Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Fungi-based biorefinery model for food industry waste: progress toward a circular economy
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1711-7294
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

The food industry, one of the most important industrial sectors worldwide, generates large amounts of biodegradable waste with high organic load. In recent years, the traditional management methods to treat this waste (e.g., landfilling) have been considered not suitable because they do not exploit the potential of the waste material. Alternatively, valorization of food industry waste via a biorefinery model using filamentous fungi is considered to represent an attractive strategy because it minimizes the negative impacts while recovering the nutrients and energy of the waste, in accordance with the concept of the circular economy.

In this thesis, four food processing wastes were utilized as case studies: potato protein liquor (PPL, the soluble fraction of potato starch production waste), the peels wasted during orange juice production, the starchy byproduct of pea protein processes, and the wastewater of a wheat-starch plant. Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycetous filamentous fungus, was grown with these wastes as a substrate, yielding biomass containing 43% (w/w) protein together with 51% removal of the chemical oxygen demand when cultivated in tenfold-diluted PPL. Moreover, protein-rich biomass was produced using the pea-processing byproduct (55%) and wheat-starch wastewater (51%). In contrast, cultivation in orange peel extract yielded a biomass rich in lipids (20%). The use of PPL was also studied in terms of the economy of fungal cultivation. The biotreatment was found to require only 46% of the capital investment necessary for treating PPL by the traditional strategy (application as fertilizer). In comparison, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus oryzae yielded superior results compared to those of R. oryzae when grown in the starchy residues. The high protein content of the fungal biomass encouraged the investigation of its use for bioplastic production. The addition of 20% fungal biomass in a pectin matrix increased the tensile yield of the film and reduced the elongation at break. Moreover, a positive effect on water vapor permeability of the film was also observed.

These results indicate the ability of the filamentous fungi to convert resources wasted by the food industry into new products with positive impacts on the economy and the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2018.
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 89
Keywords [en]
filamentous fungi, circular economy, biorefinery, food industry, fungal biomass, bioplastic, resource recovery
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14888ISBN: 978-91-88838-00-1 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88838-01-8 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-14888DiVA, id: diva2:1237180
Public defence
2018-09-25, 310, University of Borås, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Production of Edible Fungi from Potato Protein Liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of Edible Fungi from Potato Protein Liquor (PPL) in Airlift Bioreactor
2017 (English)In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Potato protein liquor (PPL), a side stream from the potato starch industry, is normally used as fertilizer. However, with more than 100 g/L of sugars, 20 g/L of Kjeldahl nitrogen and Chemical Oxigen Demand (COD) of 300 g/L, it represents serious environmental challenges. The use of PPL for fungal cultivation is a promising solution to convert this waste into valuable products. In this study, PPL was characterized and used to cultivate edible zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae, which is widely used in Southeast Asian cuisine to prepare e.g., tempeh. Moreover, it can be potentially used as a protein source in animal feed worldwide. Under the best conditions, 65.47 ± 2.91 g of fungal biomass per litre of PPL was obtained in airlift bioreactors. The total Kjeldahl nitrogen content of the biomass was above 70 g/kg dry biomass. The best results showed 51% reduction of COD and 98.7% reduction in the total sugar content of PPL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: , 2017
Keywords
airlift bioreactor; filamentous fungal biomass; fungal pellets; potato protein liquor; Rhizopus oryzae
National Category
Water Treatment
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14903 (URN)10.3390/fermentation3010012 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
2. Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management from Potato Starch Production: Present Status and Alternative Biotreatments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-Economic and Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management from Potato Starch Production: Present Status and Alternative Biotreatments
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Fermentation, Vol. 3, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2017
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-13421 (URN)10.3390/fermentation3040056 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
3. Edible Protein Production by Filamentous Fungi using Starch Plant Wastewater
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Edible Protein Production by Filamentous Fungi using Starch Plant Wastewater
2018 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The process to obtain starch from wheat requires high amounts of water, consequently generating large amounts of wastewater with very high environmental loading. This wastewater is traditionally sent to treatment facilities. This paper introduces an alternative method, where the wastewater of a wheat-starch plant is treated by edible filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae) to obtain a protein-rich biomass to be used as e.g. animal feed. The wastewater was taken from the clarified liquid of the first and second decanter (ED1 and ED2, respectively) and from the solid-rich stream (SS), whose carbohydrate and nitrogen concentrations ranged between 15 and 90 and 1.25–1.40 g/L, respectively. A. oryzae showed better performance than R. oryzae, removing more than 80% of COD after 3 days for ED1 and ED2 streams. Additionally, 12 g/L of dry biomass with protein content close to 35% (w/w) was collected, demonstrating the potential of filamentous fungi to be used in wastewater valorization. High content of fermentable solids in the SS sample led to high production of ethanol (10.91 g/L), which can be recovered and contribute to the economics of the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2018
Keywords
Bioethanol, Filamentous fungi, Fungal biomass, Wastewater treatment
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14846 (URN)10.1007/s12649-018-0265-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85042924369 (Scopus ID)18772641 (ISSN) (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-01 Created: 2018-08-01 Last updated: 2018-08-30
4. Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-processing industry byproduct using edible filamentous fungi
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology, ISSN 2054-3085, Vol. 5, no 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Currently around one billion people in the world do not have access to a diet which provides enough protein and energy. However, the production of one of the main sources of protein, animal meat, causes severe impacts on the environment. The present study investigates the production of a vegan-mycoprotein concentrate from pea-industry byproduct (PpB), using edible filamentous fungi, with potential application in human nutrition. Edible fungal strains of Ascomycota (Aspergillus oryzaeFusarium venenatumMonascus purpureusNeurospora intermedia) and Zygomycota (Rhizopus oryzae) phyla were screened and selected for their protein production yield.

Results

A. oryzae had the best performance among the tested fungi, with a protein yield of 0.26 g per g of pea-processing byproduct from the bench scale airlift bioreactor cultivation. It is estimated that by integrating the novel fungal process at an existing pea-processing industry, about 680 kg of fungal biomass attributing to about 38% of extra protein could be produced for each 1 metric ton of pea-processing byproduct. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the potential of the pea-processing byproduct to be used by filamentous fungi to produce vegan-mycoprotein for human food applications.

Conclusion

The pea-processing byproduct (PpB) was proved to be an efficient medium for the growth of filamentous fungi to produce a vegan-protein concentrate. Moreover, an industrial scenario for the production of vegan-mycoprotein concentrate for human nutrition is proposed as an integrated process to the existing PPI production facilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Pea-processing byproduct, Edible filamentous fungi, Vegan-mycoprotein concentrate, Meat substitute
National Category
Other Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14904 (URN)10.1186/s40694-018-0050-9 (DOI)29619233 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-08 Created: 2018-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
5. A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass
2018 (English)In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1064-7546, E-ISSN 1572-8900, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 4282-4292Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-binding ability of the pectin molecules was used to produce pectin films using the compression molding technique, as an alternative method to the high energy-demanding and solvent-using casting technique. Moreover, incorporation of fungal biomass and its effects on the properties of the films was studied. Pectin powder plasticized with 30% glycerol was subjected to heat compression molding (120 °C, 1.33 MPa, 10 min) yielding pectin films with tensile strength and elongation at break of 15.7 MPa and 5.5%, respectively. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was cultivated using the water-soluble nutrients obtained from citrus waste and yielded a biomass containing 31% proteins and 20% lipids. Comparatively, the same strain was cultivated in a semi-synthetic medium resulting in a biomass with higher protein (60%) and lower lipid content (10%). SEM images showed addition of biomass yielded films with less debris compared to the pectin films. Incorporation of the low protein content biomass up to 15% did not significantly reduce the mechanical strength of the pectin films. In contrast, addition of protein-rich biomass (up to 20%) enhanced the tensile strength of the films (16.1–19.3 MPa). Lastly, the fungal biomass reduced the water vapor permeability of the pectin films.

Keywords
Citrus waste, Pectin, Compression molding, Rhizopus oryzae, Bioplastics
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15055 (URN)10.1007/s10924-018-1300-x (DOI)000446743000011 ()2-s2.0-85052708199 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(5847 kB)226 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 5847 kBChecksum SHA-512
595ad1c47622a8ca56b2930e31abfeadebf60b46d5fe09d01b13345bf6aa5f25ce6be3a0ba1dbcf4a5327ac78f10d28cada9e785432b7eb6dca4c4310cdb0324
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
omslag(576 kB)21 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 576 kBChecksum SHA-512
0a19090f2565d745bde910d60c2bb360c7148cd6204c424b6ee47494b07fb221519b6e5d0109753391da10ea1982a8656d2076173eeb3966d93cefee89101a59
Type coverMimetype application/pdf
spikblad(118 kB)24 downloads
File information
File name SPIKBLAD01.pdfFile size 118 kBChecksum SHA-512
3274a4517ef1be19d1b6dcbf78974405743f458d107c4819923e16fbb286a15deec21014155afb0a46ef71caecbb561bff32d250bf714dc627144921c8f45ca6
Type spikbladMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Souza Filho, Pedro

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Souza Filho, Pedro
By organisation
Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business
Other Industrial Biotechnology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 247 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1245 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf