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  • 1.
    Agnhage, Tove
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Perwuelz, A.
    Guan, J.P.
    Chen, G.Q.
    Eco-design innovative methods for fabric finishing2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2. Arshad, Khubaib
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Vivod, Vera
    Valh, Julija
    Voncina, Bojana
    Biodegradation of natural textile materials in soil2014In: Tekstilec, ISSN 0351-3386, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 118-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    World is facing numerous environmental challenges, one of them being the increasing pollution both in the atmosphere and landfi lls. After the goods have been used, they are either buried or burnt. Both ways of disposal are detrimental and hazardous to the environment. The term biodegradation is becoming more and more important, as it converts materials into water, carbon dioxide and biomass, which present no harm to the environment. Nowadays, a lot of research is performed on the development of biodegradable polymers, which can “vanish” from the Earth surface after being used. In this respect, this research work was conducted in order to study the biodegradation phenomenon of cellulosic and non-cellulosic textile materials when buried in soil, for them to be used in our daily lives with maximum effi ciency and after their use, to be disposed of easily with no harmful eff ects to the environment. This research indicates the time span of the use life of various cellulosic and non-cellulosic materials such as cotton, jute, linen, fl ax, wool when used for the reinforcement of soil. The visual observations and applied microscopic methods revealed that the biodegradation of cellulose textile materials proceeded in a similar way as for non-cellulosic materials, the only difference being the time of biodegradation. The non-cellulosic textile material (wool) was relatively more resistant to microorganisms due to its molecular structure and surface. Keywords: biodegradation, composting, natural textile materials, FT-IR

  • 3.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Hybrid natural fibre reinforcements and prepregs for thermoplastic composites with improved performance and properties2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Billig, S.
    et al.
    Agrawal, P.B.
    Birkemeyer, C.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.
    Zimmerman, W.
    Biodegradation of diverse PET materials by polyester hydrolases from Thermobifida fusca and Fusarium solani2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Cho, Sung-Woo
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Hemanathan, Kumar
    Mahimaisenan, Pirabasenan
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Regenerated cellulose fibre reinforced casein films: Effect of plasticizer and fibres on the film properties2014In: Macromolecular Research, ISSN 1598-5032, E-ISSN 2092-7673, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 701-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of using man-made cellulosic fibres as reinforcement for casein films in this study was inspired by their well defined fibre diameter and availability in large quantity, eventually leading to a homogeneous high quality composite at low cost. The casein biofilms were fabricated by solution casting from an aqueous alkaline solution of the bovine milk protein casein in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, and the fibre-reinforced biocomposites were prepared by the addition of regenerated cellulose fibre to the casein casting solution with various amounts of glycerol. The effects of glycerol content and cellulose fibre reinforcements on the mechanical, thermal and physiological properties were characterized. The results showed that increasing glycerol content decreased the film strength, Young’s modulus and thermal stability with a gradual increase in the elongation. However, the tensile properties were noticeably improved when reinforced with cellulose fibre. The composite with 20 wt% glycerol and 20 wt% cellulose fibre showed the maximum tensile strength of 23.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding values for the composite with 30 wt% glycerol and the same fibre content were 15.1 MPa and 0.9 GPa, which were 2.3- and 3.2-fold higher compared to 30 wt% glycerol plasticized film. The thermal analysis revealed that the glass transition temperature and the thermal stability were decreased when the glycerol content was increased. Addition of cellulose fibres increased the glass transition temperature as well as the thermal stability. The gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that there was no significant decrease in the molecular weight of the casein protein during sample preparation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the obtained composites with low glycerol content had adequate interfacial bonding, and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of molecular interactions between the cellulose fibres and the casein.

  • 6. Ciera, L
    et al.
    Beladjal, L
    Almeras, X
    Gheysens, T
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, L
    Mertens, J
    Resistance of Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens spores to melt extrusion process conditions2014In: Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, ISSN 1230-3666, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing demand for functionalised textile materials, industry is focusing on research that will add novel properties to textiles. Bioactive compounds and their benefits have been and are still considered as a possible source of unique functionalities to be explored. However, incorporating bioactive compounds into textiles and their resistance to textile process parameters has not yet been studied. In this study, we developed a system to study the resistance of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores against melt extrusion process parameters, like temperature (21, 200, 250, 300 °C), pressure (0.1, 0.6 and 1.0 MPa) and residence time (0, 1 and 10 minutes). The spores were successfully embedded in PET (polyethylene terephthalate) films and fibres through melt extrusion. Afterwards the survival rate of the spores was determined after extrusion and the data was used to develop a quadratic equation that relates the survival rate to the spore concentration.

  • 7. Ciera, L.
    et al.
    Beladjal, L.
    Almeras, X.
    Gheysens, T.
    Van Landuyt, L.
    Mertens, J.
    Nierstrasz, V.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Van Langenhove, L.
    Morphological and material properties of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) fibres with spores incorporated2014In: Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, ISSN 1230-3666, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the current demand for textiles with new functionalities and improved properties, there has been a continuous effort to modify Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) materials. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores can be incorporated into PET fibres during extrusion. However, the extent to which they can be incorporated without fundamentally changing the properties of the fibres is unknown. In this work, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a Favimat tensile tester, and Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to study the properties of PET/spore fibres. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break were dependent on the spore concentration. Additionally the degree of crystallinity increased slightly, whereas the melting and crystallisation temperatures remained constant at all spore concentration levels. Nevertheless the properties of the fibres fall within the acceptable range of variation and are found to be as good as normal PET fibres.

  • 8. Dural-Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    Erem, Hasan
    Ozcan, Gulay
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Anatase titanium dioxide loaded polylactide membranous films: preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity assessment2015In: Journal of the Textile Institute, ISSN 0040-5000, E-ISSN 1754-2340, Vol. 106, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the preparation method and characteristics of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-loaded polylactide (PLA) films and their antibacterial efficacy against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 4352) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) bacterium were studied. A series of PLA nanocomposites containing, respectively, 0, 1, and 5% (wt.) titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by melt intercalation method. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the thermal and mechanical characteristics of the films was determined. Thermal analysis showed that the glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, melting temperature, and decomposition temperatures (Td0.5 and Td0.05) decreased with the filler content. The results obtained from tensile tests showed that TiO2 nanoparticles reduced the mechanical properties and moduli of the PLA films. On the other hand, the water absorption properties of the nanocomposite films increased with the addition of nanoparticles and nanocomposite films exhibited bacteriostatic and limited bactericidal efficacy according to AATCC 147. Consequently, nanocomposite films may be good materials for medical applications due to their membranous properties.

  • 9. Erem, Aysin
    et al.
    Ozcan, Gulay
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Cakmak, Mukerrem
    In vitro assesment of antimicrobial activity and characteristics of polyamide 6/silver nanocomposite fibers2013In: Fibers And Polymers, ISSN 1229-9197, E-ISSN 1875-0052, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 1415-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the preparation method and characteristics of silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) loaded polyamide 6 (PA6) nanocomposite and its antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The melt intercalation method was used to prepare a series of PA 6 nanocomposite fibers containing, 0; 1; 3; 5 % (wt.) Ag. PA6/Ag nanocomposite fibers exhibit increased antimicrobial efficiency with the increase of nanoparticle contents. On the other hand, thermal characterization tests show that the increased concentration of Ag nanoparticles reduces the mechanical properties due to their partial agglomeration leading to flaw generation. The crystallinity of the fibers was found to decrease about 10 % with increase of Ag to 5 %. This was attributed to faster cooling rate experienced in the presence of high thermal conductivity Ag particles.

  • 10. Fatarella, Enrico
    et al.
    Mylläri, Ville
    Ruzzante, Marco
    Pogni, Rathish
    Baratto, Maria
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Syrjälä, Seppo
    Järvelä, Pentti
    Sulfonated polyetheretherketone/polypropylene polymer blends for the production of photoactive materials2014In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 132, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) was synthesized via a mono-substitution reaction of PEEK in concentrated sulphuric acid and was blended with polypropylene (PP) in 2–10%w/w concentration to be used for the production of photoactive thermoplastic products. SPEEK and SPEEK/PP blends were characterized using FTIR, DSC, TGA, NMR, rheology, SEM, and EPR. Under UV-Vis irradiation, stable benzophenone ketyl (BPK) radicals were generated by hydrogen extraction from PP. By increasing the amount of SPEEK in the polymer blend a linear increase in the BPK radicals was achieved according to the EPR data. DSC and TGA tests indicated weaknesses in the thermal stability of SPEEK but according to the rheological tests this should not have a major effect on processabililty. The optimal amount of SPEEK in the blend was obtained at 5%w/w. This concentration provided a good compromise between radical concentration, material processability, and cost

  • 11. Hooshmand, Saleh
    et al.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mathew, Ali
    Oksman, Kristiina
    All-cellulose nanocomposite fibers produced by melt spinning cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose nanocrystals2014In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2665-2678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based continuous fibers were prepared by melt spinning cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and triethyl citrate. A CNC organo-gel dispersion technique was used and the prepared materials (2 and 10 wt% CNC) were melt spun using a twin-screw micro-compounder and drawn to a ratio of 1.5. The microscopy studies showed that the addition of CNC in CAB resulted in defect-free and smooth fiber surfaces. An addition of 10 wt% CNC enhanced the storage modulus and increased the tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Fiber drawing improved the mechanical properties further. In addition, a micromechanical model of the composite material was used to estimate the stiffness and showed that theoretical values were exceeded for the lower concentration of CNC but not reached for the higher concentration. In conclusion, this dispersion technique combined with melt spinning can be used to produce all-cellulose nanocomposites fibers and that both the increase in CNC volume fraction and the fiber drawing increased the mechanical performance.

  • 12. Hooshmand, Saleh
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mathew, Ali
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Melt spun cellulose nanocomposite fibres: Comparison of two dispersion techniques2014In: Plastics, rubber and composites, ISSN 1465-8011, E-ISSN 1743-2898, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobased fibres of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser were prepared by melt spinning. To obtain homogeneous dispersion of CNC, two different dispersion techniques were studied. In the first, the water content of the CNC suspension was reduced and exchanged to ethanol using centrifugation. In the second, the water in the CNC suspension was completely exchanged to ethanol by sol–gel process. Results showed that tensile modulus and tensile strength of the nanocomposite fibres produced with the first technique were lower than CAB–TEC fibres, but the fibres produced by the sol–gel process showed an increase in the tensile modulus and had no decrease in the strength. Optical microscopy of the fibres indicated a few aggregations on the sol–gel prepared materials. The results indicate that the sol–gel process is enhancing the dispersion of CNC and can be a suitable way to prepare nanocomposite fibres.

  • 13. Lee, Tae-Hyung
    et al.
    Jeon, Sera
    Kim, Hyun-Joong
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Evaluation of mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion of PLA/Lyocell composite with silane coupling agent2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Surface modification and functionalisation of textile materials using digital inkjet2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Seipel, Sina
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Agnhage, Tove
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Functionalization of textile materials using inkjet technology2014In: 53rd DORNBIRN MAN-MADE FIBERS CONGRESS, Dornbirn MFC , 2014, Vol. 60911PM1330, p. 1-8Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Finnilä, Mikko
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    3D Woven Scaffolds of Melt-spun PLA Composite Fibres for Bone Regeneration2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibres are the basic units of textiles and are desirable as scaffold matrix material since they provide a large surface area to volume ratio. Using the textile technology, fibres can also be processed to form a variety of shapes and sizes, thus be used in different biological and medical applications. Poly(lactic acid) is a widely investigated material for use as scaffold matrix material and may be transformed into fibres either by melt spinning or solution spinning [1]. However, its lack of cell recognition signal has limited its use in tissue engineering applications [2]. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles, which mimics the natural bone mineral has been proven to stimulate and promote cell attachment [3]. From that point of view, the aim of this study was to produce a PLA/HA composite fibres that could be used in a 3D woven scaffold for bone regeneration.

  • 17. Poornejad, Nafiseh
    et al.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Salehi, S.M Amin
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Improvement of Ethanol Production from Spruce by Solvent Pretreatment2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocelluloses are abundant and inexpensive resources that can be used for production of bioethanol. However, these materials, especially softwoods, are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and a pretreatment process is necessary for efficient conversion to ethanol. The pretreatment is intended to render the cellulose amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation to bioethanol. Several methods has been suggested for the pretreatment of lignocelluloses. The pretreatment with cellulose solvents are among the promising methods since they can perform in mild processing conditions. N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is among the industrial solvents which can dissolve cellulose by breaking intermolecular interactions. NMMO is nowadays used in the industrial Lyocell process, which is one of the modern and environmentally friendly industrial fiber-making technologies. It does not produce any toxic waste pollutants, and can be recovered over 98%. The pretreatment of lignocellulose by NMMO can modify the crystal structure of cellulose. In the current work a commercial grade 50% (W/W) NMMO solution was used for pretreatment of spruce. The NMMO solution was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to 85% NMMO. The pretreatment performed at 120ºC for 3 h. The pretreated wood species were then regenerated by addition of boiling distilled water, followed by vacuum filtration and washing. The pretreated and untreated spruce species were enzymatically hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase (celluclast 1.5L, Novozyme, Denmark) and Β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188, Novozyme, Denmark) at 45ºC for 96h. A thermotolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for fermentation. Inoculum was aerobically cultivated at 30 °C and 120 rpm for 24 h. The enzymatic hydrolyzate was supplemented with necessary nutrient and fermented by the yeast for 24h at 30 °C and 120 rpm. The liquid samples were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that the yield of ethanol increased from 7.2 g/g to 77 g/g, when the wood treated with the solvent. Formation of glycerol and other metabolites were also detected and discussed. It can be concluded that the method can be a promising alternative for pretreatment of softwoods for bioethanol production.

  • 18. Rajan, Rathish
    et al.
    Riihivuori, Johanna
    Rainosalo, Egidija
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Järvelä, Pentti
    Effect of viscose fabric modification on the mechanical and water absorption properties of composites prepared through vacuum infusion2014In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 1416-1429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viscose fabric-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites were successfully prepared through vacuum infusion process. Unidirectional viscose fabric was modified by two different organosilane coupling agents and by acetylation treatment. The main objective was to study the influence of fabric treatment on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites. Flexural, tensile and impact properties of composites were studied. The results from mechanical testing of composites pointed out that 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane treatment increased the flexural and impact strengths of the composites with respect to untreated fabric composite. The impact strength of 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane-treated fabric composites almost doubled compared to the value of untreated fabric composite. Among all the composites under study, those with fabrics treated by 2 vol% 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane in ethanol/water (95:5) solution exhibited significant improvement in water uptake resistance. An unsaturated polyester gelcoat and topcoat were applied as the outer surface on the composites with untreated fabric. This was done in order to investigate the visual surface appearance and evaluate the gelcoat and topcoat effect on water absorption after accelerated water immersion test. The regenerated cellulose fibre as reinforcement shows high potential to be used as an alternative for natural bast fibres, especially, when toughness of material matters. Chemical treatment of regenerated cellulose fibres could result in improvement in properties of polymer composites, considering that the appropriate treatment method is selected for the corresponding fibre–matrix system.

  • 19. Rajan, Rathish
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Järvelä, Pentti
    Lactic acid polymers: synthesis, properties & applications2014In: Handbook of Green Materials, Vol. 5. Biobased composite materials: their processing, properties and industrial applications / [ed] Kristiina Oksman, Aji P. Mathew, Alexander Bismarck, Orlando Rojas, Mohini Sain, World Scientific Publishing , 2014, p. 49-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Herrmann, Rene
    Arcada University of Applied Science.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Performance of biocomposites from surface modified regenerated cellulose fibers and lactic acid thermoset bioresin2015In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface treatments, silane and alkali, on regenerated cellulose fibers was studied by using the treated fibers as reinforcement in lactic acid thermoset bioresin. The surface treatments were performed to improve the physico–chemical interactions at the fiber–matrix interface. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were used as indicator of the improvement of the interfacial strength. Furthermore, thermal conductivity, viscoelasticity measurements as well as microscopy images were made to characterize the fiber surface treatments and the effect on adhesion to the matrix. The results showed that silane treatment improved the mechanical properties of the composites as the silane molecule acts as link between the cellulose fiber and the resin (the fiber bonds with siloxane bridge while the resin bonds with organofunctional group of the bi-functional silane molecule) which gives molecular continuity in the interphase of the composite. Porosity volume decreased significantly on silane treatment due to improved interface and interlocking between fiber and matrix. Decrease in water absorption and increase in contact angle confirmed the change in the hydrophilicity of the composites. The storage modulus increased when the reinforcements were treated with silane whereas the damping intensity decreased for the same composites indicating a better adhesion between fiber and matrix on silane treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the reinforcement altered after treatments. The resin curing was followed using differential scanning calorimetry and the necessity for post-curing was recommended. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal behavior of the composites and a non-destructive resonance analysis was performed to ratify the modulus obtained from tensile testing. The changes were also seen on composites reinforced with alkali treated fiber. Microscopy images confirmed the good adhesion between the silane treated fibers and the resin at the interface.

  • 21.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Natural fibers for structural composite applications: concepts and opportunities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Structural composites from cellulose reinforcements: material concepts and production strategies2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Regenerated cellulose fibres for structural composites2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24. Soudham, Venkata Prabhakar
    et al.
    Rodriguez, Dani
    Rocha, George J M
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Martin, Carlos
    Acetosolv delignifi cation of marabou (Dichrostachys cinerea) wood with and without acid prehydrolysis2011In: Forestry Studies in China, ISSN 1008-1321, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical composition of marabou (Dichrostachys cinerea) wood and its treatment with acetic acid were investigated. Two different treatment approaches, direct acetosolv and combined acid prehydrolysis/acetosolv, were evaluated. The effects of acetic acid concentration (50%, 70% and 90%) and temperature (normal boiling temperature and 121°C) on yield of solids, solubilization of lignin and hemicelluloses and recovery of cellulose were evaluated for both treatments. High solubilization of marabou components was observed in the direct acetosolv treatment at 121°C, especially at the highest acetic acid concentration, where around 84.8% of lignin and 78% of hemicelluloses were removed. When the material was subjected to acid prehydrolysis prior to acetosolv treatment, lignin solubilization was improved, especially at low acetic acid concentrations. Above 80% of the solubilized lignin was recovered from the liquors in the direct acetosolv treatment, but the recovery was lower in the combined treatment. Cellulose was well preserved in all the treatment schemes.

  • 25.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    High crystalline cellulose to ethanol2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Teghammar, Anna
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Saddler, Jack
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Pretreatment of soft wood spruce and triticale straw by NMMO for enhanced biogas production2010Conference paper (Other academic)
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