equable prototypes were produced, each consisting four separated PVDF-fibers which were inserted with a distance of 1, 5 cm from each other. The prototypes were further attached one by one on a homemade ramp and the PVDF- and Shieldex®-fibers were connected to an oscilloscope. Different weights were then rolled from the top of the ramp, generating a voltage each time it pressures a fiber, which were seen on the computer software of the oscilloscope. The results were afterwards analyzed and evaluated using Excel.

    A clear relationship between applied force and generated voltage is shown although there is a great variety among the test results on each weight along with large standard deviations. The exact weight generating a specific voltage is therefore difficult to determine.

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  • 33. Ciera, L.
    et al.
    Beladjal, L.
    Almeras, X.
    Gheysens, T.
    Mertens, J.
    Nierstrasz, V.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, L.
    A model system to study resistance of biological compounds to melt extrusion process parameters.2013In: Proceedings of the 13th AUTEX World Textile  Conference, Dresden, Germany May 22-24  2013., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Dixdotter, Maja
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    vemod(en): -A tribute to the perfect error.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this collection I have explored the paradox of perfection. The collection is an epic tribute to my prior self and discovers how the unperfect can be transformed to something, perceived, perfect. I flirt with my past obsessions in finding mathematically measured legs, exact tailored arms and perfectly fitted stockings. In a fun, poetic and melancholy way I invite the viewer on a highly visual voyage to my childhood where the obsession of finding costume perfection "Vemoden" the act of control becomes visual through statuesque frozen looks, where the previous unperfect becomes perfection.

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  • 35.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Relational Textiles2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between technology and the expression of form have always been interconnected in the architectural design process; associating the art of envisioning spaces with the craft of materializing them. Recently in terms of surface fabrication, computational tools of representation and material fabrication opened for architectural design new possibilities to explore novel spatial expressions. Surface design processes in architecture start to borrow from the logic of representation of different non-hierarchical structures, e.g., biological systems or textile construction techniques. Relating to that, the present fascination of textiles in architectural design relies on this specific way of building surface design as non-hierarchical form, and by that, allowing the designer to play with the depth of the surface design at micro and macro levels. Exploring different relations between digital and physical through textiles expressions, this research reassess static principles of form–marking the turn from static to relational principles. Thus, the intention is to describe how the character of the textiles and computation as design material redefines the notion of space trough surface aesthetics merging the digital to the physical, and how spatiality can be questioned through textile and interaction aesthetics. Using practice-based research methodology, this research opens and explores this design space by relating theory and practice; it questions and reframes fundamental concepts of expression and scale in architecture by proposing methods for surface design, and a specific language to describe textile architectural aesthetics.

  • 36.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lundstedt, Lotta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Satomi, Mika
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Repetition: interactive expressions of pattern translation2012In: Proceedings The Art of Research 2012, The art of research 2012 Making, Reflecting and understading, 28-29 November 2012 at Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Architecture Helsinki, Finland, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a way of opening a space where methods from the fields of fashion design, textile design and interaction design overlap, the project Repetition intersects different methodologies through practice-based research in design. Experiments were conducted to explore ways of creating relationships between body and space by means of translating information as pattern design between garments and interactive knitted walls. By arranging a startup performance, we reflected on the expressional variables that influence the expression of the pattern translations; variables concerning the garments, the walls, the print and the movements were illustrated by the expressions found. The result formulates specific descriptions regarding accuracy and distribution of pattern translation, illustrating basic concepts of pattern formations identified in visual changes appearing in the garment. By communicating our understanding of basic expressions, Repetition aims to formulate a new framework for collaborative work as a method for further design.

  • 37.
    Dural-Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wessman, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Husmark, Ulrika
    SCA Hygiene Products AB.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biocontrol of solid surfaces in hospitals using microbial-based wipes2019In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hospital-acquired infections have become a major challenge which threaten the hospitalized patients’ safety. The presence of nosocomial pathogens is generally reported in connection with solid surfaces near patient environments. These surfaces become significant sources of transmission and lead most often to the contamination and cross-contamination of nosocomial pathogens to the patients and staff. This paper investigates strategies to apply beneficial bacteria on viscose-based nonwoven wipes and the viability of these beneficial bacteria on the wipes along with characterization of the physical properties of the wipes. Major findings include that it is possible to produce dry wipes which contain an adequate number of beneficial bacteria or spores. After these wipes are wetted, they can release a certain number of bacteria from the wetted wipes. These released beneficial bacteria can inhibit pathogens by growing and colonizing on the wiped surfaces.

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  • 38.
    Duru, Sinem Demir
    et al.
    International Financial Corporation, World Bank.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hertveldt, Sabine (Commentator for written text)
    International Financial Corporation (IFC) Global MAS Advisory.
    Manchanda, Sumit (Commentator for written text)
    International Financial Corporation (IFC) Global MAS Advisory.
    Innovation in manufacturing Personal Protective Equipment: Toward Sustainability and Circularity2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting circular economy approaches is becoming an increasingly important part of policy makers’ agendas in the fight against climate change. These approaches include reducing material inputs, using more environmentally friendly and reusable materials when producing goods, ensuring materials are properly recycled, and minimizing waste and pollution. They have become even more important in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, with personal protective equipment (PPE) becoming an inseparable part of daily life. Manufacturers across the globe had to increase PPE production, which inevitably created a surge in plastic waste because polypropylene is still the main material used to manufacture PPE for health-care workers. A recent research study estimates that, since the outbreak, the amount of plastic waste generated globally is 1.6 million tons per day.Furthermore, an estimated 3.4 billion single-use face masks and shields are being discarded every day. This unpredicted increase in plastic waste is happening at a time when countries are reluctant to recycle products because of the lack of complementary decontamination steps and coordination in waste management.Some manufacturers took this opportunity of increased PPE production to adopt circular economy approaches that can be replicated by others. Decentralized production and material sourcing became more important as supply chains were severely disrupted by the pandemic. This has accelerated the ongoing changes in conventional production methods, with businesses embracing a cradle-to-cradle manufacturing model—that is, rethinking the design of their products from the starting point at the sourcing stage through to the end of the product’s life.

    This is not without its challenges. For example, when replacing plastics with alternative materials, manufacturers need to ensure that these materials meet quality standards set by standards institutions and enforced by governments.However, PPE manufacturers cannot shoulder the responsibility of the global plastic waste challenge alone. This publication calls on a broad range of stakeholders along the PPE value chain to work together to shift toward a more sustainable and circular PPE ecosystem.This report takes stock of approaches that PPE manufacturers are taking to make their production more sustainable and achieve a true circular economy, while responding to COVID-19 PPE shortages. It does not provide a life-cycle assessment of each PPE product, which is needed to evaluate the environmental effects associated with each product against the benefits created. The approaches highlighted in this report can be grouped into four main categories:

    •Circular inputs: The use of renewable, bio-based, or completely recyclable materials as input.

    •Resource recovery: Ensuring that useful resources and energy are recovered from disposed products by collecting and reprocessing products at the end of their life.

    •Product use extension: Prolonging the lifespan of PPE products by choosing a design that allows the product to be repaired or by choosing durable materials as inputs for the main PPE parts.

    •Product as service: The product-as-service model allows the consumer to use a product that is retained by the producer to increase resource productivity (for example, leasing PPE). This model allows PPE manufacturers to move from selling products to selling services.

  • 39.
    Dutta, Sujan
    et al.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Martinez, Jose G.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W.H.
    Division of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.
    The effect of electroactive length and intrinsic conductivity on the actuation behaviour of conducting polymer-based yarn actuators for textile muscles2022In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 370, article id 132384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, electrically driven conducting polymer (CP) coated yarns have shown great promise to develop soft wearable applications because of their electrical and mechanical behaviour. However, designing a suitable yarn actuator for textile-based wearables with high strain is challenging. One reason for the low strain is the voltage drop along the yarn, which results in only a part of the yarn being active. To understand the voltage drop mechanism and overcome this issue intrinsically conductive yarns were used to create a highly conductive path along the full length of the yarn actuator. Ag plated knit-de-knit (Ag-KDK) structured polyamide yarns were used as the intrinsically conductive core material of the CP yarn actuators and compared with CP yarn actuators made of a non-conductive core knit-de-knit (KDK) yarn. The CP yarn actuators were fabricated by coating the core yarns with poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonic acid) followed by electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole. Furthermore, to elucidate the effect of the capillarity of the electrolyte through the yarn actuator, two different approaches to electrochemical actuation were applied. All actuating performance of the materials were investigated and quantified in terms of both isotonic displacement and isometric developed forces. The resultant electroactive yarn exhibits high strain (0.64 %) in NaDBS electrolytes as compared to previous CP yarn actuator. The actuation and the electroactivity of the yarn were retained up to 100 cycles. The new highly conductive yarns will shed light on the development of next-generation textile-based exoskeleton suits, assistive devices, wearables, and haptics garments.

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  • 40.
    Eneh, Sandra
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Showroom the Future of Online Fashion Retailing 2.0: Enhancing the online shopping experience2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following have been rectified in response to previous evaluation by examiner Olof Bruninge. -We have solely chosen qualitative methods in data collection and analysis by making use of data gathered from focus group workshop. The findings have been coded and analysed descriptively. -We have reformulated research questions and replaced the hypothesis with open questions. Allowing us to explore the participants’ behaviour rather than testing hypothesis. -All quantitative measures have been replaced with qualitative analysis and descriptions. -We have provided tables with results from focus group findings to increase transparency in our data

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  • 41.
    Eriksson, Siw
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. MedTech West.
    Three-dimensional Fabrics as Medical Textiles2015In: Advances in 3D Textiles: A volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles / [ed] X. Chen, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 305-340Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of 3D textile applications in medicine is rapidly increasing as new technology and procedures are introduced in health care.  A first estimate of current medical applications of both general and 3D textiles is presented based on the medical devices classification system established by the US Food and Drug Administration. The textile specifics for these applications are covered from a textile technique perspective where the different 3D weaving as well as knitting, braiding and non-woven techniques are described and how their properties they can contribute in medical applications. In addition, emerging opportunities based on smart textiles as part of textile systems are described on a general level. The strong application areas of 3D medical textiles, i.e. wound management, vascular grafting and scaffolding for tissue engineering are covered in detail both from the medical and textiles perspective. Finally, some future lines of development are suggested and a short discussion on how new 3D textiles applications can be developed in close cooperation between the textile industry and the health care sector is presented.

  • 42.
    Euler, Luisa
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A review of textile-based electrodes developed for electrostimulation2021In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical stimulation can be used for the treatment of various nerve and muscle injuries as well as acute and chronic pain conditions. An electrical pulse is applied to a muscle or nerve to activate excitable tissue using internal or external electrodes with the aim of building muscle strength, artificially creating or supporting limb movement or reducing pain. Textile electrodes offer several advantages over conventionally used disposable surface electrodes: they are flexible and re-usable and they do not require hydrogels, thereby avoiding skin irritation and allergic reactions and enhancing user comfort. This article presents a literature review that assesses the state of research on textile electrode constructions. Based on the review, production approaches and designs are compared, methods for evaluating stimulation discomfort and pain are proposed and issues related to user compliance are discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for future work focused on investigating the impacts of textile-based electrode parameters on comfort, convenience and ease of use.

  • 43.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    3D printing of polymers onto textiles: An innovative approach to develop functional textiles2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at characterizing tridimensional (3D) printed polymers onto PET textile materials via fused deposition modeling (FDM) that uses both non-conductive and conductive polymers, optimizing their mechanical and electrical properties through statistical modeling and enhancing them with pre and post-treatments and the development of polymer blends. This research work supports the development of technical textiles through 3D printing that may have functionalities. The FDM process was considered in this thesis for its strong potential in terms of flexibility, resource-efficiency, cost-effectiveness tailored production and ecology compared to the existing conventional textile finishing processes, for instance, the digital and screen printings. The main challenge of this technology is to warranty optimized electrical and mechanical (bending, flexibility, tensile, abrasion, etc.) properties of the 3D printed polymer onto textiles for the materials to be used in textile industry. Therefore, the development of novel 3D printed polymers onto PET materials with improved properties is necessary.First of all, 3D printed non-conductive Polylactic Acid (PLA) and PLA filled with 2.5wt% Carbon-Black filled onto PET fabrics were purchased and manufactured through melt extrusion process respectively, to characterize their mechanical properties including adhesion, tensile, deformation, wash ability and abrasion. Then, the relationship between the textile structural characteristics and thermal properties and build platform temperature and these properties through statistical modeling was determined. Subsequently, different textile pre-treatments that include atmospheric plasma, grafting of acrylic acid and application of adhesives were suggested to enhance the adhesion properties of the 3D printed PLA onto PET fabrics. Lastly, novel biophasic blends using Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) / Propylene- Based Elastomer (PBE) filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and high-structured carbon black (KB) were developed and manufactured to improve the flexibility, the stress and strain at rupture and the electrical properties of the 3D printed PLA onto PET fabric. The morphology, thermal and rheological properties of each blends are also accessed in order to understand the material behavior and enhanced mechanical and electrical properties.The findings demonstrated that the textile structure defined by its weft density and pattern and weft and warp yarn compositions has a significant impact on the adhesion, deformation, abrasion, tensile properties of 3D printed PLA onto PET fabrics. Compromises have to be found as porous and rough textiles with low thermal properties showed better wash-ability, adhesion and tensile properties and worse deformation and abrasion resistance. Statistical models between the textile properties and the 3D printed PLA onto PET materials and the properties were successfully developed and used to optimize them. The application of adhesives on treated PET with grafted acrylic acid did significantly improve the adhesion resistance and LDPE/PBE blends filled with CNT and KB that have co-continuous LDPE and PBE phases as well as CNT and KB selectively located at the interface and in the LDPE phase revealed enhanced deformation and tensile and electrical properties.

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  • 44.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of Flexible and Conductive ImmiscibleThermoplastic/Elastomer Monofilament for SmartTextiles Applications Using 3D Printing2020In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing utilized as a direct deposition of conductive polymeric materials onto textilesreveals to be an attractive technique in the development of functional textiles. However, the conductivefillers—filled thermoplastic polymers commonly used in the development of functional textiles through3D printing technology and most specifically through Fused DepositionModeling (FDM) process—arenot appropriate for textile applications as they are excessively brittle and fragile at room temperature.Indeed, a large amount of fillers is incorporated into the polymers to attain the percolation thresholdincreasing their viscosity and stiffness. For this reason, this study focuses on enhancing the flexibility,stress and strain at rupture and electrical conductivity of 3D-printed conductive polymer onto textiles bydeveloping various immiscible polymer blends. A phase is composed of a conductive polymer composite(CPC)made of a carbon nanotubes (CNT) and highly structured carbon black (KB)- filled low-densitypolyethylene (LDPE) and another one of propylene-based elastomer (PBE) blends. Two requirements areessential to create flexible and highly conductive monofilaments for 3D-printed polymers onto textilematerials applications. First, the co-continuity of both the thermoplastic and the elastomer phases and thelocation of the conductive fillers in the thermoplastic phase or at the interface of the two immisciblepolymers are necessary to preserve the flexibility of the elastomer while decreasing the global amountof charges in the blends. In the present work based on theoretical models, when using a two-stepmelt process, the KB and CNT particles are found to be both preferentially located at the LDPE/PBEinterface. Moreover, in the case of the two-step extrusion, SEM characterization showed that the KBparticles were located in the LDPE while the CNT were mainly at the LDPE/PBE interface and TEManalysis demonstrated that KB and CNT nanoparticles were in LDPE and at the interface. For one-stepextrusion, it was found that both KB and CNT are in the PBE and LDPE phases. These selectivelocations play a key role in extending the co-continuity of the LDPE and PBE phases over a much largercomposition range. Therefore, the melt flow index and the electrical conductivity of monofilament,the deformation under compression, the strain and stress and the electrical conductivity of the 3D-printedconducting polymer composite onto textiles were significantly improved with KB and CNT-filledLDPE/PBE blends compared to KB and CNT-filled LDPE separately. The two-step extrusion processed60%(LDPE16.7% KB + 4.2% CNT)/40 PBE blends presented the best properties and almost similar to theones of the textile materials and henceforth, could be a better material for functional textile developmentthrough 3D printing onto textiles.

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  • 45.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Chen, Yan
    University of Soochow.
    Guan, Jinping
    University of Soochow.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Stress, strain and deformation of poly-lactic acid filament deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate woven fabric through 3D printing process2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 14333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although direct deposition of polymeric materials onto textiles through 3D printing is a great technique used more and more to develop smart textiles, one of the main challenges is to demonstrate equal or better mechanical resistance, durability and comfort than those of the textile substrates before deposition process. This article focuses on studying the impact of the textile properties and printing platform temperature on the tensile and deformations of non-conductive and conductive poly lactic acid (PLA) filaments deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textiles through 3D printing process and optimizing them using theoretical and statistical models. The results demonstrate that the deposition process affects the tensile properties of the printed textile in comparison with the ones of the textiles. The stress and strain at rupture of the first 3D printed PLA layer deposited onto PET textile material reveal to be a combination of those of the printed layer and the PET fabric due to the lower flexibility and diffusion of the polymeric printed track through the textile fabric leading to a weak adhesion at the polymer/textile interface. Besides, printing platform temperature and textile properties influence the tensile and deformation properties of the 3D printed PLA on PET textile significantly. Both, the washing process and the incorporation of conductive fillers into the PLA do not affect the tensile properties of the extruded polymeric materials. The elastic, total and permanent deformations of the 3D-printed PLA on PET fabrics are lower than the ones of the fabric before polymer deposition which demonstrates a better dimensional stability, higher stiffness and lower flexibility of these materials.

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  • 46.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chen, Yan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Guan, Jinping
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    GEMTEX–Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles.
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Study of the Wear Resistance of Conductive Poly Lactic Acid Monofilament 3D Printed onto Polyethylene Terephthalate Woven Materials2020In: Materials, Vol. 10, no 13, article id 2334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear resistance of conductive Poly Lactic Acid monofilament 3D printed onto textiles, through Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and their electrical conductivity after abrasion are important to consider in the development of smart textiles with preserved mechanical and electrical properties. The study aims at investigating the weight loss after abrasion and end point of such materials, understanding the influence of the textile properties and 3D printing process parameters and studying the impact of the abrasion process on the electrical conductivity property of the 3D printed conductive polymers onto textiles. The effects of the 3D printing process and the printing parameters on the structural properties of textiles, such as the thickness of the conductive Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile and the average pore sizes of its surface are also investigated. Findings demonstrate that the textile properties, such as the pattern and the process settings, for instance, the printing bed temperature, impact significantly the abrasion resistance of 3D printed conductive Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) onto PET woven textiles. Due to the higher capacity of the surface structure and stronger fiber-to-fiber cohesion, the 3D printed conductive polymer deposited onto textiles through Fused Deposition Modeling process have a higher abrasion resistance and lower weight loss after abrasion compared to the original fabrics. After printing the mean pore size, localized at the surface of the 3D-printed PLA onto PET textiles, is five to eight times smaller than the one of the pores localized at the surface of the PET fabrics prior to 3D printing. Finally, the abrasion process did considerably impact the electrical conductivity of 3D printed conductive PLA onto PET fabric.

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  • 47.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chen, Yan
    University of Soochow.
    Guan, Jinping
    University of Soochow.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Optimization of adhesion of poly lactic acid 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate wovenfabrics through modelling using textile properties2019In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to evaluate and simulate the impact of the build platform temperature of the three-dimensional (3D) printer, the structure and heat transfer of textiles on the adhesion and durability after washing properties of 3D printed polymer onto textile materials using thin layers of conductive and non-conductive extruded poly lactic acid monofilaments (PLA) deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) woven fabrics through fused deposition modeling (FDM) process.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Prior to FDM process, thermal conductivity, surface roughness and mean pore size of PET woven fabrics were assessed using the “hot disk,” the profilometer and the capillary flow porometry methods, respectively. After the FDM process, the adhesion and durability after the washing process properties of the materials were determined and optimized based on reliable statistical models connecting those properties to the textile substrate properties such as surface roughness, mean pore size and thermal conductivity.

    Findings

    The main findings point out that higher roughness coefficient and mean pore size and lower thermal conductivity of polyester woven textile materials improve the adhesion properties and the build platform presents a quadratic effect. Additionally, the adhesion strength decreases by half after the washing process and rougher and more porous textile structures demonstrate better durability. These results are explained by the surface topography of textile materials that define the anchorage areas between the printed layer and the textiles.

    Originality/value

    This study is for great importance in the development of smart textiles using FDM process as it presents unique and reliable models used to optimize adhesion resistance of 3D printed PLA primary layer onto PET textiles.

  • 48.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Campagne, Christine
    Zeng, Xianyi
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Guan, Jinping
    Chen, Yan
    Correlation between heat transfer of polyester textiles and its adhesion with 3D-printed extruded thermoplastic filaments2018In: 18th AUTEX World Textile Conference, June 20-22, 2018, Istanbul, Turkey / [ed] IOP publishers, 2018, p. 118-121, article id 3132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FDM technology used for printing functionalized layers on textiles brought new challenges such as the understanding and the improvement of the adhesion performance of the thermoplastic filaments on synthetic textile materials. In addition to the impact of printing parameters, the correlation between the heat transfer and structure of the textile material and the adhesion performance after varying printer platform temperature was an important parameter considered in this paper. A factorial design, using material density, direction, and structure and platform temperature as factors, was followed. 3D-printed materials made of PLA filaments deposited on polyester woven and knit materials were manufactured on a dual-head printer and their adhesion was measured according to DIN EN ISO 13937-2 and ISO 11339 and the heat transfer of the fabrics according to ASTM D4966-98, ISO 6330 and ISO 22007-2. The findings showed that the heat transfer and structure of textile materials affect the adhesion properties of the 3D-printed material.

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  • 49.
    Eutionnat-Diffo, Prisca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yan, Guan
    University of Soochow.
    Guan, Jinping
    University of Soochow.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT/GEMTEX.
    Adhesion improvement of conductive poly-lactic acid filament 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate fabric through chemical bonding2019In: Adhesion improvement of conductive poly-lactic acid filament 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate fabric through chemical bonding, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of conductive poly-lactic acid filament (PLA) 3D printed onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics is a one of the fundamental properties to guarantee their use in smart textiles field. The conductive PLA layer is made of carbon black (CB) incorporated into PLA polymer prior to extrusion process. It is commonly known that due to the low surface tensions of polymeric materials, 3D printed conductive PLA onto PET textiles possess poor adhesion. Therefore, an improvement of this property, even already approached by some researchers (1–6), is still highly required. In this research work, a pre and post-treatments were applied to significantly improve the adhesion strength at the interface polymeric layer/textile compared to former techniques used in other researches such as plasma treatment; coating of glue stick, washing and ironing processes. The pre-treatment consists in grafting acetic acid by UV curing onto both PET fabric and PLA filament through digital printing and deep coating respectively and then applying a solution pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) on the fabric via digital printing. After 3D printing process on textiles, heat and pressure were applied on the materials using a heat press to chemically bond the PLA layer to the PET fabric. The findings are very promising as they demonstrate the possibility of significantly improving the adhesion of thermoplastic polymer 3D printed on textiles for smart textiles applications. Compared to other alternative solutions, these findings can potentially be implemented, in the future, by using 3D printing technology for pre-treatment and printing processes followed by thermo-compression technique for complete chemical bonding.

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  • 50.
    Gomes Hastenreiter, Lara Lopes
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Srivastava, Rajiv
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India.
    Yadav, Anilkumar
    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Synthesis of Lactic Acid-Based Thermosetting Resins and Their Ageing and Biodegradability2020In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, no 12, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is focused on the synthesis of bio-based thermoset polymers and their thermo–oxidative ageing and biodegradability. Toward this aim, bio-based thermoset resins with different chemical architectures were synthesized from lactic acid by direct condensation with ethylene glycol, glycerol and pentaerythritol. The resulting branched molecules with chain lengths (n) of three were then end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride. The chemical structures of the synthesized lactic acid derivatives were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) before curing. To evaluate the effects of structure on their properties, the samples were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the tensile testing. The samples went through thermo-oxidative ageing and biodegradation; and their effects were investigated. FT-IR and 1H-NMR results showed that three different bio-based resins were synthesized using polycondensation and end-functionalization. Lactic acid derivatives showed great potential to be used as matrixes in polymer composites. The glass transition temperature of the cured resins ranged between 44 and 52 °C. Pentaerythritol/lactic acid cured resin had the highest tensile modulus and it was the most thermally stable among all three resins. Degradative processes during ageing of the samples lead to the changes in chemical structures and the variations in Young’s modulus. Microscopic images showed the macro-scale surface degradation on a soil burial test.

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