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Changes in temperature in preheated crystalloids at ambient temperatures relevant to a prehospital setting: an experimental simulation study with the application of prehospital treatment of trauma patients suffering from accidental hypothermia
University of Borås.
University of Borås.
University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4139-6235
University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6505-9132
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2024 (English)In: BMC Emergency Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-227X, Vol. 24, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Accidental hypothermia is common in all trauma patients and contributes to the lethal diamond, increasing both morbidity and mortality. In hypotensive shock, fluid resuscitation is recommended using fluids with a temperature of 37–42°, as fluid temperature can decrease the patient’s body temperature. In Sweden, virtually all prehospital services use preheated fluids. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the temperature of preheated infusion fluids is affected by the ambient temperatures and flow rates relevant for prehospital emergency care.

Methods

In this experimental simulation study, temperature changes in crystalloids preheated to 39 °C were evaluated. The fluid temperature changes were measured both in the infusion bag and at the patient end of the infusion system. Measurements were conducted in conditions relevant to prehospital emergency care, with ambient temperatures varying between − 4 and 28 °C and flow rates of 1000 ml/h and 6000 ml/h, through an uninsulated infusion set at a length of 175 cm.

Results

The flow rate and ambient temperature affected the temperature in the infusion fluid both in the infusion bag and at the patient end of the system. A lower ambient temperature and lower flow rate were both associated with a greater temperature loss in the infusion fluid.

Conclusion

This study shows that both a high infusion rate and a high ambient temperature are needed if an infusion fluid preheated to 39 °C is to remain above 37 °C when it reaches the patient using a 175-cm-long uninsulated infusion set. It is apparent that the lower the ambient temperature, the higher the flow rate needs to be to limit temperature loss of the fluid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central (BMC), 2024. Vol. 24, article id 59
Keywords [en]
Accidental hypothermia, Advanced trauma life support care, Resuscitation
National Category
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Nursing
Research subject
The Human Perspective in Care
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-31784DOI: 10.1186/s12873-024-00969-0ISI: 001201357600001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-31784DiVA, id: diva2:1855080
Available from: 2024-04-29 Created: 2024-04-29 Last updated: 2024-06-11Bibliographically approved

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Herlitz, JohanAxelsson, ChristerLundgren, Peter

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