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  • 1.
    Abdullah, Sara
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Al Qarghulli, Ahmed
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Majzoub, Nour Eddin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kommunikation på en byggarbetsplats2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great need for a well-functioning communication in the construction industry, with the reason that it is an extensive industry where many different professional roles are involved. Communication can be lacking in many areas and can turn into negative effects on a project. In the construction industry, unpredictable changes often occur, which can make effective communication more difficult to achieve.

    This study is about understanding how communication can be challenging and affect construction projects during production. The purpose of this study is to find measures to prevent lack of communication and carefully study whether it can increase involvement, community, and motivation on a construction site, by examining and analyzing how information is disseminated among involved parties in a project under production.

    The study answers the following questions:

    • How do you communicate on a construction site?
    • Does communication increase involvement, community, and motivation on a construction site?
    • Can you save money by increasing communication skills at the construction site?

    Qualitative interviews were conducted on some employees at GH Olofsson Bygg & Entreprenad AB to create an idea of how communication works and is experienced in their workplace.

    The result of the interviews showed that communication was in some cases less good and that misunderstandings arose many times. The study delves into how communication is experienced and processed and how to make it more efficient. It also delves into which communication methods are used and which are most suitable in different situations. The results indicate that the most appreciated way to communicate is face-to-face meetings. However, it turned out that this method of communication is not always appropriate as factors such as time pressure or sudden changes may occur.

    One measure that is discussed in the study is, among other things, that all employees at the company must complete a course that deals with the value of communication and how it can be applied in a way to reduce misunderstandings. By implementing that measure, communication deficiencies can be prevented from the beginning. As a result of this measure, money can be saved in the long run even though it can be costly in the beginning.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Petersson, Oscar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Anbud: Faktorer och förbättringsmöjligheter i anbudsprocessen2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report shows how extensive the tender process is and what factors to consider in order tosubmit a winning bid. It highlights the different parts of the tender process and makes adeeper analysis of some of the most important factors. Bidding is not just about value whatsomething will cost. Because companies rarely are alone, they are finding ways and solutionsthat make the offer competitive. There is a high pace in the construction industry andconstruction companies currently have a lot to do.The report is written together with RO-Gruppen and a survey is the basis for the analysis. Thegoal was to describe RO-Gruppens work and to find possible improvement potential.As specifications, customers and procurement variations vary, it’s difficult to always followthe same template. Transparency and flexibility is required to analyze what exactly the clientis looking for. Experience proved to be a decisive factor, both according to the literature andthe questionnaire survey.

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    Anbud
  • 3.
    Akbary, Josef
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mohammad, Maya
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Blazevski Peterson, Nicola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Parametrisk design i tidiga skeden för en hållbar byggprocess2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is a significant part of societal development in all sectors, including the construction industry, which is facing increased sustainability demands. It has enabled increased productivity and efficiency, as well as improved opportunities for collaboration among different actors. The construction industry has great potential to develop and implement digital tools in various parts of the construction process.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate and identify opportunities and challenges that parametric design entails from a sustainability perspective. The study also focuses on the disadvantages and advantages of such a tool in the early stages of the construction process. What parametric design is and how it can be used in early stages will be central to our analysis. To carry out the study in the best possible way, a qualitative method (see further, 3.2) and semi-structured interviews (see further, 3.2.1) were chosen, which gave the respondents the opportunity to share their understanding and knowledge of parametric design. A total of eight interviews were conducted, which formed the basis of our results. However, the study was delimited to the early stages of the construction process to avoid an excessively extensive report, and all selected interviews were aimed only at architecture firms, consulting firms, and real estate companies. To give the reader a clearer picture of the work roles that were interviewed, the actors have been described in detail (see further, 2.3).

    The study's results suggest that parametric design is widely used in the early stages of the construction process. Some of the tools include Grasshoppers, Dynamo, Rhino, Spacemaker, Rhino Inside Revit, Revit, and SketchUp. The most mentioned software in the interview material is Grasshoppers and Rhino.

    The results indicate that digital tools can be used to automate some of the tasks and make them faster and easier. It also turned out that these tools can generate several different design options and facilitate decision-making. Promoting collaboration between professional roles was also an advantage of this approach. The disadvantages included a lack of knowledge and competence, as well as the digital transformation that made it difficult for some to keep up with technological advances. On the one hand, the tool was shown to open several opportunities in the early stages, such as using certain parameters such as gross floor area and living area to manipulate output. Another possibility was to design safe environments that are material efficient, which is significant from a social and economic sustainability perspective. On the other hand, challenges were highlighted in the results, such as the need for innovative standards for increasingly complex geometries and technological breakthroughs. For further reading, see Chapter 4.

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    fulltext
  • 4.
    Akram, Hoger
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kasem, Kani
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    En jämförande studie mellan platsgjuten betongvägg och skalvägg: Kostnad och tid för respektive byggmetod2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is a comparison between two different construction methods: half shell precast walls and site cast concrete walls. The study has been made for SEFA Betongentreprenad AB who is aiming for the most profitable construction method.The important aspects, which are emphasized in this thesis are costs, time and working environment.The result shows that a building with half shell precast walls is causing increased material cost in the project which also leads to a higher prime cost for the concrete contractor. On the contrary it will require shorter time schedule compared to working with the site concrete wall which the main contractor benefits from, because less time equals decreased overhead cost and management cost. In addition half shell precast walls provides a better working environment compared to site cat concrete walls because less work activities are required at the worksite which also leads to a reduction of accidents.Time and cost is based on unit-time from Nybyggnadslistan 1999 and the price inquiry. To compile the prime cost and time for the total work a careful calculation has been performed in various computer programs so like Bluebem, Wikells and Excel. The survey is based on documentation of a project which includes both a school and student dormitory in Lund.

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  • 5.
    Al Sadi, Sarmad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hododi, Dylan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digitalisering av byggsektorn2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The digital progress is slow within the constructional sector in comparison to other type of businesses and it has the reputation of being relatively conservative. To say that the progress is standing still would be mistake since the majority of constructional companies are working actively for a more digital construction site. Even though these companies are working hard towards a more digital sector the construction site is dominated by paper documents, non-autonomic systems and the labor is done the same way as it has been done for decades. Even though multiple digital tools and implementation models are available the construction sector is facing a lot of resistance. This report examines those digital innovations that are on the rampaging and can do a significant good within the construction sector.

    Method: Through search engines at the university's database, as well as the internet, collection of raw data was collected, which would then be analyzed and underlie for qualitative collection methods. The literature study was the foundation of the semistructured interviews, which in turn enabled a comparison between the theoretical framework and interview results.

    Findings: A vast majority of the interviewed participants believe that the 3D-printer sometime in the future may be used within the construction sector. An implementation of the 3D-printer would induce shorter production times, reduced production costs, elimination of waste and reduced costs for labor. Autonomic systems will probably not be implemented on construction sites within a short future since different construction projects are to diverse. If the construction would become more monotonic it would ease considerably, but today one project is rarely analogous to the other. Big data is an innovation that could revolutionize the construction sector in a lot of different ways. The respondents did not understand the meaning of the term, which interpret that it is not an innovation in focus for the time being. The possibilities of Big data are substantial and it could be used for more effective communication, more efficiency within the construction site, more detailed checkups of machinery and more controlled building material checkups.

    Implications: For a generally successful implementation of 3D-printers they need to be affordable for the smaller companies. Otherwise the larger firms risk to put the smaller firms out of business. Since concrete is a material with a relatively large impact on the environment this may cause consequences for the environment in the future since its already in an exposed situation. Since it´s globally working actively with improving the environment the focus should be in producing more environmentally acceptable concrete for the 31d-printers.

    Limitations: The study was limited to a handful of Swedish constructional companies within the Gothenburg region. In the report, only the opinions of a few respondent are taken to consideration.

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    fulltext
  • 6.
    Azar, Kaihan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Abusetta, Seif Abdulhaziz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Återbruk av prefabricerade betongbalkar: Hållfasthetsegenskaper av 60 år gamla prefab betongbalkar2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if it is possible to reuse 60 year old beams that are currently used as roofbeams in the Viskaholm warehouse building in Borås. The study is linked to the urban development project Västerbro, where it is planned to demolish the warehouse building and build new housing instead. The beams that were investigated in the study are precast prestressed concrete beams.

    The goal of the study is to find out how the beams would have been dimensioned according to Swedish National Board of Housing’s Construction Regulations BKR. Then check whether the- load-bearing capacity of the beams meets today’s standards according to the EurocodeEKS12/EC2 for high-performing prestressed concrete beams. This with the aim of investigating whether it is possible to reuse 60 years old precast concrete beams in new construction.

    The beams were dimensioned, and factory cast in the 1960s in accordance with the Swedish building code Byggnadsstadga 1960 (BABS 60). Construction drawings for the beams are missing and there is a lack of data for the dimensioning of prestressed concrete beams according to BABS 60. Because of this, the beams have been dimensioned in accordance with Swedish National Board of Housing’s Construction Regulations BKR which applied in 1995. The book Building Construction 3 by Bengt Langesten has been used as guide for dimensioning of the beams. The the load-bearing capacity of the beams has then been calculated according to Eurocode 2, to check whether they meet toady’s load-bearing requirements.

    The results of the study have shown that the moment and shear force capacity of the beams can bear the maximal moment and shear force. However, these beams do not contain minimum reinforcement because it was not required by BKR. But according to Eurocode 2, the beams must contain minimum reinforcement even if their shear force capacity can bear the maximal shear force.

    Based on the results, it is concluded that the beams can bear both the maximal moment and shear force. But in order for the beams to be reused today, the minimum reinforcement required by EC2 must be compensated in some way.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Badeie, Arash
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sarwari, Morsal
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sincar, Sally
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet på byggarbetsplatser2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workers in the construction industry are twice as likely to have accidents compared to other industries. There are gaps between safety and the working environment that must be remedied to achieve the “nollvision” (“zero vision”) objective so that no one is injured or dies in the workplace. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the causes of the high number of accidents in the construction industry and to examine the behavior and attitude of employees towards safety of the work environment.

    The literature study showed the measures authorities have undertaken such as introduction of work environment laws and regulations to reduce the risks for work related accidents. In addition, penalty fees are assigned for any violation against rules and there are requirements for companies to carry out evaluations of the safety of their work environment. Due to these measures, the rate of accidents has declined. Furthermore, the interview studies showed the safety and environmental work’s routines, as well as attitude, behavior and communication were examined among the employees.

    Stress, driven by the project’s budget, was a risk factor for incidence of accidents. Another significant risk factor is the individual's attitude and behavior towards work environment safety and safety work, where the risk for accidents is created by neglecting the use of safety equipment and safety routines. Furthermore, foreign employees and subcontractors with different views of safety have inherent risk for accidents.

    The market of construction companies should be fair to minimize the negative impact of financial competition on safety of employees and the penalty fees should be increased in case of any violations against the safety rules. Furthermore, managers can influence the safety behavior of their employees by wearing protective equipment themselves and giving positive feedback. Instead of implementing more laws, rules and/or routines, the construction industry should improve and effective the way these regulations are communicated and provide continuous information about the security system in order to raise safety awareness among employees.

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    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet på byggarbetsplatser
  • 8.
    Bashouri, Ibrahim Mosaef
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashouri, Moatasem Bellah
    Återanvändning av betongslam som ersättning för ballast och cement2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has been carried out in collaboration with Swerock and Temakon. The goal is to recycle the sludge that arises during concrete production in factories. Eleven casting tests have been carried out in the university's laboratory to evaluate which is the best way to recycle the sludge, as a replacement for aggregate in a newly manufactured concrete or as a replacement for cementin the concrete. The compressive strength for the casting tests was examined at 7 and 28 days, and the workability was tested by slump and slump flow measurements. The two properties will be compared with the properties of the reference concrete. Grinding tests have been partially carried out at Temakon's laboratory under the supervision of Thomas Magnusson and at the university's own laboratory. The result showed that for the sludge as a cement substitute, we have obtained equivalent and even better compressive strength and workability in comparison with the reference concrete that has been obtained by Ulf Knutsson at Swerock. Castings where the slurry used was wet slurry, the compressive strength was significantly better than reference concrete, however, the workability was a little tough when worked.

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    fulltext
  • 9.
    Borgare, Clara
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Ebba
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kolfiberförstärkning: undersökning av kolfiberlameller i byggbranschen2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforcement with carbon fiber composites has in recent decades taken on a significant rolein the construction industry and is used to strengthen existing structures and facilities. Insituations where a structure has been weakened, for example by an accident or by increasing the requirements for the building's carrying capacity, it can lead to the application of carbonfibre reinforcement. At present, there is a current problem regarding carbon fiber material testing, which generates difficulties for further establishment of the material. There are also no clear standards for testing and dimensioning carbon fiber. In collaboration with the construction company Stiba AB, carbon fiber slats are tested, investigated and compared in this study.

    The study is based on two methods, a market-research and a testing part. The testing part is based on the standard SS-EN ISO 527-1, where carbon fiber slats from selected manufacturers have been tested. The materials were tested on tensile strength and elasticity module. The market-research resulted in the same quality for the producers. The results of thetrials showed some uncertainty in the testing method as the tensile strength could not be determined, yet the elasticity module gave satisfactory results. Furthermore, the examination was compared and discussed with the market investigation. The values varied and it was concluded that further trials should be carried out in order to obtain an assured result.

  • 10.
    Davidsson, Christian
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Odgård, Carl
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterström, Emil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Deformationsegenskaper hos slanka förbindare i trä och betong2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Just as other industries, the construction industry wishes to reduce its climate impact. By replacing traditional concrete flooring with composite action flooring, the used amount of cement can be reduced. To be able to reach longer spans it is necessary that the composite action between the components is as high as possible. The stiffness of the fastener is one crucial factor that has a large impact on the composite action.

    The purpose of this report is to examine the deformation properties of the connectors when fastened in wood and concrete, respectively. Increased knowledge in this area may lead to more efficient ways of designing composite action constructions.

    In this report, the location of the yield hinge was determined with models based on Johansens theories for nails in wooden structures as well as the theory of beams on elastic foundations. Compression tests were performed on several different connectors in concrete and wood to determine the foundation modulus and embedment strength. Tensile tests were performed on the same type of fasteners to determine the yield strength of each connector. Bending-tests on specimens made of wood and concrete with connectors anchored to them was used to verify if the calculation-models displayed a correct result. The specimens were then split in half and the location of the yield hinge was measured in two different ways. The necessary characteristics acquired from the tests were afterwards used in the calculations and compared to the obtained yield hinge.

    The results from the performed tests and calculations show that Johansens theories are applicable in ultimate limit state. They also show that when within ultimate limit state, the stress distribution in the material tends to be evenly distributed. The theory of beam on elastic foundation tends to work well when all materials are still acting linear-elastic. When this is the case, the stress distribution seems to be triangular. The results also show that whether the fastener is sharpened or not has an influence on the embedment strength as well as the foundation modulus of the wood.

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    Deformationsegenskaper hos slanka förbindare i trä och betong
  • 11.
    Ebersson, Alexander
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Projektering av grupphusområde: VA-installationer och röranläggning2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows how the projection of water- and sewage installations and piping installations were done for a group house area being planned. Heat demand calculations for the buildings were performed, plans over the piping installation was established and dimensioned in accordance with industry rules and practices. The projection was done with computer programs and industry literature and resulted in four site layout plans over the grouphouse area in scale 1:200 and a flow chart.

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    PROJEKTERING AV GRUPPHUSOMRÅDE
  • 12.
    Ekeblom, Frida
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lokal recirkulering av rivningsmaterial: Avfall som råvara i kvarteret Västerbro2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about recycling demolition materials in connection with the large-scale urban development project Västerbro, by Riksbyggen and Bostäder i Borås. A warehouse building from the 1960s occupies the site today, and the constructors wants to replace the old warehouse with new buildings. Through selective demolition, it is possible to recycle the brick facade and concrete frame and reuse in the construction of the new buildings.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the climate benefit when using reused material from selective demolition, aiming to contribute as a fact base for making decisions regarding recirculated materials.

    The climate impact from the reuse of demolition material is calculated in a Life Cycle Assessment that compares five similar facade elements with varying amount of recycled and reused concrete aggregates, reused cleaned bricks, and reused cut brick element from existing facade. The calculation is based on a local scenario as the demolition takes place at the site where the new block is to be built and the facade element is a prefabricated sandwich element.

    Calculations show that selective demolition with reused cut brick elements from existing facades could save 28% greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent facade element consisting of only primary raw materials.

    The studies presented in this report are linked to Västerbro's research project Framtidens kvarter- för en hållbar livsstil (roughly translated: The city block of the future- for a sustainable lifestyle) that has been studied through participation in recurring steering committee meetings, one workshop and through conversations and interviews with project participants.

    The study is also covered by a theoretical overview of the legislation and incentives that concern the recycling of construction and demolition materials and shows society's high ambitions to accelerate the transition to circular material flows. But the compilation also shows that laws and regulations provide great flexibility and that recycling of construction and demolition materials is largely based on voluntariness or the individual actor's vision and desire to build sustainably.

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  • 13.
    Fofana, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Daoud, Meriam
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Masshantering: Massors tekniska byggbarhet i anläggningsprojekt2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry accounts for the large part of waste in the form of excavation masses in Sweden. To manage excavation masses, good and detailed research is needed, this will lead to a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions that affect the climate.

    The purpose of the report is firstly to create a template that will help the Swedish Transport Administration to get better control over mass handling and that it will work for all civil engineering projects. Secondly, it is to be able to reuse excavation material that occurs in a civil engineering project, this by optimizing soil masses and assessing those masses taking into account the waste hierarchy. To arrive at a good result, the Excel program has been used to create the template. Various literature studies, data collection of selected methods and document analysis have been conducted to find information such as the Swedish Transport Administration's documents and the Swedish Transport Administration's Legal Interpretation and application of legislation for mass handling have been used to find information about different legislation on waste management.

    The results show a template that can be used to assess excavation masses and classify them according to laws and pollution levels, as well as the material type and the bay service hazard class have the excavation masses. With the help of this template, the new waste hierarchy will be achieved, i.e. that several amounts of excavation masses should be used as a resource instead of depositing several quantities and crushing the rock to get new masses.

    • Prevent- minimize emergence through resource use
    • Ensured disposal, technical buildability and environmental quality, the masses go to nearby projects.
    • Refine in the project → resource example macadam for milling in the way.
    • Refine on site → resource specimen after wet sieving.
    • Waste to landfill.

    For the masses to be classified as resources, three important requirements must be met according to the Environmental Code:

    1. Technical constructability
    2. Environmental quality
    3. Provision secured

    A variety of excavation masses can be reused, that is, those masses can be by-products and are used in another area of application, such as filling materials. The masses containing a variety of impurities, can be reused after an action process is carried out to remove the impurities, examples of a process that can be carried out are wet sieving.

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    fulltext
  • 14.
    Hajibabaei, Pejman
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Accelerated Carbonation Of Cement Pastes And Mortars2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete structures have the largest surface area of all human made structures. Large surface area makes concrete capable to absorb CO2 from environment during its lifetime. It is estimated that concrete during its lifetime can absorb about 15-20% of CO2 which had produced in cement production. In Sweden the CO2 uptake by concrete construction is estimated to 300 000 tons annually.

    This study aims to investigate the influences of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag on carbonation. Accelerated carbonation with 65% relative humidity and 10% CO2 concentration was utilized to simulate the carbonation in cement pastes and cement mortars. Series of experiments have accomplished by collaborating with RISE and university of Borås. In this study cement pastes crushed into three fractions in order to evaluate the impact of particle size and influence of blended cement in CO2 uptake. Lastly, carbonation depth of mortars after 14 days accelerated carbonation were analyzed.

    Experimental results show that the increasing CO2 uptake induced by adding mineral admixture such fly ash in cement pastes. In this study cement paste with 30% fly ash replacement and fraction lower than 2 mm exhibit the highest CO2 uptake compared to other cement paste in this study. Moreover, carbonation depth of cement mortar was also increased three times more in mortar with 30% fly ash compared with mortar with 100% Portland cement. Therefore, incorporation of mineral admixture in cement pastes can improve the CO2 uptake and moreover, CO2 uptake can be more efficient if more surface area be involved with CO2 by crushing cement paste into lower 2 mm.

     

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    Examensarbete
  • 15.
    Hampo Asadour, Hampus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Shaat, Salma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Säkerhet vid lyftoperationer hos Wästbygg2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on lifting operations and the safety measures involved in the process. Accidents where a lifting operation played a central role in the incident are not very common. However, the few times these accidents occur, the consequences are often severe and can even result in fatalities. Therefore, this thesis aims to identify preventive measures that can be taken to prevent such accidents by analyzing and interviewing individuals who work with lifting operations on a daily basis or in the surrounding work environment. Throughout the work, several shortcomings in the industry have been identified, such as deficiencies in education, communication, foreign labor, culture, and more. As a result of this analysis, a "take 2" block has been developed, which is a form of checklist that can be used to double-check and ensure that a lifting operation can be performed safely.

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Henriksson, Arvid
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Klasson, Emilia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Stomkonstruktioners olika klimatpåverkan och kostnad: Betong- och trästommar i flerbostadshus2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about a nine-story residential building located in Borås, built by the construction company Peab. The current residential building was built with a concrete frame in 2016, and this study aims to investigate what difference of choosing wood as an alternative frame material would make on the building´s overall climate impact and cost.

    The purpose of the study is to highlight the difference that choice of frame material can make on the total carbon footprint, with the goal of concretizing the difference through a life cycle perspective.

    The climate impact from the two frame materials is calculated in a life cycle analysis based on the quantities of the actual frame choices applied on to the residential building. The calculation is based on generic values of materials in eternal walls, load-bearing interior walls, and intermediate floor slabs. The tool used is the Building Sector Environmental Calculation Tool (BM) developed by the Swedish Environmental Research institute (IVL). All concrete construction components are taken from the reference object´s drawings, where wooden construction components have been developed to meet the requirements of the concrete construction. In addition to the climate calculations, a cost calculation has also been calculated to make the cost differences concrete.

    The study also includes an interview survey showing that cross-laminated timber (CLT) and prefabricated concrete have few differences in the production stage. The interviews is also the basis for the selection of components in the calculation since the investigation shows that a nine-story wooden building requires stabilization of concrete elements.

    Estimates from the calculations show that the same nine-story residential building in Borås would reduce its carbon footprint by 60 % if wood were chosen as the structural material. At the same time, the new structural choice would generate a total cost increase of 3,38 % in addition to a 0,54 % decrease in income due to reduced living area.

    The calculation shows that wood has a lower carbon impact compared to concrete, while concrete has a lower cost. Production-wise, wood is more efficient material to build with, and as society grows, it is necessary to protect a sustainable future trough choice that result in reduced carbon impact.

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  • 17.
    Johansson, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Kalle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Framtidens innerväggar: en granskning av sex olika innerväggstyper ur ett klimat-, brand- & ljudperspektiv2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the prevailing global warming and a construction sector that accounts for up to 40 % of Sweden's climate impact, the issue of climate-smart construction has become an increasingly important issue in today’s society. GH Olofsson Bygg & Entreprenad AB and Holgers Stugmaterial AB wants to be in the lead of this important industry issue where big changes can be made with relatively small means. In cooperation with GH Olofsson Bygg & Entreprenad AB and Holgers Stugmaterial AB six different interior wall systems was examined based on climate impact and its functions regarding fire and sound. In order to identify the most optimized alternative based on the aforementioned categories. The systems consist of a fully insulated 70 mm frame with two layers of board material on each side from the same manufacture.

    The chosen method is a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) regarding product stage to the construction stage (A1-A5.1), which means that a system is studied from cradle to gate. Cradle to gate in this case means that systems are studied from the manufacture of each material component to the construction of a wall at the construction site. The climate impact calculations were performed on six chosen systems using Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) data from various material manufacturers in Excel, where Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the studied environment indicator. A test was carried out at Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE) of a previously untested system. Based on this, the most optimized inner wall could be identified.

    The board materials are the general factor in the wall systems that contributes to a high climate impact. A wall consisting of Smartax framework (45 x 70 mm), 70 mm Paroc eXtra stone wool insulation and double layers of Norgips Standard ECO on each side of the frame are calculated and estimated to be the most optional system from the studied aspects. If the report where to include all the environment indicators a system containing Smartax framework (45 x 70 mm), 70 mm Hunton Nativo wood fibre insulation and double layers of Norgips Standard ECO on each side of the frame, would be considered the most optional system.

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  • 18.
    Kadawo, Abdinasir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    During, Otto
    RISE CBI Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Combination of LCA and circularity index for assessment of environmental impact of recycled aggregate concrete2023In: Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, ISSN 2165-0373, E-ISSN 2165-0381, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary approach is used to evaluate concrete with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) from technical, environmental impacts and product circularity perspectives. Two RCA replacements investigated, RAC50: fine aggregates; RAC100: both coarse, fine aggregates. Reference, recycled concretes have same cement content, similar workability and compressive strength requirement, proven experimentally. RCA is sourced from pre-fab element discards of a Swedish plant, the logistical alternatives requiring environmental impact analysis. Alternatives are RCA crushing at plant and crushing at a different location including transportation. LCA shows transportation is second largest contributor after cement in all impact categories. RAC alternatives show lower total impact than reference concrete due to RCA replacement. A circularity index for concrete based on economic value of recirculated aggregates; supplements LCA for sustainability reporting. Circularity index results: RAC100 > RAC50 > RC. Combining circularity index with LCA helps optimize recycling process with regard to amount of recycled material and logistics respectively.

  • 19.
    Kader, Narmin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Khoshdel, Kimia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fuktsäkerhet inom nyproduktion: Väderskydd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is created in order to pay attention to moisture safety in new constructions with the help of weather protection systems. This is a new technique which has been introduced to the construction business, but it is a technique that has still not raised enough attention in the business. It is obvious that the advantages with such a system outweigh the cons although most clients choose the traditional way of retaining a smaller budget when the production starts, a short term solution which leads to greater risks due to a lack of moisture protection during construction. It could be difficult to win procurement for an entrepreneur, with calculations included for weather protection system because of high costs. The combination of weather protected construction and prefabricated material can be used to minimize the risk of moisture damage. Prefabricated construction also contributes to shorter construction times and less workspace. Due to the difficulty in presenting concrete calculations for usage of weather protection systems, the efficiency gains are highlighted to promote knowledge about benefits. The earlier the decision of implementation of weather protection systems are made, the better the construction is secured from moisture. Many clients have been interviewed during this project and they found the high costs of such a system to be a disadvantage. The purpose of this research is to change this viewpoint and prove the long-term practical and economic advantages. Production not reliant on weather will yield favorable results for multiple parties invested in the project.

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  • 20.
    Lam, Kenny
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thai, Vi Thanh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Guyo, Mohamud
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digitalisering - Fallstudie av en digital modell2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry faces many challenges, such as low productivity, lack of research, development, and digitalization. Today, the construction industry has fallen behind in terms of productivity development and digitalization compared with other industries. However, the construction industry is in a development phase in digitalization, which will contribute to increased productivity, efficiency, and sustainability. The increase in productivity can, for example, be obtained with the help of Digital Twin.

    The purpose of this work has been to investigate how far digitization has come in the construction industry and to make a case study of a digital model of a completed preschool in City of Borås. The work has been divided into three phases; where the first has consisted of a literature study, the second part was a case study of a digital model published by City of Borås, to finish with semi-structured interviews with people who work with digitization and Digital Twin in the construction field in Sweden. Using a digital model of the Vildmarken preschool that was obtained from City of Borås, the plan was to carry out a case study using Revit software. Obstacles arose in the work with the digital model. For example, material properties were missing in the digital model and in other words the model was not complete, which meant that the digital model was not a BIM model. The result showed that the digital model had several obstacles, for example that it was deficient and lacked complete information. The importance of the model was also confirmed through our interviews with people who work with this daily.

    In conclusion, it can be stated that increased digitization can improve the construction industry for the better for the future, but for this to happen, the digital tools must be used correctly and that there must be openness to change and wider application of digitization within the construction industry.

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  • 21.
    Latvala Tellborg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Strömhäll, Robin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nudging för ökad avfallssortering på byggarbetsplats2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry entails a great imprint on the environment and as much as a third of Sweden’s waste quantities gets produced on construction sites over the nation. Both authorities and companies work on reducing the waste and increase the degree of sorting waste, in the end this benefits the society. To increase the sorting of construction waste the individuals on the site needs to have the right conditions to simplify the path from construction site to waste container. A method that has shown great effects in similar cases is nudging. Nudging is a notion that gently nudges individuals to take a decision that benefits all parts of the society.

    In this study several nudging tools was implemented on two construction sites with the purpose to increase the sorting of waste for the projects.

    Several interviews have been done with persons of interest to the subject to get a deep understanding of the method and its effects. A minor survey study was conducted with the individuals who worked on the construction sites. A frequency study was conducted after the implementation phase to examine the impact of the nudging.

    The result of this study indicates that the method could promote the sorting of waste for the construction workers on location. The construction workers at Etikhus have a desire to sort waste and elaborate the sorting ahead. Since nudging can interweave will and action there are good conditions to develop the concept and the areas of use can be broadened even more for future studies. To ensure the most rewarding result this study arrived at the conclusion that it’s necessary to have a dedicated leadership that guides and encourages the practitioner. A project of this kind needs a large time window which this examination couldn’t provide. This leaves queries that hopefully future students can provide answers to.

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  • 22.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    et al.
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Movaffaghi, Hamid
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Linderoth, Henrik
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Exploration of the BIM Development and Application: Identifying Key Areas for the Industrialized House-Building Sector2018In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. 5-7 June 2018, Tampere, Finland. / [ed] Mela, K., Pajunen, S. and Raasakka, V., 2018, p. 1030-1037Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is claimed to transform the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, whereas current research has argued that diffusion of BIM use proceeds at a slower rate than the optimistic predictions. Much of the research on BIM has focused on the traditional part of the industry and larger companies, whereas less attention has been paid to the industrialized house-builders. The underlying idea of industrialized house-building is to increase efficiency, both internally (do things right) and externally (do the right things), with repetitiveness in production facilities. Previous research indicates that there is a lack of demand for BIM, both internally and externally, and that BIM use is rather determined by an individual’s subjective positive or negative evaluation of BIM, which may be hazardous for industrialized house-builders. However, using BIM in repetitive processes is claimed to have potential to improve the output of industrialized housing building.

    Hence, based on this background the aim of the paper is twofold: Firstly, to explore the current state of practice, and perceived constraints and driving forces of BIM-use with respect to industrialized house-building. Secondly; based on the results identify key areas for the continuous development of BIM within this sector of the construction trade. A mixed method approach was employed. To begin with, participant observations were carried out in connection to a regional development project, where managers from a selection of industrialized house-building companies assembled in order to identify key areas for development. Thereafter, interviews with managers in industrialized house-building companies were conducted to describe a state of practice within the industrialized house-building sector. Finally, a survey (n=52) was administered to employees at industrialized house-building companies on the Swedish market.

    Deducted from the observations at the meetings, the vast number of different software that are used in a large variety of different processes and the need for integration between BIM and other systems was highlighted. Discussions mostly concerned technical issues that can be explained by the fact that meetings participants were technical and development managers. The interviews gave at hand that better connection between BIM and the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a topic that should be prioritized. The results from the survey showed that 63 per cent of the respondents have experience from working with BIM. The immediate results show similarities with previous studies of BIM use among mid-sized firms in the traditional building and construction industry regarding use frequency, perceived benefits and constraints, as well as perceived challenges. However, it is concluded that the industrialized house building sector need to adapt BIM aligned to their unique conditions in order to reap benefits, without looking too much at what is going on in the traditional construction industry.

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  • 23.
    Martinovic, Isidora
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hållfasthets- och temperaturutveckling hos klimatförbättrad betong2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to compare the strength growth and temperature development in climate-improved construction concrete, which is concrete where 50% of cement has been replaced with slag and thus the emission of carbon dioxide from cement has been reduced. The degree project is written together with Skanska Stora Projekt Väst. Skanska aims to be completely climate neutral by the year 2045 and is constantly developing its concrete to achieve the goal. Skanska's climate-improved concrete, named by Skanska “Green Concrete” is a step in the right direction. Written under the supervision of Hans Hedlund, calculations have been made to investigate how the strength and temperature development is affected when a part of cement is replaced with slag.

    The method was carried out through a quantitative investigation with the help of supervisors from the company Skanska, to later perform calculations using the software "Production Planning Concrete". A reference concrete and a climate-improved concrete whose, among other things, strength class, vct and amount of cement have been known was investigated with the help of PPB. The aim of the investigation is how properties such as strength developed in the various concrete. A parameters study has been made, varying external temperature and thickness of the concrete sections to investigate how the strength and temperature development has been affected in the different concrete types and what shredding time the concrete gets based on this.

    The conclusion has shown that the climate-improved concrete has a slower strength development in the first 24 hours, but then after 28 days the strength are approximately the same. In winter it is shown that the climate-improved concrete will need some additional measures to be cast. The time for stripping of the form was also calculated, and the results showed that the thinner construction of climate-improved concrete gets frozen before the hydration process sets in fully, thus not reaching the stripping time during winter.

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  • 24.
    Movaffaghi, Hamid
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Optimum Parameter of Dampers Interconnecting Adjacent Structures during Earthquake2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Movaffaghi, Hamid
    Stochastic linear and nonlinear response statistics of a structure during earthquake2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Movaffaghi, Hamid
    Department of Applied Mechanics, Division of Material and Computational Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vibration Reduction of Structures Using Global and Local Optimization Techniques2006In: Proceedings of the 19th Nordic Seminar On Computational Mechanics, 20-21 October, 2006, Lund, Sweden / [ed] O. Dahlblom, L. Fuchs, K. Persson, M. Ristinmaa, G. Sandberg & I. Svensson, Structural Mechanics, LTH , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to solve vibration problem in large-scale structures a global optimization program based on genetic algorithms has been integrated into an existing local optimization tool consisting of a commercial finite element program and a local optimization program based on gradient methods. The developed optimization tool has been tested on a 3D structure for vibration reduction purposes using seismic load as excitation forces.

  • 27. Movaffaghi, Hamid
    et al.
    Friberg, Olof
    Structural Vibration Reduction Using Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Locations of Viscoelastic Dampers2002In: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference / [ed] W. B. Langdon et al., an Francisco, Calif.: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Movaffaghi, Hamid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.(Construction Engineering).
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Developing a framework of a multi-objective and multi-criteria based approach for integration of LCA-LCC and dynamic analysis in industrialized multi-storey timber construction2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve organizational decision-making process in construction industry, a framework of a multi-objective andmulti-criteria based approach has been developed to integrate results from Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA), Life-Cycle CostAnalysis (LCC) and dynamic analysis for multi-storey industrialized timber structure. Two Building InformationModelling (BIM)-based 3D structural models based on different horizontal stabilization and floor systems will beanalyzed to reduce both climate impact, material and production costs and enhance structural dynamic response of thefloor system. Moreover, sensitivity of the optimal design will also be analyzed to validate the design. The multi-objectiveand multi-criteria based LCA-LCC framework analyzing the environmental, economic, and dynamic performances willsupport decision making for different design in the early phases of a project, where various alternatives can be created andevaluated. The proposed integrated model may become a promising tool for the building designers and decision makers inindustrialized timber construction.

  • 29. Movaffaghi, Hamid
    et al.
    Yitmen, Ibrahim
    Department of Construction Engineering and Lighting Science, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, 551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Framework for Dynamic Circular Economy in the Building Industry: Integration of Blockchain Technology and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 22, article id 15914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building industry is one of the most resource-intensive sectors in industrialized countries, requiring a shift from a linear to a more sustainable circular economic model. Nevertheless, there are several major challenges, such as the management of information regarding used materials and products, the lack of cross-sector documentation tools, and sales operations for implementing a dynamic circular economy in the building industry. To overcome these challenges, blockchain technology for documentation, tracing used materials and products, and the use of multi-criteria decision-making approaches for the ranking and selection of optimal used materials and products have emerged as crucial facilitators, with the potential to address the technological, organizational, environmental, and economic requirements. The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical framework of a digital platform ecosystem for implementing a dynamic circular economy in the building industry through the integration of blockchain technology and a multi-criteria decision-making approach built upon their synergy. The priority order of two alternatives of used materials and products was determined according to the AHP method, leading to selection of the most sustainable alternative. This research study contributes to dynamic circular economies by (1) facilitating cross-sector information transparency and the tracing of used materials and products from their sources to their end-of-life stages and through (2) the ranking and selection of used materials and products based on their overall properties.

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  • 30.
    Nagy, Agnes
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ringsberg, Henrik
    Chalmers university of technology.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Regional recycling of concrete: survey study2020In: Webbinarium: Regional återvinning av betong / [ed] Agnes Nagy, Borås, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Nilsson, Melker
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Filip
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Norström, Filip
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Avvikelsehantering och förbättringsarbete gällande odokumenterade avvikelser inom byggsektorn: Med avseende på hantering av icke dokumenterade avvikelser2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within construction, just like within many different industries, nonconformities and mistakes occur. Larger deviations that cost the company much money but also minor defects and deviations that risk getting forgotten. How a company handles these deviations, both large and small ones, have great impact on the outcome of the improvement and development of the company’s processes.

    The aim of this report was to get a sense of how the handling of nonconformities, improvements and knowledge management might look like within construction, and then investigate how it should be able to look like, with focus regarding the nonconformities that does not get reported.

    To fulfill the purpose of the study, the research method used was a qualitative case study. The intention was to partially carry out a current situation analysis as well as to search for possible improvements within different organisation’s working methods. To create an overall picture of the area being studied, an unstructured interview was initially held. This interview became the basis for the semi-structured interviews that were held afterwards. The authors of this report was also granted access to the organization's business management system to perform the current situation analysis and to complement the interviews.

    The answer to the questions asked in this report show that a big part of the improvements made in a construction company, build on lessons learned and mistakes made. Because of improvements and knowledge management building upon reported nonconformities, there are great gains to gather by increasing the amount of nonconformities getting reported. The amount of deviations getting reported, might increase by either identifying more nonconformities, or by securing that the nonconformities that are found, actually get reported.

     

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  • 32.
    Omar, Yusuf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bellvik, Emil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Underentreprenörernas säkerhetsarbete genom arbetsberedningar: Riskinventering, riskbedömning och arbetsberedning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Each year there are serious accidents on building sites in Sweden. This thesis has been carried out in cooperation with Skanska House Region Gothenburg and aims to improve the safety of subcontractors to Skanska.The aim of the work was to find appropriate methods and tools that Skanska as the main contractor can use to support their subcontractors to a better security planning.The work begins with a literature study of how the accident statistics looks at construction sites, as well as a theoretical background to the process of risk inventories, risk assessments and work preparation is handled. The approach has been to examine through interviews, questionnaires and site visits to seven selected construction sites in western Sweden on how the subcontractors manages risk inventories, risk assessments and work preparations. We have also investigated what is being done today in the procurement process to ensure that subcontractors meet their responsibilities in terms of work environment at construction sites and what can be improved.The results of the research show that there are clear differences between how the safety cultures were among the various subcontractors. One of the problems is that the entrepreneurs do not have sufficient understanding of what they have for responsibility in the work environment at construction sites. To solve this, it has been investigated to what is important to strengthen subcontractor’s involvement and commitment that gives the employees the opportunity to improve their own responsibility.

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  • 33. Palmgren, Eleonora
    et al.
    Bonving, Estelle
    Vilka möjligheter och hinder finns det för återbruk i byggbranschen?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry accounts for a large proportion of Sweden's carbon dioxide emissions which contribute to climate change. The industry therefore needs to switch from linear construction to circular construction, where more reuse of construction products and construction materials can contribute to the circular transformation. Today, the market for reuse in the construction industry is limited and more products need to be made available. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the processes for reuse currently work. In addition, it has been investigated whether the reuse inventories before the demolition of buildings could be digitized and standardized to promote circular construction throughout the construction process.

    To get a broad insight into how the construction industry works with reuse and what knowledge is available, a qualitative interview study has been conducted with nine different actors operating in Västra Götaland. The actors are real estate developers, retailers of building products, building contractors, researchers, architects, demolition and environmental inventories, as well as demolition and waste managers. To see how construction products for reuse can be presented to the customer and if the information about the product is sufficient, a small qualitative content analysis has been carried out on the digital marketplace provided by the Centre for Circular Construction (CCBuild). CCBuild is an organization run by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and exists to provide knowledge and offer a network and digital services for circular products and services in the built environment sector.

    The results of the study show that the use of reuse products is increasing in the construction industry, but that many obstacles make it difficult to identify and use construction materials that can be reused. Lack of experience and knowledge, financial obstacles, difficulty in guaranteeing the quality of the product, weak laws, and regulatory requirements are some factors that limit the use of reused products. The reuse process needs to take place early in the projects and more time and resources need to be spent on the process. New laws and regulatory requirements need to be introduced. Guidelines for reuse inventory must be integrated into the industry standard for material inventory and available tools on the market need to be integrated with the industry standard for material inventory where the reuse inventory is included. Clearer information about the origin, quality and performance of construction materials and construction products also needs to be available on the marketplaces that exist for reuse.

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  • 34. Pietrzyk, K.
    et al.
    Kurkinen, Kimmo
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Hagentoft, C-E.
    Application of risk assessment technique to moisture problems in buildings2003In: Research in Building Physics: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Building Physics. Leuven, Belgium, Taylor and Francis , 2003, p. 605-612Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Ramadan, Leila
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Esfandiari, Nima
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vägen mot cirkulär masshantering2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Reuse of excavated soil is very low in Sweden. This has led to increased climate emissions and overexploitation of natural resources. Increased reuse of excavated masses would benefit the environment and economy in many ways. The purpose of the study is therefore to look over the conditions in the market for reused soil and find out why exca-vated soil is not more reused through an interview of the stakeholders in the value chain. The purpose of the study is achieved by finding out what obstacles have led to a circular mass management not working fully in the construction industry and to find out what incentives are needed to improve the market for recycled excavated masses.

    Method: A literature- and interview study were used as a method to answer the study's questions. The literature study contributed to the knowledge building at the beginning of the work and continued continuously throughout the work. The interview study consisted of semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide. The interviews enabled meetings with entrepreneurs and government authority employees active in Västra Götaland, which contributed to obtaining current information.

    Result: The study shows a clear sign of shortcomings in the handling of excavated masses in the construction industry. The waste legislation is considered to be complicated, and the results show that there are shortcomings in the cooperation between authority employees and entrepreneurs. These problems make it easier for illegal activities within the excavated masses market. Another problem is the long waiting period to get permission to recycle the excavated soil, this makes useful masses getting to the landfill, which in turn leads to increased extraction of virgin material and increased load on the climate.

    Discussion: The respondents' views on the above-mentioned shortcomings are similar but may in some cases differ depending on whether the respondent is an authority employee or an entrepreneur. In an interview with one of the authority employees, incomplete information from entrepreneurs is mentioned as one of the reasons for the long waiting periods to get per-mission to recycle. On the contrary, the entrepreneurs mention that the difficult waste legislation puts the authority employees in a difficult position, which leads to long waiting periods and that usable excavated masses consequently end up in landfills.

    Although there are major shortcomings in the handling of excavated masses in the construction industry, the respondents have a positive attitude towards the future. This may be due to the initiatives that have been taken in the industry. The entrepreneurs and authority employees have become more aware and are working towards a transition towards circular mass management. In many municipalities, such as in Gothenburg they have joined forces and tried to cooperate on a larger scale, to create a better market for excavated masses. On the governmental level the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been commissioned to investigate the handling of soil and excavated masses in order to facilitate the administration. The Swedish Environ-mental Protection Agency is currently working to update its handbook on excavated masses.

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  • 36.
    Rauhala, A S
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Vaasa Central Hospital, Finland.
    Fagerström, L M
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; University South-Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Lindholst, A C
    Aalborg University, Aalborg East, Denmark.
    Sinervo, T S
    Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Bertelsen, T M
    Aalborg University, Aalborg East, Denmark.
    Bliksvaer, T
    Nordland Research Institute, Bodo, Norway.
    Lunde, B V
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Solli, Rolf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wolmesjö, Maria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Hansen, M B
    Aalborg University, Aalborg East, Denmark.
    Which factors are associated with COVID-19 infection incidence in care services for older people in Nordic countries?: A cross-sectional survey2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the differences between Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway regarding residential/home care units' and frontline managers' background factors, the resources allocated and measures taken during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether and how these differences were associated with COVID-19 among older people in residential/home units.

    Methods: Register- and survey-based data. Responses from managers in municipal and private residential/home units. Number of municipal COVID-19 cases from national registries. Multilevel logistic multivariate regression analysis with presence of COVID-19 among older people in residential/home units as the outcome variable.

    Results: The proportions of residential/home units with client COVID-19 cases, mid-March-April 2020 were Denmark 22.7%, Finland 9.0%, Norway 9.7% and Sweden 38.8%, most cases found in clusters. The proportions were similar among employees. Client likelihood of having COVID-19 was six-fold higher if the employees had COVID-19. Mean client cases per residential/home unit were Denmark 0.78, Finland 0.46, Norway 0.22 and Sweden 1.23. For the same municipal infection incidence class, Sweden's mean client infection levels were three-fold those of other countries. The regression analysis variables country, municipal COVID-19 incidence proportion, and care type were associated with client cases at p <= .001. Compared with Denmark, the odds ratios (ORs) for Sweden, Norway and Finland were 1.86, 0.41 and 0.35 respectively. The variable difficulties in preventive testing had an OR of 1.56, p <= .05.

    Conclusions: Municipal COVID-19 incidence, employee cases, and the lack of testing resources somewhat explained the confirmed COVID-19 cases among older people in residential/home units. A two- to five-fold unexplained inter-country difference in ORs in the multivariate analyses was notable. The level of protection of vulnerable older clients in municipal and private residential/home units differed between the included countries.

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  • 37.
    Rydell, Marcus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fallolyckor inom byggbranschen: Med fokus på förebyggande arbete2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to accidents, the construction industry is one of the riskiest industries in Sweden. Of these accidents, falls from height account for the majority on the construction site. The thesis work has been done to find out what the fall accident risk looks like in the construction industry and which factors contribute to a fall accident occurring. Furthermore, the study has investigated how companies in the construction industry work preventively against these risks. The study summarizes the latest statistics on the occurrence of fall accidents compared to other accidents in the industry. Interviews with relevant people together with a survey have been a basis for understanding and knowledge about the work environment and how the companies work with preventive work.

    The report contains a compilation of laws, ordinances and regulations that apply to the environment in the workplace. After analyzing the statistics in 2021, it shows that falls from heights account for 11 % of all occupational accidents that occur in Sweden's construction industry. From the interviews and survey, an understanding of the risks of falling from a height emerged. The reasons that were most clearly contributing were time pressure, age, communication, and the safety culture that existed in the workplace.

    In summary, it is concluded that fall accidents are a serious problem in the construction industry. But if professionals together with the companies create a safety culture where risk awareness is in focus and solid preventive work takes place, then the risk of falls from a height is successfully reduced.

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  • 38.
    Salman, Asal
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Promoting Circular Economy By Partial Replacement Of Cement With SCMs: A Review On Wood Ash2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Commission adopted the first action plan for the transition to a circular economy in 2015. As a result, the concrete industry’s goal is for all concrete produced in Sweden to be climate neutral by 2045. Cement production is the third-largest carbon dioxide emitter in Sweden and accounts for 90% of concrete’s carbon dioxide emissions. Thus, to lower the climate footprint of concrete, it is necessary to find alternatives to cement.

    The potential of the use of wood ash in cement as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM) has been investigated in several studies. Due to Sweden's nature and wood industry, a comprehensive study has been done to investigate the possibility of using wood ash as an SCM in Sweden based on availability and efficiency.

    This work aims to investigate the obstacles and driving forces that concrete producers face when transitioning to a circular economy by partially replacing cement with new potential SCMs. The aim is also to investigate the availability of wood ash generated in Sweden and account for the potential to be used as an SCM.

    Qualitative semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted to determine the obstacles and drivers that concrete producers in Sweden face when converting to a circular economy by partially replacing cement with new potential SCMs. The amount of ash produced in Sweden was estimated based on the value of ash content and the potential annual supply of wood fuels in Sweden. In addition, a literature review was performed to investigate the properties of wood ash.

    The economic and environmental aspects, as well as the fact that the supply of fly ash and slag is likely to decrease in the future form the main driving forces for concrete producers. The obstacles raised by the correspondents were the availability of SCMs, technical barriers, logistics, and standards. The amount of the annual production of wood ash in Sweden is estimated to be between 851 450 and 1 232 950 tons. The chemical characteristics of wood ash did not meet the requirements according to European standard (EN450-1). However, the reviewed articles indicated a potential for wood ash to be used as a supplementary cementitious material due to the indication of some hydraulic and pozzolanic activities. The combination of fly ash and wood ash in concrete is considered viable due to promising results based on mechanical strength.

     

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  • 39.
    Svensson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Abdo, Orilia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Manouel, Talar
    Utveckla ett utsatt område till ett mer säkert område2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Around the country there are several socially vulnerable areas, where exclusion is a major problem. The purpose of this work is to suggest how to reduce exclusion through renovations and new construction. The work is limited to a town square in Borås City which is called Hässletorg as there have been some shootings there and residents therefore avoid the square because they feel unsafe. The goal of the work is to investigate how different building technology solutions can increase safety. The work is to investigate how different building technology solutions can increase safety. The work has a large focus on social sustainability as it greatly affects how residents experience the problem.

    Method: Different methods have been used in this work. Site studies have been carried out by visiting other squares that are also located in vulnerable areas, several of which have undergone renovation in order to reduce exclusion. In addition to this, a literature study was carried out to gain a better understanding of this problem from a socially sustainable perspective.

    Result: In this work, various measures have been identified to contribute to the reduction of crime in the area. These measures encompass a range of scopes, including small changes that can have a significant impact. Enhancing lighting and renovating facades have been identified as important steps, as the perception of the square plays a significant role in creating a sense of security. One major measure that has been implemented is the closure of the square and the construction of an additional floor on Orienta Plus. This allows for the establishment of more restaurants, resulting in increased foot traffic. The decision to close the square was based on feedback from several residents, and it is considered a viable solution as it creates a different sense of security. The site analyses conducted have served as a valuable source of inspirationin formulating these measures.

    Conclusion: Through this study, it has been concluded that the appearance of the square plays a crucial role in enhancing security. Factors such as lighting, plantings, and entrances are of particular importance. Moreover, increasing the availability of activities that can be done collectively has been identified to boost the flow of people in the square. To address this, the study suggests that a food court would be the most suitable solution for Hässletorg. Structural recommendations include closing the square and constructing an additional floor above Orienta Plus, where the proposed food court would be built to attract more foot traffic to the area.

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  • 40.
    Trogen, Antin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Heravi, Ali Reza
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Materialspill i byggproduktion: Mot ett grönare byggande tillsammans!2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is one of the industries that emits the most CO2-e, more specific 28 % of Sweden´s total emissions. Sweden has set a number of climate goals where the final goal is to by 2045 have reduced the emissions by 85 % comparing to 1990 years emissions. With this in mind the construction sector needs to take advantage of every opportunity that is given to reduce its emissions, minimizing the material waste during production is one of them. The purpose of the survey was to find out why there is material waste and make suggestions on how it can be reduced.

    The survey is based on interviews and two case studies of which one was theoretical. In the case studies different construction methods have been compared and evaluated. A total of 33 persons have been interviewed, both carpenters and supervisors. The interview material has been compiled and the statistics have been analysed in order to be able to draw conclusions from the answers in the interviews.

    The results from the case studies showed that there is a possibility to reduce the material waste with reduced CO2-e as a result. In one of the case studies emissions were reduced by 12,8 % with an increase of the price by 11,9 % as a result. In the other case study, which was theoretical, emissions were reduced by 2,7 % and in order to motivate the investment of a higher material cost the installation needed to be 5 % more effective which by great possibility was doable according to the supervisor that participated in the study.

    The conclusions of the interviews were that the willingness and commitment to reduce material waste appeared in both carpenters and supervisors. The methods to reduce material waste that is presented in the survey were considered reasonable by both carpenters and supervisors.

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    Materialspill – mot ett grönare byggande tillsammans!
  • 41.
    Viklund, Simon
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Grujovic, Nikola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring: En framtagen metod för att främja samverkan2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry in Sweden has seen a rise in recent years. With the increase of house production, new demands are being made on the construction companies. The construction process is shortened and made more efficient with methods such as using precast elements. But with shorter production times and increased effectivity, problems can arise.  The purpose of this report is to localize reoccurring problems in the production process. We have gathered information from the company’s own carpenters through workshops to get a clear picture of the problems in today’s production.  The construction company is quality, environment and work environment certified according to the requirements of ISO 9001, ISO 1400 and OHSAS 1800. These certifications require structured improvement work. A directive for improvement work within the company exists but is not ensued sufficiently. There are no means in the improvement work that works for all roles within the company. With the gathered information we’ve developed an instrument that can increase effectivity in the production process as well as contribute to a stimulating work environment for the carpenters.  The field we chose to study was the carpenter’s suggestion about a binder for special solutions at inadequate constructions and difficult situations. The developed instruments as well as the method used in our report to counteract reoccurring problems and disturbances in the production, contribute to the work in reaching the company’s goal to promote cooperation within the organization. 

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  • 42.
    Yassin, Mahad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mohamed Hersi, Fuad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Abdelouahab, Elyas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kompetenser och färdigheter hos nyblivna arbetsledare inombyggproduktion2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the competencies and skills required by a newly appointed production supervisor. The background provides an overview of the role and responsibilities of a supervisor in production.

    This study employed two different methods of data collection, a literature review and qualitative interviews. The interview study involved five supervisors and one site manager in both construction and building projects, while the literature review examined several scientific reports and theses on the subject, which were then validated by the respondents' answers.

    Based on the interview study, the collected data were reviewed and compiled to form the results. The findings demonstrate that a supervisor has various tasks, including planning, coordination, and problem-solving.

    It also highlights the qualities that make a good supervisor, such as humility, effective communication, and decisiveness in areas such as planning, financial management, and scheduling. Possessing these qualities enables supervisors to excel and prevent potential issues.

    The study also revealed that the initial experiences of newly appointed supervisors vary depending on how the transition into the role is managed. Many respondents described the appointment of a competent, open, and willing mentor as the most suitable approach. This provides individuals with opportunities for development and learning, ultimately enabling them to work independently.

    So, in conclusion after completing a higher education degree individuals should possess fundamental knowledge of software applications like EXCEL and Bluebeam as well as basic skills in quantity estimation, blueprint reading, construction techniques, structural mechanics, and building materials. Engineering education equips individuals with the necessary skills for most jobs in the construction industry, while vocational education tailored to the role of supervisor combines practical experience with fundamental theory. These educational foundations contribute to the competencies and skills needed for newly appointed supervisors. However, the most important thing as a newly appointed supervisor is to be humble, show interest and curiosity, be ambitious and willing to ask questions.

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  • 43.
    Yosief, Adonay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ali, Ahmad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ledarskapets betydelse för en lyckad produktion2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to identify the most important characteristics of the leaders that affect the success of construction projects, as well as what skills a person with a senior position should possess. In addition to this, the relationship between project failure and project manager characteristics is also examined.

    The aim of the study is partly to identify the construction manager's leadership characteristics that affect the success of the construction project, and partly to investigate whether there is a connection between project failure and project management characteristics.

    The study was conducted using a literature study, qualitative interviews and questionnaires. The literature study studied facts about leadership and characteristics. Regarding the qualitative interview, a total of three people were interviewed, where two are employed at Serneke and one is employed at AB CD. In the surveys, 8 respondents from different construction companies participated. The study's literature study shows that leadership is the potential to influence the behavior of others and that a project manager who is effective should be results-oriented. In the qualitative interviews, it turns out that characteristics such as communication, making decisions, delegating and influencing, self-discipline, self-confidence and motivating are considered the most essential characteristics for a successful construction project. Furthermore, the surveys show that problem-solving ability and well-founded assessment have a strong influence on the success of the project. In addition, the leadership characteristics can be developed through work experience and there is a strong connection between the project manager's self-confidence and a project failure.

    Based on the results that have emerged, the leadership is considered to have a very large impact for a successful production. The respondents who answered the interviews from Serneke gave, interestingly enough, very similar answers to all the questions and the answers that emerged from the questionnaires also supported the answers that emerged in the interviews. This conveys a feeling that the characteristics and various factors that were considered to be most important according to the respondents are of great importance for the leadership to be developed and improved in order to achieve a successful production through each characteristic.

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    Ledarskapets betydelse för en lyckad produktion
  • 44.
    Östanbäck, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Edvinsson, Jakob
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Produktionskalkyl jämfört med slutkostnad2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be a competitive company in the construction industry it is necessary to maximize the precision of the calculations in a project. This is essential to enhance the company’s competitiveness and during production increase the profitability. To know which costs can be reduced in relation to the tender documents, careful calculation and feedback of experience is required. In order to streamline the feedback of experience, deviations from the production calculation need to be analysed afterwards. It is not enough to analyse the result, but the project must be analysed by individual accounts to get as valuable experience feedback aspossible. The reason it did not go as expected on the account and how to prevent this in the future are questions that should be answered for each discrepancy.

    The purpose of the study is to perform a case study of production calculations of four different projects from the same company. The study analyses and evaluates accounts with a large difference and correlation. Based on this, the intention is to find connections between deviations and differences at the account level to provide a basis for the construction company's future work with experience feedback. The study is limited to four housing projects carried out as a turnkey contract with a production calculation of SEK 100-200 million. The method used was a case study with semi-structured qualitative interviews as a basis.

    The results show that the most common differences among the majority of projects originate in accounts linked to subcontractors. The subcontractor account “Markentrepenad” was an account that all four projects had as a negative difference, as well as the subcontractor account “Golvspackling” as a positive difference. Furthermore, the results show that there is a correlation between 28 accounts, which occurs among the largest differences in two of the projects or more.

    The conclusion states that there is reason to further analyse the differences that occur in two or more of the projects. To maximize the feedback of experience to future projects. Another conclusion is that a more standardized way of coding transactions would have facilitated analyses of the construction company's projects. At present, the analyses are largely dependent on an interview with the site manager, as the work is not fully standardized and becomes a question of interpretation.

     

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