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  • 1.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Temmink, Robin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    RECYCLING OF END-OF-LIFE TEXTILE MATERIALS BY FABRICATION OF GREEN COMPOSITES2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material recycling requires rather pure and non-contaminated waste streams, which can be converted by technical processes into new materials and products by economically and technically feasible techniques. It is also required that there is a secondary market for these recycled materials, and preferably in use areas with high economic value. End-of-life textiles cannot yet be recycled as a raw material in a feasible way. Structural composites are an excellent use area for recycled materials, as they are durable and light-weight products, with excellent mechanical properties.

    In this study, denim woven fabrics as end-of-life textiles were employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of high bio-content epoxy resin. Entropy Resin, manufacturer of commercial bio-based epoxy resin, claimed that bio-based content of system is 37 % and the resin is derived from by-products of industrial processes including wood pulp and biofuel. Bioepoxy was used as bio resins in composite manufacturing, and a conventional polyester resin served as a reference material. To create a wide scope of possibilities the composites were manufacturing using the four techniques: (1) vacuum infusion (VI), (2) resin transfer moulding (RTM), and (3) hand lay-up (HND). To determine the suitability for structural applications the biocomposites were tested for their mechanical and thermal properties. Mechanical tests for tensile, flexural strength and impact behaviour were conducted on composites. Moreover, viscoelastic properties of the composites were evaluated through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Fabricated composites were characterised regarding porosity, water absorption and analysed through microscopic images of the composite cross section. Different manufacturing technique showed varying results. For bioepoxy both HND and VI give superior mechanical properties over RTM, as the latter gives a higher void content, and lower tensile and flexural properties.

  • 2.
    Bakare, Fatimat O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thermomechanical properties of bio-based composites made from a lactic acid thermoset resin and flax and flax/basalt fibre reinforcements2016In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 83, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low viscosity thermoset bio-based resin was synthesised from lactic acid, allyl alcohol and pentaerythritol. The resin was impregnated into cellulosic fibre reinforcement from flax and basalt and then compression moulded at elevated temperature to produce thermoset composites. The mechanical properties of composites were characterised by flexural, tensile and Charpy impact testing whereas the thermal properties were analysed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a decrease in mechanical properties with increase in fibre load after 40 wt.% for the neat flax composite due to insufficient fibre wetting and an increase in mechanical properties with increase fibre load up to 60 wt.% for the flax/basalt composite. The results of the ageing test showed that the mechanical properties of the composites deteriorate with ageing; however, the flax/basalt composite had better mechanical properties after ageing than the flax composite before ageing.

  • 3.
    Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pectin-based Composites2017In: Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials: Biodegradable Materials, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 487-518Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One third of the cell wall of vascular plants is composed of pectin, which serves as the cementing material for the cellulosic network, behaving as a stabilized gel. Industrially, pectin is produced from juice and sugar production waste. Different sources and extraction conditions result in diversity in characteristics and applications of pectin. Most commonly, pectin is used in the food industry as a gelling and thickening agent and it is favored in the pharmaceutical industry as a carrier for colon-specific drugs. Pectin has good potential to be utilized as a matrix in production of environmentally friendly film packaging as well as biocomposite materials. Pectin is sensitive to chemical reactions and promotes the homogeneous immobilization of cells, genes, and proteins. However, due to limited mechanical properties pectin is not used for structural applications but instead rather for composites in which its biodegradable properties can be utilized. Pectin is often reinforced with hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. It can also be used as a biosorbent for copper removal from aqueous solutions. Active packaging of nanohybrids composed of pectin and halloysite nanotubes that are loaded with rosemary essential oil is another application of pectin-based composites.

  • 4.
    Esmaeili, Nima
    et al.
    University of Bolton.
    Jahandideh, Arash
    South Dakota State University.
    Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan
    South Dakota State University.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Synthesis and characterization of methacrylated star-shaped poly(lactic acid) emplying core moilecules with different hydroxyl groups2017In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 134, no 39, article id 45341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of novel bio-based star-shaped thermoset resins was synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of lactide and employing different multi-hydroxyl core molecules, including ethylene glycol, glycerol, and erythritol. The branches were end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride. The effect of the core molecule on the melt viscosity, the curing behavior of the thermosets and also, the thermomechanical properties of the cured resins were investigated. Resins were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C-NMR, and 1H-NMR to confirm the chemical structure. Rheological analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analysis were performed to obtain the melt viscosity and the curing behavior of the studied star-shaped resins. Thermomechanical properties of the cured resins were also measured by dynamic mechanical analysis. The erythritol-based resin had superior thermomechanical properties compared to the other resins and also, lower melt viscosity compared to the glycerol-based resin. These are of desired characteristics for a resin, intended to be used as a matrix for the structural composites. Thermomechanical properties of the cured resins were also compared to a commercial unsaturated polyester resin and the experimental results indicated that erythritol-based resin with 82% bio-based content has superior thermomechanical properties, compared to the commercial polyester resin. Results of this study indicated that although core molecule with higher number of hydroxyl groups results in resins with better thermomechanical properties, number of hydroxyl groups is not the only governing factor for average molecular weight and melt viscosity of the uncured S-LA resins.

  • 5.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kuzhanthaivelu, Gauthaman
    Bohlén, Martin
    Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Waste Management Option for Bioplastics Alongside Conventional Plastics2019In: IRC 2019 International Research Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics can be defined as polymers derived partly or completely from biomass. Bioplastics can be biodegradable such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA); or non-biodegradable (biobased polyethylene (bio-PE), polypropylene (bio-PP), polyethylene terephthalate (bio-PET)). The usage of such bioplastics is expected to increase in the future due to new found interest in sustainable materials. At the same time, these plastics become a new type of waste in the recycling stream. Most countries do not have separate bioplastics collection for it to be recycled or composted. After a brief introduction of bioplastics such as PLA in UK, these plastics are once again replaced by conventional plastics by many establishments due to lack of commercial composting. Recycling companies fear the contamination of conventional plastic in the recycling stream and they said they would have to invest in expensive new equipment to separate bioplastics and recycle it separately. Bioplastics are seen as a threat to the recycling industry as bioplastics may degrade during the mechanical recycling process and the properties of the recycled plastics are seriously impacted. This project studies what happens when bioplastics contaminate conventional plastics.

    Three commonly used conventional plastics were selected for this study: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In order to simulate contamination, two biopolymers, either polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) or thermoplastic starch (TPS) were blended with the conventional polymers. The amount of bioplastics in conventional plastics was either 1% or 5%. The blended plastics were processed again to see the effect of degradation. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of these plastics were characterized.

     

    The results from contamination showed that the tensile strength and the modulus of PE was almost unaffected whereas the elongation is clearly reduced indicating the increase in brittleness of the plastic. Generally, it can be said that PP is slightly more sensitive to the contamination than PE. This can be explained by the fact that the melting point of PP is higher than for PE and as a consequence, the biopolymer will degrade more quickly. However, the reduction of the tensile properties for PP is relatively modest. It is also important to notice that when plastics are recovered, there will always be a contamination that will reduce the material properties. The reduction of the tensile properties is not necessary larger than if a non-biodegradable polymer would have contaminated PE or PP. The Charpy impact strength is generally a more sensitive test method towards contamination. Again, PE is relatively unaffected by the contamination but for PP there is a relatively large reduction of the impact properties already at 1% contamination.

    PET is polyester and it is by its very nature more sensitive to degradation than PE and PP. PET also have a much higher melting point than PE and PP and as a consequence the biopolymer will quickly degrade at the processing temperature of PET. As for the tensile strength, PET can tolerate 1% contamination without any reduction of the tensile strength. However, when the impact strength is examined, it is clear that already at 1% contamination, there is a strong reduction of the properties. It can also be seen that presence of TPS is more detrimental to PET than PHA is. This can be explained by the fact that TPS contain reactive hydroxyl groups that can react with the ester bond of PET. This will in other words lead to degradation of PET.

    The thermal properties show the change in the crystallinity. As a general conclusion, it can be said that the plastics become less crystalline when contaminated. The blends were also characterized by SEM. Biphasic morphology can be seen as the two polymers are not truly blendable which also contributes to reduced mechanical properties. Recycling of the contaminated polymer shows an increase in crystallinity. This means that when the polymers are processed, polymer degradation occur causing the polymer chains to gradually become shorter which will enhance the crystallization process.

    The study shows that PE is relatively robust againt contamination, while polypropylene (PP) is somewhat more sensitive and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be quite sensitive towards contamination.

  • 6.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Alagar, Ragunathan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Akhtar, Naeem
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    End of life textiles as reinforcements in biocomposites2017In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, p. -12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of attempts have been made to recycle cotton/polyester blend woven fabrics after use; however, most of these fabrics are disposed of in landfills. Major part of these blend fabrics are not recycled due to complexity of the fibre arrangement and cannot be separated economically. This study shows that these discarded woven fabrics could be directly used as reinforcements in composites without fibre separation. Uniform alignment in the woven fabric provided consistent properties to the composites. The fabrics were reinforced by soybean-based-bioresins to produce biocomposites. The composites were analysed for mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic and morphological properties. Porosity and wettability of the composites were also evaluated. Results demonstrate that the tensile strength and modulus of over 100 and 10 MPa, respectively, can be obtained without any fibre treatment. Furthermore, impact strength over 70 kJ/m2 was obtained without any chemical treatment on fibres. The porosity of the composites produced was less than 9 vol%. Additionally, the fabrics were treated with alkali in order to improve the fibre–matrix interface and the composite properties were studied. From the economical perspective, these composites can be produced at a low cost as the major component is available for free or low cost.

  • 7.
    Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fused deposition modelling – Towards 3D printed electrodes on fabric for surface electromyography (sEMG)2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring has promising applications within the field of human robot communication where wearable electrodes are used as the interface. This research investigates the production of flexible 3D printed electrodes using electrically conductive filaments, of thermoplastic polyurethane containing carbon black, and polyester fabric as substrate. Dry 3D printed electrodes of varying thickness, due to increased number of layers, were compared to conventional electrolytic gel electrodes. Initial tests show that the volume resistivity of 3D printed electrodes increased with increased number of layers. This because, with increased number of layers the diffusion between layers deteriorates and hinders conductive particle connections. Additional heat-treatments using hot press plates to improve diffusion between layers were promising as volume resistivity decreased with 200 % for all samples. As a first step to evaluate the 3D printed electrodes, skin-electrode impedance measurements were performed, and compared with measurements of conventional electrodes. Results showed that resistance and reactance versus frequency curves had similar trending slopes, decreasing with increasing frequency. However, this corresponded only between the thinnest (200 μm) 3D-printed dry electrode having a volume resistivity of 6.2 Ω cm and the conventional gel electrode. Future studies regarding the influence of platform and extruder temperature are planned for, focusing on improved diffusion between layers and increased conduction for proper electron transfer. 

  • 8.
    Mujica-Garcia, A
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Università di Perugia, Italy.
    Hoosmand, Saleh
    Division of Materials Science, Composite Centre Sweden, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kenny, J M
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale, Università di Perugia, Italy.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Division of Materials Science, Composite Centre Sweden, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Peponi, L
    Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, ICTP-CSIC, Spain.
    Poly(lactic acid) melt-spun fibers reinforced with functionalized cellulose nanocrystals2016In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, p. 9221-9231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(lactic acid)-cellulose nanocrystals (PLA/CNC) nanocomposite fibers with 1% weight fraction of nanocrystals were prepared via melt-spinning. In order to improve the compatibility between PLA and the CNC, PLLA chains were grafted onto the CNC surface using a "grafting from" reaction. For comparison, melt-spun PLA fibers and nanocomposites with unmodified CNC were also prepared. The morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the fibers with different draw ratios were determined. The results of this research show that the surface modification together with drawing resulted in improved fiber properties, which are expected to depend on the alignment of the CNC and PLA molecular chains. The modification is also expected to lead to a flexible interface, which leads to more stretchable fibers. The main conclusion is that PLLA grafting is a very promising approach to improve the dispersion of CNC in PLA, thus creating interfacial adhesion between the phases and making it possible to spin fibers that can be drawn with improved mechanical performance.

  • 9.
    Rajan, Rathish
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Rainosalo, Egidija
    Centria University of Applied Sciences.
    Thomas, Selvin
    Royal Commission Yanbu Colleges and Institutes.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vuorinen, Jyrki
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zavasnik, Janez
    Jožef Stefan Institute.
    Modification of epoxy resin by silane-coupling agent to improve tensile properties of viscose fabric composites2018In: Polymer Bulletin, ISSN 0170-0839, E-ISSN 1436-2449, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 167-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modification of epoxy resin by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to improve the tensile properties of warp knitted viscose fabric composites is reported in this study. The study evaluates the efficiency of modification methods adopted to modify the epoxy resin and the influence of the resin modification on various properties of the cured castings. The influence of matrix resin modification on the tensile properties of viscose fabric composite is compared to those prepared from chemically modified fibre. The efficiency of the modification was determined through titration method to determine the epoxide content of epoxy resin, viscosity measurement and FTIR. The effect of APTES modification on various properties of cured castings is studied through differential scanning calorimeter, contact angle measurement and tensile testing. The addition of APTES into the epoxy resin decreased the epoxide content in the resin as evident from the titration method. The tensile strength of cured castings decreased after the resin modification. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the viscose fabric composites prepared from modified resin, increased up to 14 and 41%, respectively. The improved adhesion of APTES-modified epoxy resin to the viscose fibre is confirmed from SEM analysis of tensile fracture surface.

  • 10.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Herrmann, Rene
    Arcada University of Applied Science.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Performance of biocomposites from surface modified regenerated cellulose fibers and lactic acid thermoset bioresin2015In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface treatments, silane and alkali, on regenerated cellulose fibers was studied by using the treated fibers as reinforcement in lactic acid thermoset bioresin. The surface treatments were performed to improve the physico–chemical interactions at the fiber–matrix interface. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were used as indicator of the improvement of the interfacial strength. Furthermore, thermal conductivity, viscoelasticity measurements as well as microscopy images were made to characterize the fiber surface treatments and the effect on adhesion to the matrix. The results showed that silane treatment improved the mechanical properties of the composites as the silane molecule acts as link between the cellulose fiber and the resin (the fiber bonds with siloxane bridge while the resin bonds with organofunctional group of the bi-functional silane molecule) which gives molecular continuity in the interphase of the composite. Porosity volume decreased significantly on silane treatment due to improved interface and interlocking between fiber and matrix. Decrease in water absorption and increase in contact angle confirmed the change in the hydrophilicity of the composites. The storage modulus increased when the reinforcements were treated with silane whereas the damping intensity decreased for the same composites indicating a better adhesion between fiber and matrix on silane treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the reinforcement altered after treatments. The resin curing was followed using differential scanning calorimetry and the necessity for post-curing was recommended. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal behavior of the composites and a non-destructive resonance analysis was performed to ratify the modulus obtained from tensile testing. The changes were also seen on composites reinforced with alkali treated fiber. Microscopy images confirmed the good adhesion between the silane treated fibers and the resin at the interface.

  • 11.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    BIOCOMPOSITES FROM SURFACE MODIFIED REGENERATED CELLULOSE FIBERS AND LACTIC ACID THERMOSET BIORESIN2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Thermoset bioresin was synthesized from lactic acid and glycerol, and the resin was characterized for it to be used in composite applications. On the other hand, regenerated cellulose fibers were surface treated to improve the physico–chemical interactions at the fiber–matrix interface. The effect of surface treatments, silane and alkali, on regenerated cellulose fibers was studied by using the treated fibers as reinforcement in lactic acid thermoset bioresin. Mechanical tests were used as indicator of the improvement of the interfacial strength. Fiber surface treatments and the effect on adhesion to the matrix were characterized using microscopy images and thermal conductivity. Mechanical properties of the composites showed an increase when treated with silane as the bi-functional silane molecule acts as link between the regenerated cellulose fiber and the bioresin.

    Porosity volume decreased significantly on silane treatment due to improved interface and interlocking between fiber and matrix. Decrease in water absorption and increase in contact angle confirmed the change in the hydrophilicity of the composites. The storage modulus increased when the reinforcements were treated with silane whereas the damping intensity decreased for the same composites indicating a better adhesion between fiber and matrix on silane treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the reinforcement altered after treatments. The resin curing was followed using differential scanning calorimetry and the necessity for post-curing was recommended. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal behavior of the composites and a non-destructive resonance analysis was performed to ratify the modulus obtained from tensile testing. The changes were also seen on composites reinforced with alkali treated fiber. Microscopy images confirmed the good adhesion between the silane treated fibers and the resin at the interface.

  • 12.
    Santamala, Harri
    et al.
    Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Livingston, R
    Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto University, Aalto University, School of Chemistry, Department of Forest Products Technology.
    Hummel, M
    Aalto University, School of Chemistry, Department of Forest Products Technolog.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Saarela, Olli
    Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Advantages of regenerated cellulose fibres as compared to flax fibres in the processability and mechanical performance of thermoset composites2016In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, Vol. 84, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Man-made cellulosic fibres (MMCFs) have attracted widespread interest as the next generation of fibre reinforced composite. However, most studies focused entirely on their performance on single fibre level and little attention has been paid to their behaviour on a larger application scale. In this study, MMCFs were utilized as reinforcement in unidirectionally (UD) manufactured thermoset composites and compared to several commercial UD flax fibre products. Specimens were prepared using a vacuum bag based resin infusion technique and the respective laminates characterized in terms of void fraction and mechanical properties. MMCF laminates had comparable or better mechanical performance when compared to flax fibre laminates. Failure mechanisms of MMCF laminates were noted to differ from those of flax-reinforced laminates. The results demonstrate the potential of MMCFs as a viable alternative to glass fibre for reinforcement on a larger scale of UD laminates. These results were utilized in the Biofore biomaterial demonstration vehicle.

  • 13.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rissanen, Marja
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mechanical and thermal characterization of compression moulded polylactic acid natural fiber composites reinforced with hemp and Lyocell fibers2014In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 131, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Temmink, Robin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of biocomposites from denim waste and thermoset bio-resins2018In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 106, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the use of post-consumer denim fabric in combination with thermoset bio-resins in composite manufacturing for structural applications. Bio-epoxy and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil resin (AESO) were used as bio-resins with four different manufacturing techniques in order to create a wide scope of possibilities for research. The four techniques are: compression moulding (COM), vacuum infusion (VAC), resin transfer moulding (RTM) and hand lay-up (HND). The bio-resins were compared to a conventional polyester resin, as this is highly used for structural applications. To determine suitability for structural applications, the biocomposites were tested for their mechanical and thermal properties. Fabricated composites were characterised regarding porosity, water absorption and analysed through microscopic images of the composite. Results show both bio-epoxy and AESO are suitable for use in structural applications over a range of manufacturing techniques. Furthermore, biocomposites from bio-epoxy are superior to those from AESO resin. The conventional polyester has shown to be unsuitable for structural applications.

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