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Effect of Acid Pretreatment on the Primary Products of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5188-3956
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2369-9638
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6023-0893
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 501 90 Borås, Sweden. (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0037-3555
2023 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 5, article id 2377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

A high load of inorganics in raw lignocellulosic biomass is known to inhibit the yield of bio-oil and alter the chemical reactions during fast pyrolysis of biomass. In this study, palm kernel shell (PKS), an agricultural residue from palm oil production, and two other woody biomass samples (mahogany (MAH) sawdust and iroko (IRO) sawdust) were pretreated with distilled water or an acidic solution (either acetic, formic, hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric acid (H2SO4)) before fast pyrolysis in order to investigate its effect on the primary products and pyrolysis reaction pathways. The raw and pretreated PKS, MAH and IRO were pyrolysed at 600 °C and 5 s with a micro-pyrolyser connected to a gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer/flame ionisation detector (GC-MS/FID). Of the leaching solutions, HCl was the most effective in removing inorganics from the biomass and enhancing the primary pyrolysis product formed compared to the organic acids (acetic and formic acid). The production of levoglucosan was greatly improved for all pretreated biomasses when compared to the original biomass but especially after HCl pretreatment. Additionally, the relative content of the saccharides was maximised after pretreatment with H2SO4, which was due to the increased production of levoglucosenone. The relative content of the saccharides increased by over 70%. This increase may have occurred due to a possible reaction catalysed by the remaining acid in the biomass. The production of furans, especially furfural, was increased for all pretreatments but most noticeable when H2SO4 was used. However, the relative content of acids and ketones was generally reduced for PKS, MAH and IRO across all leaching solutions. The relative content of the phenol-type compound decreased to a large extent during pyrolysis after acid pretreatment, which may be attributed to dehydration and demethoxylation reactions. This study shows that the production of valuable chemicals could be promoted by pretreatment with different acid solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2023. Vol. 16, no 5, article id 2377
Keywords [en]
fast pyrolysis, primary products, pretreatment of biomass, Py-GC/MS/FID
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-29503DOI: 10.3390/en16052377ISI: 000947431700001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85149769711OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-29503DiVA, id: diva2:1741319
Available from: 2023-03-03 Created: 2023-03-03 Last updated: 2024-02-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fast pyrolysis of biomass: primary products and reaction pathways
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast pyrolysis of biomass: primary products and reaction pathways
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Pyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid fuel and chemicals has been considered as an alternativeto fossil fuel because biomass has a lower environmental impact; moreover, it is renewable andcould be sustainable. However, the process of bio-oil production involves a series of complexchemical reactions which are dependent on the biomass feedstock and composition,temperature, heating rate as well as residence time. In this thesis, pyrolysis was carried out in amicro-pyrolyser connected to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer/flame ionisationdetector to separate and identify the formed volatile compounds.

Firstly, the influence of temperature and residence time on the primary product yield andmechanistic pathways was investigated for the pyrolysis of cellulose, xylan and lignin attemperatures ranging between 400 – 600°C and residence times between 0.5 – 5 s. The resultshowed a general increase in the yield (count/μg sample) for most of the volatile compoundswith increasing temperature and residence time. Additionally, the interaction between theindividual biomass components was investigated. A comparison of the experimental andpredicted results showed that the product yields for some of the volatile compounds wereinhibited, especially for the cellulose-xylan-lignin blend and the native birch wood. This maybe due to the chemical interaction between the biomass and the presence of inorganic materials.The co-pyrolysis of palm kernel shell (PKS), mahogany (MAH) and iroko (IRO) sawdustshowed that the yield of the volatile compounds is dependent on the biomass composition andblend ratio. The co-pyrolysis of PKS, MAH and IRO in equal proportions showed an increasedrelative yield of the sugars compared to the other blend ratios investigated. Finally, the effectof dilute acid pretreatment on PKS, MAH and IRO sawdust prior to fast pyrolysis wasinvestigated. The removal of inorganic materials leads to increased yield, especially the sugarsand the furans. These results are important for understanding the formation mechanism of thepyrolysis products, selection of relevant operating conditions and the selection of a suitablemethodology that could enhance the pyrolysis product yield.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2023
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 145
Keywords
Fast pyrolysis, Py-GC-MS/FID, Primary reactions, Cellulose, Xylan, Lignin, Birch wood, Co-pyrolysis, Mahogany, Iroko, Palm kernel shell, Biomass blend, Biomass interaction, Pretreatment
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-30339 (URN)978-91-89833-23-4 (ISBN)978-91-89833-24-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-09-22, C203, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-08-31 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-09-18Bibliographically approved

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Usino, DavidSar, TanerYlitervo, PäiviRichards, Tobias

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