Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Synthesis and characterization of unsaturated lactic acid based thermoset bio-resins
University of Borås, School of Engineering. (Polymer Group)
University of Borås, School of Engineering. (Polymer Group)
University of Borås, School of Engineering. (Polymer Group)
University of Borås, School of Engineering. (Polymer Group)
Show others and affiliations
2014 (English)In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Bio-based thermoset resins have been synthesized using lactic acid oligomers, which were functionalized with carbon–carbon double bonds, in order to allow their crosslinking by a free radical mechanism. Two different resin structures were synthesized. One resin was composed of an allyl alcohol terminated lactic acid oligomer, which was end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride (MLA resin). The second resin was a mixture of the same allyl alcohol-lactic acid oligomer, and penthaerythritol. This mixture was end-functionalized with methacrylic anhydride, in order to get a methacrylate functionalized lactic acid oligomer, and methacrylate functionalized penthaerythritol (PMLA resin). The synthesized resins were characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry as well as dynamic mechanical analysis to confirm the resin structure and reactivity. The flow viscosities were also measured in order to evaluate the suitability of the resins to be used as a matrix in composite applications. The results showed that the PMLA resin has better mechanical, thermal and rheological properties than the MLA resin, and both had properties which were comparable with a commercial unsaturated polyester resin. The high biobased content of 90% and the high glass transition temperature at 100 °C for the PMLA resin makes it an attractive candidate for composite applications where crude oil based unsaturated polyester resins are normally used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press , 2014.
Keyword [en]
Bioresin, Lactic acid, Resursåtervinning
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-1996DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.11.045Local ID: 2320/14546OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-1996DiVA: diva2:870077
Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2015-12-18
In thesis
1. Development of biocomposites from lactic acid thermoset resins and cellulose fibre reinforcements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of biocomposites from lactic acid thermoset resins and cellulose fibre reinforcements
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Synthesis of polymers from renewable origin has been reported by many authors and it has been found out that it has enormous potential and can serve as alternative to conventional thermoplastics and thermosets in many applications. The use of these renewable resources will provide sustainable platforms to substitute fossil fuel-based materials. To date, efforts made to produce 100% bio-based thermosetting materials have yet to be achieved. Many studies have been reported on increasing the renewability ratio of thermoset materials produced.

A lot of reports have been made on the synthesis of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering but only few reports have been made on composite applications. The issue of high melt viscosity of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid has been of paramount problem because of its difficulty in impregnation into fibre reinforcement. Bio-based thermoset resins have been produced for composite applications from plant oils and improved mechanical properties have been achieved.

In this thesis, an alternative route for synthesis of lactic acid based thermoset resins have been explored to solve the above problem. Thermoset resins were synthesized from lactic acid with different co-reactants and were characterized using NMR, FT-IR, DSC, DMA and TGA. Their rheological properties were also investigated. The resins were reinforced with natural and regenerated cellulose fibres in non-woven and woven form, and with different fibre alignment and fibre loading. The resulting composites were characterized by mechanical testing regarding tensile, flexural and impact strength, and by SEM analysis regarding morphology.

The results showed that these composites could possibly be used in automobile, transport, construction and furniture applications, particularly for interior purposes. The resins produced were found to be promising materials for composite production due to the good mechanical properties achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2015. 47 p.
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 58
Keyword
lactic acid, thermoset resin, renewable resources, natural fibre, regenerated cellulose fibre, composite
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-23 (URN)978-91-87525-51-3 (ISBN)978-91-87525-52-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-13, E310, University of Borås, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2015-12-18Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bakare, FatimatÅkesson, DanSkrifvars, MikaelBashir, Tariq
By organisation
School of Engineering
In the same journal
European Polymer Journal
Polymer ChemistryMaterials Chemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Altmetric score

Total: 422 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf