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  • 1.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cargo theft at non-secure parking locations2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 432, no 1, p. 204-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of reported cargo thefts at

    non-secure parking facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to stolen

    value, frequency, incident category, and modi operandi.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on a system-theoretical approach that

    emphasizes on a holistic rather than an atomistic view. The research method used in this paper is

    deductive; the analysis is based on data obtained from the incident information service (IIS), a database

    of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA

    region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk

    management (SCRM) and criminology theories.

    Findings – We found that 97 per cent of all attacks during a stop occur at non-secure parking

    locations. Cargo thefts at these locations are more of a volume crime than high-value thefts. Seasonal

    variations were seen in these thefts, and the most common type was an intrusion on weekdays

    during winter.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by the content of and the classifications

    within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

    Practical implications – This paper is directly relevant to the current EU discussions regarding the

    creation of a large number of secure parking facilities in the region.

    Originality/value – This is one of the first papers in the field of SCRM that utilizes actual crime

    statistics reported by the industry to analyse the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the

    non-secure parking aspect in the transport chain.

  • 2.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Modi operandi for cargo theft in EMEA—A seasonality analysis2015In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, Vol. 8, no 3-4, p. 99-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies patterns and trends in cargo theft by analysing seasonal

    variations (by time of year and time of week) in the relationship between value

    (reported stolen value) and various reported modi operandi. This research is exploratory

    in nature; it is based on theories derived from criminology and logistics as well as

    secondary data related to cargo theft. For practical purposes, the research is geographically

    limited to EMEA; however, the frame of reference is applicable to the analysis of

    antagonistic threats to transport worldwide. Though patterns differ across categories,

    for some modi operandi, seasonal patterns are found across both months of the year and

    days of the week. Despite variations in hot spots, incident categories, stolen and

    endangered objects, and handling methods, the basic theoretical framework is generally

    applicable. This research is limited by the content and classificatory scheme of the TAPA

    EMEA IIS database. However, this is the best available database and it contains anonymous

    reports that are mainly from TAPA member companies that are in the industry itself.

  • 3.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brüls, Helmut
    FreightWatch International, Head of EMEA Intelligence.
    Wyer, Daniel
    Freightwatch International, EMEA Intelligence Analyst.
    Theft of pharmaceuticals during transport in Europe2015In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the scale of cargo theft in

    the European pharmaceutical supply chain in 2014. The study is based on a systemtheoretical

    approach which emphasises a holistic rather than atomistic view. The

    research in this paper is deductive and descriptive in its nature and aims to present a

    current description of theft of pharmaceuticals in a European perspective. This paper’s

    hypotheses on cargo theft have been developed from theories of criminology, for

    applicable use, to strengthen the scientific field of logistics. A survey was conducted

    in autumn 2014 whereby the respondents were asked to provide their opinions in

    relation to eleven questions. The survey was sent out to all major players in the

    European pharmaceutical sector – manufacturers and logistics providers specializing

    in pharmaceuticals. The survey captured more or less 80 % of the European pharmaceutical

    manufacturers' market share.We found that the current threats against European

    pharmaceutical transport are small in relative occurrence terms (relatively few attacks on

    a yearly basis compared to other product categories) but on an impact basis thefts of

    pharmaceuticals place as one of the top targets (value wise) for criminals. This research

    supports other sources that the current geographical hot spot for these thefts in Europe is

    in Italy. The top risks are rated as either robbery or theft from vehicle at unsecure parking

    areas. These two different modi operandi can be divided into one frequency related

    threat (theft from unsecure parking) and one impact related risk (robbery).

  • 4.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Cargo theft risk and security: product and location2017In: NOFOMA 2017 THE 29TH NOFOMA CONFERENCE: TAKING ON GRAND CHALLENGES / [ed] Daniel Hellström, Joakim Kembro, Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study is to explore cargo theft risk and security for different product types at different locations along a transport chain. Design/methodology/approach - This study is based on a system-theoretical approach. The research method is deductive as the analysis is based on secondary data and results from a questionnaire. The results are analyzed based on supply chain risk management (SCRM) and criminology theories. Findings - Due to substantial interaction effects, the type of product and transport chain location must be considered to determine the correct level of security. Specifically, the product type is more significant since the general cargo theft risk is higher. Furthermore, the transport industry has three perspectives of security responses to cargo theft: demanded, needed, and actual security, which differ depending on the product type and transport chain location. Research limitations/implications - This study is limited by the content and classifications of the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) of the Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Incident Information Service (IIS) database as well as by the attendees of the 2015 TAPA EMEA Q4 conference. Practical implications - This paper has both research and practical implications as it studies security within freight transport from three perspectives as linked to general cargo theft risk and goods owners’ requirements. Originality/value - This paper addresses the contemporary SCRM problem of cargo theft using actual crime statistics and the industry understanding of generic required security levels.

  • 5.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The use of violence in cargo theft – a supply chain disruption case2018In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of reported cargo thefts involving violence in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region with regard to the value of stolen goods, incident frequency, transport chain location, and incident category. The research method is deductive and is based on analyses of secondary data obtained from the Incident Information Service by the Transported Asset Protection Association. The results are discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and supply chain disruption literature. We found that perpetrators who use violence seem to cause greater losses per theft than those who use other types of modus operandi. Further, the most common type of violent cargo theft occurs on Mondays in January when cargo vehicles are robbed on the road and consumer electronics are stolen. In terms of supply chain disruption, violent cargo thefts can be seen as externally-caused disruptions, which can indirectly cause major problems for the supply chain.

  • 6.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    THEFT OF GOODS IN PORTS A review of TAPA EMEA IIS statistics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines patterns of reported cargo thefts at maritime transport facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to frequency, incident category, modus operandi, and targeted product category. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Incident Information Service (IIS), a database of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and criminology theories. We find that maritime transport facilities constitute a rare target location for cargo thieves, as only 102 of more than 24,500 incidents (0.4%) in the IIS database occur there. Nevertheless, some conclusions can be made. First, there seems to be seasonality in day of the week, but probably not in month of the year. Second, violent and fraudulent modi operandi of theft at maritime transport facilities are about as common as in the whole data set. Thus, it could be conjectured that the impact from violent and fraudulent incidents is several times higher than the most common types of incident category or modus operandi, although this is unsupported in this study. The product categories signal that there is big variation in value in stolen goods. Third, it is possible that potential perpetrators consider security levels at maritime transport facilities to be higher, leading to fewer theft attempts. This study is limited by the content of and classifications within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

  • 7.
    Ericsson, D.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Demand Chain Management2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ericsson, Dag
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Demand Chain Management: The evolution2011In: ORiON: The Journal of ORSSA, ISSN 0529-191X, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 45-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Demand Chain Management (DCM) are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: \Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?" Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Di erent approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less simultaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language) is provided that helps in further di usion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the de nition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the de nition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A demand chain may be de ned as an integrated and aligned chain built on partnership and mutual interdependence aiming at the creation of a unique competence to identify and satisfy customer perceived value, while demand chain management may be de ned as the e ort to create, retain and continuously develop a dynamically aligned demand chain.

  • 9.
    Ma, Ke
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    IDENTIFYING INTER-ORGANIZATION COLLABORATION TYPES AND RESEARCH ADVANCEMENTS IN SUPPLY CHAIN CONTEXT2015In: The Proceedings of 20th International Symposium on Logistics (ISL 2015): Reflections on Supply Chain Research and Practice / [ed] KS Pawar, H Rogers and E Ferrari, Nottingham, NG8 1BB UK: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School, 2015, p. 165-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this state-of-the-art paper is to make a synthesis analysis oncollaboration in supply chain by literature review of all relevant articles, conceptualizingcollaboration in supply chain and providing implications for future research. Based ondesigned material collection standard, up to year 2014, a total of 1250 papers are usedfor descriptive analysis and a total of 509 papers are carefully reviewed for furtherclassification, conceptualization and comparison analysis. Research in this field is in anincreasing trend in general but most of collaboration in supply chain is still in a low levelin research. Another interesting finding is that logistics seems to be the most promisingsupply chain stage for research about collaboration in supply chain.

  • 10.
    Manfredsson, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andersson, Roy
    Jönköping University.
    Lantz, Björn
    Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers.
    Total productive maintenance in support processes: an enablerfor operation excellence2015In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1042-1055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to stay competitive in today’s marketplace, it is vital to reduce activities that do

    not create value. Lean production has in the last decade been seen as a philosophy to

    reduce non-value time. The office environment often presents a major improvement

    opportunity to reduce non-value time. Lean contributes positively to business

    performance applied in a manufacturing context and is also suggested to do the

    same in a service context. The purpose of the paper is to analyse and determine how

    total productive maintenance (TPM) can be applied within the support process and

    to identify effects from an employee and business perspective. A case study has

    been performed and a qualitative research approach was selected. Empirical data

    were gathered by using semi-structured interviews at one case company, but from

    several teams that had applied TPM. The result was then used as an inductive

    approach to explore how TPM can be applied in a support process. To implement

    and apply TPM within an office context, it should be structured in three steps

    (i) define, (ii) implement and (iii) sustain. TPM should be conducted as a part of the

    ordinary day-to-day work. The planning and discussions connected to TPM can be

    included in regular daily departmental ‘stand-up meetings’ involving everybody. The

    work with 5S and maintenance should also be a part of the TPM structure,

    connecting it as a system and not as an isolated activity. TPM can create value from

    both a business and an employee perspective. In the employee perspective, TPM

    reduces the risk of missing/forgetting areas of responsibility and creates more

    involvement. In the business perspective, objectives such as cost and quality are

    improved, but TPM also enables the reduction of waste.

  • 11. Männistö, Toni
    et al.
    Hintsa, Juha
    Urciuoli, Luca
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Crime Taxonomy Development and Empirical Validation2014In: International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, ISSN 1756-6517, E-ISSN 1756-6525, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 238-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Harper, Sara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vellesalu, Ann
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Competitive manufacturing for reshoring textile and clothing supply chains to high-cost environment – A delphi approach2017In: Data Driven Supply Chains / [ed] K. S. Pawar; A. Potter and A. Lisec, Nottingham: Centre for Concurrent Enterprise, Nottingham University Business School, 2017, p. 70-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing knowledge of reshoring, enabled largely by competitive manufacturing (CM) strategies in high-cost locations, is limited particularly in context to labour-intensive industries, like textile and clothing (T&C). The purpose of the paper is to identify and prioritize various CM-related supply chain factors that can enable reshoring of T&C to high-cost area. Following a systematic literature review, a multiple round Delphi study is conducted with T&C manufacturers in Sweden to seek practitioners’ perspective. While there is high consensus on the success factors, flexibility to meet short lead times, high product/service quality, and product/service customization; low degree of agreement is reached for the perceived challenges. Some out of literature debates emerged in terms of challenges related to CM in high-cost area, regarding increased fixed costs of production, rise in inventory level due to high product variety requirement, and low skill level against access to skills. Along with the decisive knowledge on the CM-related success factors for reshored supply chains, the Delphi study offers an interesting practitioners’ perspective from a labour-intensive sector like T&C.

  • 13.
    Sandberg, Erik
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Linköping University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dynamic capabilities in the used clothing supply chain2017In: Data Driven Supply Chains / [ed] K.S. Pawar, A. Potter and A. Lisec, Nottingham, UK, 2017, p. 730-737Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the dynamic capabilities present - and the ones missing - in used clothing supply chains. Such capabilities ensure ability to cope with the rapidly changing conditions in the used clothing supply chain, by creating, modifying and renewing the existing resource base. Particular empirical focus in the paper is given to fashion retailers and charities operating on the Swedish market. Based on the dynamic capabilities classes of sensing, seizing and reconfiguring, empirical data exemplify contemporary dynamic capabilities present among these actors. Theory on dynamic capabilities has to a very limited extent been applied in a reverse supply chain setting. The used clothing supply chain offers an interesting case for the exploration of the dynamic capabilities needed in such a reverse supply chain environment.

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