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Investigating the Reaction Kinetics of Tropical Wood Biomass: A Prospect for Energy Recovery
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
The content falls within the scope of Sustainable Development
Abstract [en]

The utilization of wood biomass for energy recovery purposes is a phenomenon that is increasingly attracting attentions from researchers, companies and countries all over the world. The effect of climate change as largely represented by global warming leading to glacier ice melting and an unprecedented rise in sea level is a worrisome development. One of the causal agents of this scenario is the increase in world’s greenhouse gas emission. A sure method of approach to ending the problem is to drastically reduce the emission level to the barest minimum, or to zero level if possible. Wood biomass conversion via thermal treatment is an activity capable of reducing the emission possibility as the CO2 released during the conversion is effectively taken care of. Another benefit derivable from the conversion is taking care of what otherwise would have been termed a waste and treated as such. The envisaged use of wood resource to solve the lingering power problem in Nigeria is an effort in the right direction.

The thesis highlights the conversion processes, as well as the reaction kinetics involved. Reaction parameters such as temperature, heating rate, partial pressure, and flow rate were investigated for the purpose of identifying their effect on the conversion processes. The typical kinetic parameters obtained during the conversion processes would be of high importance in the design and configuration of reactors meant for the optimum conversion of wood waste biomass as a valuable resource. With the non-tropical wood biomass already deployed for energy conversion in the developed countries, the similarity in the trend as regards conversion reactions (char formation and

conversions, kinetic parameters) compared to the tropical counterpart is a welcome development. This suggests the candidacy of non-tropical wood biomass for energy recovery purposes as a viable one.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2016. , 70 p.
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 77
Keyword [en]
Wood, Pyrolysis, gasification, char, kinetic parameters, SEM-EDX, AAEM
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-9334ISBN: 978-91-88269-10-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88269-11-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-9334DiVA: diva2:910296
Public defence
2016-04-29, in room E310,, University of Borås, Allegatan 1, Borås, Sweden, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluation of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Tropical Wood Biomass
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Pyrolysis and Gasification Kinetics of Tropical Wood Biomass
2014 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 9, no 2, 2179-2190 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two tropical biomass species, teak (Tectona grandis) and obobo (Guarea thompsonii), were obtained in the form of sawmill waste from Nigeria and evaluated to determine their potential for gasification. Pyrolysis and gasification kinetics of the samples were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) at temperatures of 900 oC and 1,000 oC. Four iso-conversional methods, one peak temperature method, and two model-fitting methods were employed to determine the kinetic parameters, i.e. the apparent activation energy Ea, and pre-exponential factor A. Values of the gasification kinetic rate constant K were determined using two gas-solid reaction models: the volumetric reaction model (VRM) and the shrinking core model (SCM). The values obtained for all three kinetic parameters showed good agreement with values derived for samples of non-tropical wood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
North Carolina State University, 2014
Keyword
Pyrolysis, Pyrolysis, Kinetic parameters, Tropical biomass
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1865 (URN)000336960700028 ()2320/13742 (Local ID)2320/13742 (Archive number)2320/13742 (OAI)
Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2016-04-07
2. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Dependable and Renewable Fuel Option for Power Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nigerian Wood Waste: A Dependable and Renewable Fuel Option for Power Production
2014 (English)In: World Journal of Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2331-4222, Vol. 2, 234-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Being an oil - rich country, Nigeria’s energy supply is primarily fossil - based. The unequal distribu - tion of oil wealth, along with agitation for self - determination and resource control, has led to the sabotage of oil installations. This, in turn, has affected all services running on the energy supply from these installations, leading to incessant or total sh ut - down of such facilities. Power generated using biomass - based renewable energy technologies is a promising option in limiting the coun - try’s dependence on fossil energy for power generation. The most important part of this option is on - site power generation via mini - grid systems. The power thus produced is utilized with the excess being fed into the national grid based on Feed - in - Tariff (F.i.T.) requirements and techni - calities. The important factors to be considered in the propagation of a mini - g rid option are ex - amined in this study. Furthermore, the study shows that about 1.3 TWh of electricity can be gener - ated from the 1.8 million tonnes per year of wood waste produced by the lumber industry in Nige - ria. Power generation through the utiliza tion of biomass has however proved to be a possible path in achieving economic, social and environmental sustainability in the country. Economic studies show that for small - scale power generation, internal combustion engines and Stirling engines are econom ically feasible. Steam turbines and gas turbines are mostly used in medium/large - scale biomass power generators, especially in proximity to biomass waste resources. Micro gas turbine power technology can also be applied on a small scale despite its high to tal investment capital.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2014
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1885 (URN)10.4236/wjet.2014.23025 (DOI)2320/14025 (Local ID)2320/14025 (Archive number)2320/14025 (OAI)
Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2016-04-07
3. Investigation of the Reaction Behavior of Albizia gummifera Wood under Steam Gasification with Varied Partial Pressures and Gasification Temperatures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the Reaction Behavior of Albizia gummifera Wood under Steam Gasification with Varied Partial Pressures and Gasification Temperatures
2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 2016, no 11, 3736-3751 p., 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The astronomical increase in global energy demand makes locating energy sources other than fossil fuels worthwhile. The use of tropical biomass wood waste as a renewable energy source was investigated in this study. The thermal conversion analysis of Albizia gummifera (ayinre) was carried out in a thermobalance reactor via steam gasification under varying temperature (700 to 1000 °C) and steam partial pressure (0.020 to 0.050 MPa). The experimental data was evaluated using three gas-solid reaction models. The modified volume reaction model (mVRM) gave the overall highest coefficient of determination (0.9993) and thereby the best conversion prediction. The observed char activation constant rates (from paired reaction conditions) indicated, on average, an increase in reactivity as the parameters increased. The results showed that the activation energy of the mVRM gave the lowest value (32.54 kJ/mol) compared with those of the shrinking core model (SCM) and the volume reaction model (VRM) (49.29 and 49.89 kJ/mol, respectively).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2016
Keyword
Steam gasification; Tropical biomass; Kinetic parameters; Albizia gummifera; Gas-solid reaction models
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-9324 (URN)10.15376/biores.11.2.3736-3751 (DOI)000375786700057 ()84965177737 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-07 Last updated: 2017-01-02Bibliographically approved
4. Investigating the morphology and reactivity of chars from Triplochiton scleroxylon pyrolysed under varied conditionsInvestigating the morphology and reactivity of chars from Triplochiton scleroxylon pyrolysed under varied conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the morphology and reactivity of chars from Triplochiton scleroxylon pyrolysed under varied conditionsInvestigating the morphology and reactivity of chars from Triplochiton scleroxylon pyrolysed under varied conditions
2016 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 208, no 0, 94-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A gasifier may be optimised via a good understanding of the char formation, morphology and reactivity. The effects of varying the pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the morphology of the char were investigated using a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micrograph spot analyser. The gasified chars were produced at heating rates of 5, 10 and 20 C/min and pressures of 0.1, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa. All the chars have different degrees of apparent gasification reactivity. The random pore model (RPM) provided a better description of the experiment, with low average error values, h, in all of the cases considered. The alkaline and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in the tropical wood biomass Arere (Triplochiton scleroxylon) consist predominantly of calcium and could altogether be partly responsible for the noticeably high reactivity nature of the tropical Arere chars

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bioresource Technology: Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
pyrolysis; tropical biomass; char morphology; calcium crystals; gasification kinetics
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-9325 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2016.02.061 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-07 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved

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